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    Analysis of Water Resources Carrying Capacity of the “Belt and Road” Initiative Countries based on Virtual Water Theory
    ZHENG Xin, XU Zengrang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 574-583.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.002
    Abstract285)   HTML17)    PDF (520KB)(1072)      

    Most countries along the route of the “Belt and Road” initiative are faced with a shortage of water resources. However, successful implementation of the initiative depends on water availability to support economic and social development. We designed a water resources carrying capacity evaluation index system, assigned grades and weights to each evaluation index and calculated a water resources carrying index for the 65 countries along the route. We used virtual water theory to analyze China’s net virtual water import from key bulk agricultural products through international trade. For more than half of the countries along the route, their water resources will be unable to support the economic development that will be necessary for fulfilling the goals of the Initiative. As a country with insufficient water resources carrying capacity, China is a net virtual water importer in the virtual water trade. This virtual water trade can improve China’s water resources support capacity, and ensure China’s water and food security for the future.

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    Agricultural Heritage Systems: A Bridge between Urban and Rural Development
    SHI Yuanyuan, MIN Qingwen, HE Lu, FULLER Anthony M.
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (3): 187-196.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.006
    Abstract334)   HTML1)    PDF (466KB)(443)      
    In the early 1990s, China stepped into the stage of rapid urbanization with a flourishing economy and new technological development. Surplus labor from rural areas flooded into cities and became the main force of urban development. However some severe threats to human survival emerged from urbanization, such as over- extensive urban development, excessive resource consumption, ecological degradation, food security and safety risks and social crises. It has become an imperative to balance urban and rural development to achieve greater harmony between nature and society. This paper firstly tried to focus on public dietary change, agricultural industry development, institutional guarantee, ecological restoration, as well as cultural tourism in urban and peri-urban agricultural heritage sites. Then, it established a development model, balanced the urbanization and urban-supported agriculture. This paper proposed “Agricultural heritage systems” as an entry point for balancing the development of urban areas and rural areas. Agricultural heritage systems can inherit local traditional culture, keep the green and organic agriculture cultivation systems, exploit the distinct landscape tourism, and the like for diversified development; In addition, agricultural heritage systems can take full advantage of abundant funds, firm the institutional guarantee and advanced technologies from the nearby urban complex for regurgitation-feeding of rural enterprises. With the help of these strategies, we can achieve the harmony of “Ecological Urban” and “Garden Countryside”.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Characteristics of Agricultural and Livestock Products Trade Flows between China and the “Belt and Road” Initiative Region: From the Perspective of Biocapacity
    JIN Mingming, XU Zengrang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 584-597.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.003
    Abstract220)   HTML11)    PDF (2032KB)(290)      

    In the context of global ecological overload, international trade has become one of the most important ways to make up for the ecological deficit. This study takes the “Belt and Road” Initiative as the study area to analyze the biocapacity and ecological footprint characteristics between China and other countries along the “Belt and Road” Initiative. Trade flow characteristics were explored from the perspective of biocapacity. The import and export of virtual land was used to assess the effect of trade on compensating for the resource gaps in crop and grazing land. The main results show that: 1) In 2005-2014, the majority of “Belt and Road” countries were experiencing increasing degrees of overload. In China, cropland takes up the largest proportion of biocapacity, while the ecological footprint is dominated by the carbon footprint. 2) The trade flow of agricultural and livestock products in the mainland of China shows a trend of increasing imports and decreasing exports, which increases dependence on specific regions. 3) In 2005-2014, China’s trade in cereals and oil crops along the “Belt and Road” Initiative were generally net imports, and the share of cereals traded along the “Belt and Road” Initiative is increasing gradually, but that of oil crops decreased rapidly. 4) The import trade has alleviated ecological deficit, as the selected products compensated for 1.03 times of the cropland deficit and 0.65 times of the grazing land deficit in China. This study is helpful to understand the relationship between the land use and trade deeply, and provide decision-making references for reducing ecological deficits, optimizing land resource allocation, and promoting win-win cooperation among China and other countries in the “Belt and Road” Initiative.

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    Ecological Security Assessment of the Yancheng National Nature Reserve based on GIS
    LI Haiping, GAO Ge, LI Jing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (1): 38-49.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.01.004
    Abstract132)      PDF (2839KB)(260)      
    This study used remote sensing and GIS to analyze the landscape pattern changes in the Yancheng Nature Reserve from 1983 to 2018, established an evaluation index system based on the regional natu-ral-socio-economic complex ecosystem security pattern, and then analyzed the spatial characteristics of eco-logical security changes and discusses reasons for these changes. The results show that the landscape pattern changed dramatically from natural landscape to a mixture of natural landscape and artificial landscape from 1983 to 2018 due to the intensification of human activities. At present, the ecological security status of the protected areas is not optimistic. From the perspective of the survival status of red-crowned cranes, the protected areas are suitable. However, due to the increase of human activities and policy adjustments, the habitat of red-crowned cranes is fragmented. The red-crowned crane currently gathers in localized areas such as the core area and the buffer zone. We should pay more attention to management, policy development and the environmental awareness of local residents. At the same time, it is necessary to reduce the intensity of human activities within the reserve.
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    Spatial and Temporal Variation of Cropland at the Global Level from 1992 to 2015
    TAN Minghong,LI Yuanyuan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (3): 235-245.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.03.001
    Abstract380)   HTML22)    PDF (2091KB)(327)      

