Content of Resource Economy in our journal

        Published in last 1 year |  In last 2 years |  In last 3 years |  All
    Please wait a minute...
    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Economic Contribution of Forestry Sector to National Economy in Nepal
    Bharat Prashad BHATT, Sagar GODAR CHHETRI, Thakur SILWAL, Megharaj POUDEL
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (5): 620-627.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.05.005
    Abstract56)   HTML0)    PDF (889KB)(3)      

    Forests are major sources of energy, timber and non-timber forest products, medicinal and aromatic plants, hydrological functions, biodiversity conservation, and also fundamental sources of revenue collection to the nation. Studies indicate that forests could significantly enhance economic growth and create employment opportunities for local communities under intensive management. This paper aims to predict the contribution of the forest sector to the national economy. The economic facets of forestry considered in this paper are revenue generated from timber, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), and protected areas. The ARIMA model was used to forecast the economic contribution of the forestry sector. The study found that the total revenue generated from the selling of timber and fuelwood (USD 50.19 million) was higher than the total revenue collected from protected areas (USD 37.58 million) and NTFPs/MAPs (USD 6.9 million) in the past 15 years. The model projected that the mean revenue for the timber and fuelwood sale will USD 3.5 million for the next ten years. Similarly, the mean revenue will be generated about USD 0.5 million and USD 6.2 million from NTFPs/MAPs and protected areas, respectively, for the next ten years. The study limits to take account the in-kind use of forest products such as timber, fodder, fuelwood, etc., as used by community people within a forest users’ groups. Thus, practicing sustainable forest management, enabling policy documents, establishing forest-based industries, establishing forestry nurseries, conducting agroforestry practices, and tenure security could enhance the forestry sector's economic aspects.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Sustainable Development of the Catering Industry in China: Policy and Food Waste
    CAO Xiaochang, ZHANG Feng, CHENG Shengkui, LIU Xiaojie
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (5): 628-635.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.05.006
    Abstract71)   HTML6)    PDF (678KB)(5)      

    The catering industry is an important industry related to the growth of the national economy and the needs of daily life. After 2012, the central government has successively introduced and implemented a series of policies to limit the official consumption and catering waste. These policies have had a huge impact on China's catering industry, especially the development of high-end catering. Based on expert scoring and interviews with government managers, the catering industry organizations, catering enterprises, researchers and consumers, this paper studies the impacts of the policies before and after 2012 on the sustainable development of the catering industry. The results show that: (1) Policies after 2012 have been very strong in their strength and duration, and this can ensure that the policies can effectively perform their restraint and management functions in the long term. (2) As affected by policies after 2012, the frequency and amounts of public expenditures in China have dropped significantly, and mass consumption is developing faster. (3) The impact of policies on income is quite controversial. On the whole, the policies have continued to promote the increasing of catering income after 2012, and have played a significant role in optimizing the catering structure and reducing food waste. However, the policies have had little effect on the improvement of industry standards and environmental protection. (4) The sustainable development of the catering industry requires the efforts of the government, industry organizations, restaurants and consumers. Steady income growth, a reasonable and healthy industry structure, sound industry standards, and low food waste are important standards and goals for the sustainable development of the catering industry.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial Differentiation Pattern of Habitat Quality and Mechanism of Factors Influencing in Resource-based Cities: A Case Study of Tangshan City, China
    CHENG Peng, MIN Min, ZHAO Wei, ZHAO Ke
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (5): 636-649.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.05.007
    Abstract37)   HTML0)    PDF (2451KB)(8)      

    The degradation of the eco-environment has been a challenge for sustainability in resource-based cities around the world. Although much attention has been drawn to this issue, few insights have been acquired regarding the spatial differentiation and mechanism of the factors influencing habitat quality in resource-based cities from the perspective of the interactions of natural and human factors. Using Tangshan City as a case study, this paper evaluates habitat quality by integrating Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and the InVEST-HQ model, identifies the spatial distribution of Tangshan’s habitat quality with spatial auto-correlation, and explores the influencing factors and their mechanism of influence on the spatial differentiation with the geographical detector model and Space production theory. The results show that: (1) The total value of the habitat quality in Tangshan City in 2019 was 3.45×10 10 yuan, and the habitat quality value was 24435.05 yuan ha ?1. The habitat quality value presents a clustered distribution pattern of “hot in the north and the south, cold from the center to the west”. (2) On the county scale, Qianxi County had the best habitat quality and Lubei District had the worst habitat quality; Shangying Township had the highest average habitat quality and Kaiping Street had the lowest average habitat quality in the township unit. (3) The results of geographical detectors show that natural environmental conditions are the important basic factors affecting the spatial differentiation of habitat quality in Tangshan City, while urbanization and industrialization factors are the most important external forces driving the spatial differentiation of habitat quality. The contributions of average elevation, average slope, raw material industrial density, and population density to the spatial differentiation of habitat quality are all above 0.40. The interactions of any two factors on habitat quality are enhanced. Areas with concentrated populations, rich industrial resources, and convenient transportation become low-value habitat quality areas; while areas with beautiful landscape patterns, abundant precipitation, and a comfortable climate become high-value habitat quality areas. Space production theory can be used to explain the mechanism of the formation of the spatial differentiation of habitat quality.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Calculation of Ecological Compensation Standards for the Kuancheng Traditional Chestnut Cultivation System
    LIU Moucheng, BAI Yunxiao, YANG Lun, WANG Bojie
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (4): 471-479.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.04.005
    Abstract51)   HTML1)    PDF (573KB)(11)      

    Kuancheng Traditional Chestnut Cultivation System is located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Water Containment Function Area. The Traditional Chestnut Cultivation System is characterized by agroforestry compound, and some studies have shown that the compound planting of chestnut has better ecological benefits than the single chestnut planting mode. However, most of the local farmers in Kuancheng are mainly engaged in single chestnut cultivation. Through ecological compensation, farmers are being encouraged to change their