    Correlated increases in population and demand for food over recent decades have caused remarkable changes in cropland area globally. Utilizing the latest data product provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), this paper analyzes annual trends and spatiotemporal variations in cropland area and discusses cropland conversion, losses, and increases globally between 1992 and 2015 at a 300 m resolution. The results show that the global area of cropland increased rapidly between 1992 and 2004, more slowly between 2004 and 2012, and began to decrease gradually since 2012. First, an increasing trend in cropland area has been maintained solely in Africa; all other regions are characterized by decreasing trends in later periods despite different transition points and change rates. A reduction in cropland area frequently emerged earlier in high-income countries. Second, increase rates in cropland area have largely decreased in recent years while the overall rate of loss has remained almost the same. Hotspot areas of global cropland increases are mainly concentrated around the edge of the Amazon forest, Eurasian Steppe, and Sahara Desert. These hotspot areas of global cropland loss shifted from Europe to Asia while built-up areas have expanded at the expense of cropland.

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    Economic Analysis of Electric Fencing for Mitigating Human-wildlife Conflict in Nepal
    Saraswoti SAPKOTA, Achyut ARYAL, Shanta Ram BARAL, Matt W. HAYWARD, David RAUBENHEIMER
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (3): 237-243.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.03.006
    Abstract401)      PDF (841KB)(328)      
    Human-wildlife conflict is one of the biggest conservation challenges throughout the world. Various conservation strategies have been employed to limit these impacts, but often they are not adequately monitored and their effectiveness assessed. Recently, electric fencing has been constructed as a means to mitigate human-wildlife conflict surrounding many Nepalese protected areas. To date, there are no other studies analyzing the cost effectiveness and efficacy of fencing for conservation. This study aims to examine the cost effectiveness of electric fencing in the eastern sector of Chitwan National Park, Nepal, where the fencing has recently been constructed. Great Indian one-horned rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis), wild boar ( Sus scrofa), Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus), and tiger ( Panthera tigris) were the main wildlife species involved in human-wildlife conflict in the buffer zone area surrounding the park, where the fencing was deployed. Electric fencing was significantly effective in reducing crop damage by 78% and livestock depredation by 30%-60%. Human mortality was not reduced significantly in the study areas and continued at low levels. Our analysis suggested that total net present value of the cost of electric fence in Kagendramalli User Committee (KMUC) and Mrigakunja User Committee (MKUC) was 1 517 959 NPR (Nepalese Rupees, 21 685 USD) and 3 530 075 NPR (50 429 USD) respectively up to the fiscal year 2009/10. Net present benefit in KMUC and MKUC was 16 301 105 NPR (232 872 USD) and 38 304 602 NPR (547 208 USD) respectively up to 2009/10. The cost-benefit ratio of electric fence up to base fiscal year 2009/10 in KMUC is 10.73, whereas MKUC is 10.85. These results illustrate that the electric fencing program is economically and socially beneficial in reducing human-wildlife conflict (crop damage and livestock depredation) around the protected areas where large mammals occur.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    The Relationship between Carbon Dioxide Emission Intensity and Economic Growth in China: Cointegration, Linear and Nonlinear Granger Causality
    TU Xiongling
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (2): 122-129.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.02.007
    Abstract507)      PDF (377KB)(242)      

    This study is to use cointegration, linear and non-linear Granger causality test to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissionand economic growth (GDP) in China for the period 1961-2010. Our analysis shows that CO2 emission and GDP are balanced in the long-run. The results suggest that there is evidence that economic development can improve environmental degradation in the long-run. Moreover, the result of linear and non-linear Granger causality test indicates a long-run unidirectional causality running from GDP to CO2 emissions. The study suggests that in the long run, economic growth may have an adverse effect on the CO2 emissions in China. Government should take into account the environment in their current policies, which may be of great importance for policy decision-makers to develop economic policies to preserve economic growth while curbing of carbon emissions.

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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    Sustainable Agriculture in the “Belt and Road” Region in Conjunction with the Sustainable Development Goals
    CHEN Shaofeng, LIU Yang, SU Liyang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 649-656.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.010
    Abstract308)   HTML8)    PDF (497KB)(224)      

    The countries along the “Belt and Road” (B&R) should devote their efforts to top-level planning in the field of agriculture, so as to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture in the region. This will require a precise assessment of the sustainability of agriculture along the B&R. With a view to understanding the concept of sustainable agriculture along the B&R, combined with the interpretation of the agricultural objectives contained in the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), this study uses statistical regression analysis and trend prediction to predict the social and economic development trends in terms of economic growth and urbanization in the countries along the B&R up until 2030, and the corresponding impacts on agricultural resources and the environment. The results show that the future prospects for agricultural resources and the environment along the B&R are not promising, and meeting the future food security needs of the region will be difficult. Only by adopting innovative policies and implementing strategic planning can the goals of sustainable agricultural development and food security by 2030 be achieved in this region. Therefore, countries along the B&R should formulate agricultural development strategies from three aspects: building an agricultural cooperation platform, setting up special funds, and innovating the agricultural cooperation mode, so as to achieve the sustainable development of agriculture in the region.

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    Solar Radiation Climatology Calculation in China
    WANG Chenliang, YUE Tianxiang, FAN Zemeng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (2): 132-138.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.02.005
    Abstract404)      PDF (1192KB)(539)      
    The Angstrom-Prescott formula is commonly used in climatological calculation methods of solar radiation simulation. Fitting the coefficients is carried out using linear regression and in recent years it has been found that these coefficients have obvious spatial variability. A common solution is to divide the study area into several subregions and fit the coefficients one by one. Here, we use ground observation data for sunshine hours and solar radiation from 1961 to 2010. Adopting extraterrestrial radiation as the initial value, Angstrom-Prescott coefficients are obtained by Geographically Weighted Regression at a national scale. The surfaces of solar radiation are obtained on the basis of the surfaces of sunshine hours interpolated by high accuracy surface modeling and astronomical radiation; results from spatially nonstationary and error comparison tests show that Angstrom-Prescott coefficients have significant spatial nonstationarity. Compared to existing research methods, the method presented here achieves a better simulation effect.
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    Resources, Environment and Economic Patterns and Key Scientific Issues of the Silk Road Economic Belt
    DONG Suocheng, LI Zehong, LI Yu, SHI Guangyi, YU Huilu, WANG Juanle, LI Jun, MAO Qiliang, HUANG Yongbin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (2): 65-72.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.02.001
    Abstract358)      PDF (682KB)(380)      

    The paper analyzes the distribution pattern of resources, ecological environment, society and economy, and holds that it is conducive to Silk Road countries to carry out Omni-directional and multi-level economic cooperation. Then the article puts forth main modes and paths of sustainable economic development for the Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB): ecological civilization mode, regional economic integration mode, transportation economic belt mode and international tourism economic zone mode. Finally, the article summarizes the key scientific issues for the sustainable development in the SREB and puts forward several action projects which include establishing International Scientists League and Think Tanks, establishing international information sharing platform and scientific policy-making system of ecological environment and sustainable development of the SREB, starting international science cooperation and technology traineeship program of the SREB, founding the international cooperation committee in the SREB and founding transnational construction and win-win cooperation mechanism of coping with climate change and ecological environment.

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    Mineral Resource Potential of Tajikistan: As an Important Component of Sustainable Development of the Silk Road Economic Belt
    Farkhod K. RAHIMOV, Yunus M. MAMADJONOV
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (2): 125-128.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.02.012
    Abstract241)      PDF (226KB)(218)      
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Implications of Anthropogenic Disturbances for Species Diversity, Recruitment and Carbon Density in the Mid-hills Forests of Nepal
    Hari Prasad PANDEY
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.001
    Abstract192)   HTML30)    PDF (878KB)(167)      

    Almost three-fourths of forests are experiencing anthropogenic disturbances globally, and more than two-thirds of the forests in Nepal receive different types of disturbances. In community forests (CFs), local communities are dependent on the ecosystem services provided by the forests for various aspects of their livelihoods, which disturb the forests’ natural conditions and ecosystem functioning in a variety of ways. This study tested the major disturbance factors that had influential roles on plant species diversity, recruitment (seedlings and saplings), biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total carbon density in two community-managed forests in the Mid-hills of Nepal. The stump number, cut-off seedlings and saplings, lopping, dropping, and grazing/trampling were used as measures of the major anthropogenic disturbances. The necessary data were collected from 89 randomly selected sample plots, each with an area of 250 m2. The responses to anthropogenic disturbances were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GLM). The results showed that forest lopping was the most significant anthropogenic disturbance for biomass and total carbon density balance. A higher degree of lopping in the forests resulted in a lowering of the forests' carbon stock in the study area. SOC showed no significant response to any of the tested anthropogenic disturbances. Woody species richness and number of saplings increased with an increasing number of stumps, which signifies that intermediate disturbance was beneficial. However, a higher intensity of lopping reduced the sapling density. Grazing/trampling was the most significant disturbance for inhibiting seedling growth. Areas in the forests with a higher intensity of trampling showed lower numbers of seedlings and saplings. These results will be a guide for managing anthropogenic disturbances in multiple-use forests in Nepal, as well as those in similar socio-economic environments worldwide.

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    Spatial Variability Analysis of Soil Nutrients Based on GIS and Geostatistics: A Case Study of Yisa Township, Yunnan, China
    LI Jing, MIN Qingwen, LI Wenhua, BAI Yanying, Dhruba Bijaya G. C., YUAN Zheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (4): 348-355.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.010
    Abstract329)      PDF (614KB)(411)      
    Hani rice terraces system is one of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) pilot sites selected by FAO. Soil nutrients are an important symbol of soil fertility, and play an important role in the sustainable utilization of land. Based on geo-statistics and GIS, the spatial variation of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium in the soil in Yisa (a town in Honghe County, Yunnan Province) was studied. The results show that the spatial variability of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium exhibited medium spatial variability, and the coefficients of variation are 12.54%, 40.14%, 40.00%, 34.89%, and 40.00% respectively. Available phosphorus exhibited strong spatial variability, and the coefficient of variation is 102.13%. The spatial variation of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium fit the index mode, however, the spatial variation of available phosphorus fits the spherical model. Total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were greatly affected by soil structural factors, while pH, organic matter and alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen were affected by both structural and random factors. The spatial distribution of soil nutrients in Yisa was intuitively characterized by Kriging interpolation. It is very important to understand the spatial distribution of soil nutrients, which will provide the guidance for adjusting agricultural management measures such as fertilization.
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    On Estimating Transportation Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Off-shore Island Tourism—A Case Study of Haikou City, China
    WU Pu, TIAN Mi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (6): 472-479.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.06.007
    Abstract491)   HTML0)    PDF (680KB)(334)      
    In the tourism industry, transportation is the greatest consumer of energy and contributes the largest amount of CO 2 emissions (ECCE). Airplane flights make up between 60% and 70% of all forms of tourism transport. Since airplane travel is the main way for tourists to access islands, airplane travel receives considerable attention in the study of the relationship between island tourism transportation, environment and economy. However, the parameters adopted to estimate ECCE in the literature are usually either out-of-date or taken from papers not written in China. To improve the accuracy of estimates, all the parameters used in this paper are current and were obtained locally. Based on these parameters and a bottom-up approach, a more accurate estimation of ECCE for the off-shore island city of Haikou was obtained in 2012. The results indicate that 24.30% of the city’s energy consumption, 33.89 PJ, was due to tourism transportation, while CO 2 emissions were 2.54 Mt. It is incorrect to assume that tourism is “an industry with no pollution”. In Haikou, for example, tourism turns out to be the major form of energy consumption in the city. This paper makes several suggestions intended to minimize the negative environmental impact from tourism transportation. These include recommending longer stays, a decrease in the number of flights, taxation of airplane emissions, and the setting up an environmental recovery fund.
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    Development of Optimal City Size Theory: A Critical View
    ZHANG Yang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (1): 100-110.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.01.010
    Abstract153)      PDF (488KB)(179)      
    Nowadays more and more people reside in metropolitan areas, and the impact of this phenomenon is clearly creating challenges for the environment, the economy and the society at large. It is therefore useful and in-structive to consider the issue of optimal city size and review the literature over the past decades on optimal city size theory. Based on the progress in recent years of comparative analysis and inductive research, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, this paper outlines the original definitions proposed for optimal city size and discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various theories. The two prevailing models in the classical analysis of optimal city size, the Henry George Theorem (HGT) and the neoclassical approach, are examined later. This paper then introduces the supply oriented dynamic model (SOUDY model) and offers a plausible model for optimal city size based on the general equilibrium analysis, which is related to sustainable development. The results show that: (1) Simple optimal city size theories come from the cost-benefit analysis developed by main stream economics, and therefore cannot overcome the defect that the optimal size of cities is the same since the same production function; (2)The Henry George Theorem, which is one of the classical analysis paradigms of optimal city size, has been used more frequently in recent years to research the issues of optimal tax and public goods and has gradually lost its connection to the topic of optimal city size; (3) The neoclassical approach to optimal city size consists of externalities influencing optimal city size, the equilibrium and optimal models for city size, the optimal town, product variety and city size distribution. This kind of research is still in the mainstream of the study of optimal city size. Compared to single optimal city size, more attention is paid to the optimal distribution of city size; and (4) The supply-oriented dynamic model allows for the integration of a spatial dimension into the economic research of optimal city size, and the constraint between city level and city size is relaxed and this has more power to explain real-world problems. At the same time, the general equilibrium analysis, as a significant economic research method, provides a new perspective for the study of optimal city size. The supply-oriented dynamic model and general equilibrium analysis are two new research paradigms that deserve more attention in the analysis of optimal city size.
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    Regional Ecological Vulnerability Assessment of the Guangxi Xijiang River Economic Belt in Southwest China with VSD Model
    LI Pingxing, FAN Jie
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (2): 163-170.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.02.009
    Abstract264)      PDF (1284KB)(359)      
    The interactive effects of natural and human factors on ecosystems have been well studied, and the quantitative assessment of large-scale ecological vulnerability caused by natural and human factors is now one of the most active topics in the field. Taking the Guangxi Xijiang River Economic Belt in southwest China (GXEB) as a case study, we assess ecological vulnerability based on the Vulnerability Scoping Diagram (VSD) model. The indices system is decomposed into three sub objects, ten elements and 25 indicators layer by layer, which included factors from both natural and human fields. Results indicate that zones with lower, middle-lower, middle, middlehigher and higher vulnerability account for 11.31%, 22.63%, 27.60%, 24.39%, and 14.07%, respectively. The western and eastern parts of GXEB are more vulnerable than the central part and the mountain and urban areas are of higher vulnerability than the basins and river valleys. Compared with a vulnerability assessment based on natural factors only, it is concluded that human activities indeed cause the transition from naturally stable zones to vulnerable zones. The nature-dominated vulnerable zones are different with human-dominated ones in size and distribution, the latter being smaller, more scattered and distributed in urban areas and their surroundings. About 53% of total construction land is distributed in zones with middle and middle-higher ecological vulnerability; less vulnerable zones should attract construction in the future. Relevant suggestions are proposed on how to reduce vulnerability according to inducing factors. The VSD model has a significant advantage in the quantitative evaluation of ecological vulnerability, but is insufficient to distinguish nature-or human-dominated vulnerability quantitatively.
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    Chinese Cropland Quality and Its Temporal and Spatial Changes due to Urbanization in 2000-2015
    WANG Chunyu,SUN Xiaofang,WANG Meng,WANG Junbang,DING Qingfu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (2): 174-183.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.02.008
    Abstract304)   HTML8)    PDF (1511KB)(249)      

    The acceleration of urbanization has led to the occupation of more cropland, especially higher quality cropland, which could pose a huge threat to food security and have other implications for the inadequate cropland resource supply in China. Though the spatial status of Chinese cropland quality has been assessed, its temporal changes since 2000 to 2015 are still not clear. An accumulated probability distribution method was used to determine the criteria of cropland quality using the net primary production data product (MOD17) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Then the cropland quality of higher, median and lower production was spatially mapped and its changes due to occupation by urbanization were analyzed through the land use changes (LUCC) data primarily from Landsat TM images in the three periods of 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2010-2015. The results showed that of the total cropland reduction area the proportion taken by urbanization increased from 47.29% in the early stage to 77.46% in the recent period. The quality of Chinese cropland was dominated by low- and medium-yield fields, accounting for 40.81% and 48.74%, respectively, with high-yield fields accounting for only 10.44% of the total cropland in the country in 2000. The high-yield areas have been seriously threatened by the expansion of construction land fields, with the ratio of high-yield area to total area occupied by urbanization increasing from 9.71% in 2000-2005 to 15.63% in 2010-2015. Spatially, this phenomenon has been moving from eastern and southern China to central and western China, especially in Northwest China where the ratio has arrived at the highest proportion, with 52.97% of high-yield cropland in the total land taken by the expansion by 2015. This study not only provides a method to assess cropland quality but also reveals the threatening trend from the expansion of urbanization on high-quality cropland. More attention should be paid to the latter in land use planning and policies made to prevent threats to food security from declines in both cropland quantity and quality.

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    Visualizing Patterns of Genetic Landscapes and Species Distribution of Taxus wallichiana (Taxaceae), Based on GIS and Ecological Niche Models
    YU Haibin, ZHANG Yili, GAO Jungang, QI Wei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (3): 193-202.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.03.001
    Abstract286)      PDF (1988KB)(367)      
    The Chinese yew ( Taxus wallichiana), which is widely distributed in the Himalayas and in southern China, is now on the edge of extinction. In order to understand the evolutionary processes that control the current diversity within this species at the genetic and ecological levels, its genetic patterns and range dynamics must first be identified and mapped. This knowledge can then be applied in the development of an effective conservation strategy. Based on molecular data obtained from 48 populations of T. wallichiana, we used GIS-based interpolation approach for the explicit visualization of patterns of genetic divergence and diversity, and a number of potential evolutionary hotspots have been specifically identified within the genetic landscape maps. Within the maps of genetic divergence and diversity, five areas of high inter-population genetic divergence and six areas of high intra-population genetic diversity have been highlighted in a number of separate mountain regions, and these evolutionary hotspots should have the priority to be protected. Furthermore, four geographical barriers have been identified: the eastern Himalayas, the Yunnan Plateau, the Hengduan Mountains and the Taiwan Strait. According to ecological niche modeling (ENM), the populations of T. wallichiana within the Sino-Himalayan Forest floristic subkingdom experienced westward expansion from the periods of Last Inter-glacial to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Following the LGM, the distribution range overall became reduced and fragmented. These findings challenge the classic mode of contraction-expansion in response to the last glaciation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the changes in geographical landscapes and climate that occurred during the Quaternary resulted in current genetic landscape patterns.
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    A Study of the Improvement of Planning Systems for Land Use Control in Agricultural Heritage Sites
    Park Yoon-Ho, Yoon Won-Keun, Gordon Dabinett
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (3): 180-186.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.005
    Abstract254)   HTML0)    PDF (3810KB)(266)      
    The number of GIAHS sites is increasing these days and will continue to do so gradually in East Asian countries including Korea, China and Japan. As a result, conservation of heritage sites is more and more important, especially in Korea. Dealing with issues surrounding land use conflicts are important for conservation of heritages in order to harmonize between conservation and development to prevent reckless development. This study aims to identify measures for land use management and control to allow for sustainable development around agricultural heritage system sites. The results point to the importance of public-private partnerships and local ordinance systems or comprehensive planning of land use controls for agricultural heritage system sites.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Responses of Riverbed Particles to Geomorphologic Processes in Aeolian-Fluvial Action Area: A Case Study of the Heilaigou Basin in Inner Mongolia of China
    GU Zhenkui, SHI Changxing, YANG Hui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (2): 191-202.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.02.009
    Abstract181)   HTML0)    PDF (658KB)(228)      
    The Heilaigou basin, located in the Inner Mongolia of China, is predominantly influenced by the aeolian-fluvial actions, with complicated sediment transport conditions on the mainstream riverbed. In order to identify the relationship between sedimentary particles and geomorphic processes, mechanisms for the formation of characteristics of grain size composition were investigated by analyzing grain size parameters and external dynamic geomorphologic features. Firstly, the grain size parameters of the riverbed, stream power, maximum grain size of the wind-blown particles and HI values of the mainstream channel were calculated and analyzed, and they were used to establish multiple regression functions of grain size parameters in order to determine the effects of wind and river actions on particles. The results show that sediments in different reaches are formed in different environments: the upper stream is controlled by fluvial and aeolian processes; the sorting properties of riverbed sediments in the middle stream are worse than those in the upper stream since they are affected mainly by fluvial processes as indicated by the larger stream power there; and the particles on the downstream riverbed are likely contributed by the Kubuqi Desert. The size of particles on the riverbed depends on the hydrodynamic conditions, but is not significantly associated with the evolution of landform. Sorting is significantly related to both the hydrodynamic conditions and wind actions. Riverbed deposits brought in by winds likely become finer from the lower to the upper reaches, which are not coarser than 0.88 f. Generally speaking, the stream power has a major effect on sedimentation characteristics of the riverbed, followed by wind power.
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    Fluorescence Properties of Submerged Macrophytes in Nanjishan Wetland, Southern Poyang Lake
    JIAN Minfei, WANG Sichen, YU Houping, LI Lingyu, JIAN Meifeng, YU Guanjun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (1): 52-59.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.01.007
    Abstract280)      PDF (667KB)(461)      

    We used a FluorCam portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system to measure QY-max (the maximum light quantum yield, Fv/Fm, the largest light quantum efficiency of PS II) of submerged plants in wetlands of Baisha Lake and Changhu Lake, Jiangxi Nanjishan Wetland National Nature Reserve, in winter 2013. Specifically, we measured ΦPS II (PS II actual quantum efficiency), qP (photochemical quenching) and corresponding fluorescence images. Using the visual method and sampling sites method to obtain coverage, richness and abundance of submerged plants, and determined nutrient levels in water. The results show that the QY-max of Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans in Baisha Lake ranged from 0.48 to 0.68 and 0.52 to 0.71, respectively; the ΦPS II of these two species ranged from 0.32 to 0.58 and 0.20 to 0.46, respectively. The two plants had similar photosynthetic efficiency. The QY-max of Nymphoides peltatum and V. natans in Changhu Lake ranged from 0.66 to 0.77 and 0.19 to 0.68, respectively; the ΦPS II of these two species ranged from 0.26 to 0.48 and 0.22 to 0.43, respectively. The observed higher photosynthetic efficiency of N peltatum suggests it is more likely to become the dominant species. In Baisha Lake, the frequency of occurrence of plants was: H. verticillata, 90%; V. natans, 93.3%; Najas minor 26.7%, and Potamogeton franchetii 10%. In Changhu Lake, the frequency of N. peltatum was 86.7%, V. natans was 16.7%, and N. minor was 56.7%. The overall frequency of submerged plants living in Baisha Lake was much higher than that of submerged plants living in Changhu Lake, with different species dominating the two lakes. According to comprehensive analysis and comparison of trophic levels, biodiversity and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics in the two lakes, eutrophication of Baisha Lake was higher than for Changhu Lake; and H. verticillata and V. natans were the dominant species, with similar photosynthetic activity. Conversely, in Changhu Lake, N. peltatum and V. natans were the dominant species, but the photosynthetic activity of N. peltatum was higher than V. natans. Differences in eutrophication levels in different water bodies in the Nanjishan Wetland and differing ecological niches of submerged plant species are characteristic of this system.

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    Development of Urban Agglomerations of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Conditions of the Formation of the New Silk Road
    Pavel V. RYKOV, LI Zehong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (2): 101-105.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.02.006
    Abstract300)      PDF (341KB)(328)      

    The paper deals with current issues of the regional spatial organization based on the identification and analysis of key factors and prerequisites for the formation of urban agglomerations as the most important growth centers, integrated with global and regional markets in the conditions of a qualitatively new stage in the history of the Great Silk Road. We assess promising directions and negative effects of development of agglomerated formations and zones of their influence in the Republic of Kazakhstan as a region having an advantageous geostrategic position in the Eurasian space. In Kazakhstan, the current process of urbanization has a multiplevector nature, and the course of formation of urban agglomerations provides convincing evidence of an increase in their share in settlement and in the total population. It is agglomerated forms of urban development that are a kind of indicator of the onset of maturity in settlement, specifying key points of the socio-economic space, namely: cores of regions, nodes of foreign economic relations and contacts, main areas of new territories development, the most important links in the internal infrastructure, etc. It is urban agglomerations that should act as a kind of special platform of integration processes, on the basis of which the Republic of Kazakhstan should revive its historical role in the development of the global project "New Silk Road" and become a major trade and logistics, finance and business, innovation and technology, and tourism hub of the Central Asia region, a bridge between Europe and Asia.

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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Where Should the Start Zone Be Located for Xiong’an New Area? A Land Use Perspective
    JIANG Luguang, LV Peiyi, FENG Zhiming, LIU Ye
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (4): 374-381.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.04.005
    Abstract302)   HTML12)    PDF (2379KB)(248)      
    China announced plans on April 1, 2017 to create Xiong’an New Area, a new economic zone about 110 km southwest of Beijing. The new area of national significance covers the three counties of Xiongxian, Rongcheng and Anxin in Hebei Province, and is home to Baiyangdian, a major wetland in northern China. It will cover around 100 km 2 initially (called “Starting Zone”) and will be expanded to 200 km 2 in the mid-term and about 2000 km 2 in the long term. In this context, it is important to assess the land use pattern for the new area’s planning and development. Based on remote sensing interpretation of Landsat OLI images, we examine the current land use features, the potential for built-up land saving and intensive use, and the spatial variation of arable land quality. The results indicate that the arable lands, built-up lands and wetlands account for around 60%, 20% and 10%, respectively. The potential for rural built-up land saving and intensive use is quite large. The arable land quality and use intensity in Rongcheng and Anxin counties are much better than that of Xiongxian. The pros and cons for three potential options for the Starting Zone are listed and compared. The eastern area of Rongcheng county, to the north of Baiyangdian, is believed to be the most suitable Starting Zone. Policy recommendations for built-up land expansion, farmland saving and flood risk mitigation for Xiong’an New Area are also proposed in this paper.
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    Sand-fixing Function under the Change of Vegetation Coverage in a Wind Erosion Area in Northern China
    GONG Guoli, LIU Jiyuan, SHAO Quanqin, ZHAI Jun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (2): 105-114.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.02.002
    Abstract518)      PDF (1705KB)(329)      
    Using meteorological and remote sensing data and changes in vegetation cover during the wind erosion season in northern China, a revised wind erosion equation was applied to evaluate spatiotemporal variation in soil erosion and conservation since the 1990s, and to reveal the effects of the change of vegetation coverage on the wind erosion control service. The results showed that average soil erosion in northern China between 1990 and 2010 was 16.01 billion tons and was decreasing. The most seriously eroded areas were mainly distributed in large desert areas or low cover grasslands. Most wind erosion occurred in spring, accounting for 45.93% of total wind erosion. The average amount of sand fixation service function for northern China between 1990 and 2010 was 20.31 billion tons. Given the influence of wind erosion forces, the service function for sand fixation cannot effectively highlight the role of sand fixation from the ecosystem itself. The retention rate of service function for sand fixation reveals the role of the ecosystem itself. The distribution characteristics of the soil retention rate are similar to vegetation cover, which shows a gradual decrease from southeast to northwest in the study area. Improved spring vegetation cover was observed mainly on the Loess Plateau, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, in northern Hebei, eastern Inner Mongolia and northeast China after the implementation of ecosystem projects. The soil retention rate in most areas showed a significant positive relationship with grassland vegetation in spring ( r > 0.7, p < 0.01). The increments of ecosystem service function for various ecological systems are different. Increments for the grassland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, farmland ecosystem and desert ecosystem are 2.02%, 1.15%, 0.99% and 0.86%, respectively.
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    Economic Development Status of the Countries along the Belt and Road and Their Correlations with Population and Carbon Emissions
    ZHONG Yang, LIN Aiwen, ZHOU Zhigao, HE Lijie, YUAN Moxi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 539-548.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.001
    Abstract226)   HTML21)    PDF (452KB)(111)      

    The construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road are important measures for allowing China to expand its opening up to the outside world under the background of economic globalization. Based on this consideration, and from the perspective of geo-economics, this study uses a variety of mathematical statistical methods to analyze the economic development status and differences among the 30 countries along the Belt and Road. In addition, the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions in these countries are also analyzed. The results show that the current economic development levels of the countries along the Belt and Road are quite variable; the gaps between the indicators of the economic development of the countries along the Belt and Road are convergent; the GDP, population, and carbon emissions of the countries along the Belt and Road each showed an overall upward trend during the study period, and the changes in these three values showed significant correlations. Across all countries, the correlation coefficients between GDP and population (0.989), between GDP and carbon emissions (0.995), and between population and carbon emissions (0.993), all indicate that the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions are very high. Among them, GDP has the highest correlation with carbon emissions, reaching 0.995. Regression analysis shows that the value of R2 reached 0.995, indicating that the regression fitting effect is very good and the calculation result is highly reliable. Based on these results, this paper proposes the following two suggestions: (1) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should handle the relationship between developing and developed countries; and (2) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should also be linked to China's domestic regional development strategy.

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    An Evaluation of the Effect of Termites on Rangeland Degradation: The Case of Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
    Yeneayehu FENETAHUN, XU Xinwen, WANG Yongdong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 525-529.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.008
    Abstract238)   HTML4)    PDF (949KB)(128)      

    The infestation rate of termites in the Yabello rangeland, caused by both climatic and human factors, is of interest at certain times. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the impact of termites and determine appropriate management measures in the study area. Data was collected from three kebeles of the Yabello district (Dida Tuyura, Danbal-Waccu and Arero), the selection of which was dependent on the extent to which the termites had spread. A field survey method and semi-structured questionnaires were used for 40 community representatives from each of the selected kebeles. A total of 120 community representatives were interviewed and the interviews were supported by direct observations and informal discussions to understand the impact of termites on rangeland degradation, and to explain the trends. Historical background data of termite infestation rates in the study area was collected and evaluated .In addition to the direct impact caused by termites on forage products, buildings and crops, the linkages of termites with the environment and management mechanisms were identified. Yabello rangeland has often been under termite infestation stress and problems are increasing at an alarming rate. So in order to minimize the impact of termites on rangeland degradation identification of exact termite species and take appropriate management together with the community knowledge and scientific management system was recommended.

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    Predicting Potential Geographic Distribution of Tibetan Incarvillea younghusbandii Using the Maxent Model
    KAN Aike, YANG Xiao, LI Guoqing, WANG Yingjie, TESREN Luobu, ZENG Yelong, CHENG Zhenlong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (6): 681-689.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.06.011
    Abstract215)   HTML1)    PDF (3393KB)(165)      
    Incarvillea younghusbandii is a well-known Tibetan medicinal plant with considerable development and research value distributed widely throughout the Tibetan plateau. It is important to study spatial distribution patterns of the plant in order to develop effective protection measures. Based on field survey work and environmental data, the potential geographic distribution of Incarvillea younghusbandii was delineated using a Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model with 28 environmental variables that screened for climate, topography, human activity and biological factors. Our results showed that the main geographic range of Incarvillea younghusbandii included the valley between the Yarlung Zangbo river and the Duoxiong Zangbo river, the valley in the middle section of the Himalaya Mountains, and the area between the north side of the east section of the Himalayas and the south bank of the middle reach of the Yarlung Zangbo river. Distribution may spread to parts of the eastern Himalayas. The Jackknife test indicated that soil types, ratio of precipitation to air temperature, extreme atmospheric pressure differences and annual precipitation were the most important predictive factors for the model, while other variables made relatively small contributions.
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    Carbon Mineralization Associated with Soil Aggregates as Affected by Short-term Tillage
    GUO Linlin, NISHIMURA Taku, IMOTO Hiromi, SUN Zhigang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (2): 101-106.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.02.004
    Abstract302)      PDF (458KB)(155)      

    Tillage practice has received much attention due to its effects on greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural fields. The understanding of carbon mineralization associated with soil aggregates helps to explore the influence mechanisms of tillage practice on soil carbon dynamics. Total carbon and carbon mineralization rates associated with various sizes of soil aggregates under no-tillage and tillage treatments were studied with a volcanic ash soil. Total carbon content in microaggregates (<0.25 mm) was higher than that in macroaggregates (>0.25 mm) for both the no-tillage and tillage treatments, since microaggregates of the volcanic ash soil include more fine silts and clay particles absorbing more organic agents. The carbon mineralization rate and total carbon were highly correlated (R2 = 0.6552, P = 0.002) for both treatments, suggesting that soil aggregate size is an important factor to influence the carbon mineralization rate. The no-tillage system showed the advantage of improving soil structure for volcanic ash soil. A larger proportion of microaggregates with relatively high carbon mineralization might contribute to the greater carbon loss from tilled soils. Unlike aggregate size, short-term tillage showed no significant effects on carbon mineralization rates associated with aggregates in a specific size class.

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    Effects of Poplar Plantations on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils: A Case Study in the North China Plain
    WANG Jiayue, XIN Liangjie
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (5): 352-359.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.05.005
    Abstract377)   HTML1)    PDF (371KB)(308)      

    In recent years, large areas of farmland in the North China Plain have been converted into short-rotation poplar plantations. To analyze the impacts of poplar plantations on soil, 22 soil samples were collected and assayed from the soil profiles of a corn field and a poplar plantation. The results showed that the average soil moisture content of the soil profile in the poplar field was 2.6 percent lower than that of the arable land. The maximum difference in soil moisture content was found in the upper 0-10 cm of topsoil. Soil organic matter and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the cornfield were significantly higher than in the poplar field. Higher nutrient content in the corn field may result from higher fertilizer inputs and the practice of returning straw to the cropped field. The analysis also showed no significant increase in soil organic matter content in deeper soil layers of the poplar field, which means that the conditions are not favorable for the formation of soil organic matter, or that soil organic matter needs a longer time to develop. Elements such as magnesium, iron, manganese and copper in both the corn field and the poplar field had a tendency to accumulate with increasing soil depth. Magnesium, iron, manganese and copper in the 0-80 cm soil layer of the poplar field were higher than those of the cornfield, but the situation was reversed at depths greater than 80 cm. It is concluded that poplar trees consume a large amount of soil moisture and soil nutrients. Local governments should prevent the development of new plantations of fast-growing trees in farmland and help farmers to recover their farmland from forestry plantations.

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    Changes in China’s Grain Production Pattern and the Effects of Urbanization and Dietary Structure
    LU Chunxia, LIU Aimin, XIAO Yu, LIU Xiaojie, XIE Gaodi, CHENG Shengkui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 358-365.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.004
    Abstract409)   HTML6)    PDF (533KB)(107)      

    Grain production patterns are the basis of a nation’s food security. Since China’s reform and opening-up began in 1978, China’s urbanization process, driven by rapid social and economic development, has accelerated steadily. During this time, the dietary structure of urban and rural Chinese has also changed significantly. Accordingly, grain production patterns have undergone major changes. First, traditional grain production patterns in the north and the south have changed, and the food production center has shifted toward the north. In 1980, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 60% of China’s total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 40%. In 2015, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 56% of the total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 44%. Second, grain production by regions of the country is “shrinking in the east but expanding in the central regions,” meaning that grain production in eastern coastal provinces has decreased significantly, while that in the central region has expanded. The proportions of the nation’s total grain production from the eastern, central and western regions were 38%, 36% and 26%, respectively, in 1980. These had changed to 27%, 46%, and 27%, respectively, in 2015. Third, the spatial centralization of grain production has increased. The total grain yield of 13 major grain-producing provinces and regions in the country accounted for 69.27% of nation’s total in 1980, and it had reached 76.18% in 2015, showing that the impact of major grain-producing areas on national food security has increased. The influence of rapid urbanization on grain production areas shows remarkable regional differences. As the level of urbanization has increased, build-up land occupies a large number of high-quality farmland, especially in east coastal provinces and thus the grain planting area decreased obviously. The effect of dietary structure changes on grain production patterns was evident in two ways. On the one hand, as dietary diversity has increased, total grain consumption has decreased. The reduction in the proportion of planting area for grain crops to total crop planting area dropped from 82% in 1980 to 68% in 2015, making this change in total grain consumption evident. On the other hand, the ratio of grain for human consumption declined as the ratio of grain consumed by animals increased. The reduction in the proportion of rice and wheat grown and an increase in the proportion of feed grain production (mostly maize) from 20% in the 1980s to 36% in 2015 makes this change in grain production and consumption evident. In the future, with the establishment of national functional areas for grain production, the spatial pattern of grain production will return, while the demand for feed grains will continue to increase but with the space for expansion limited.

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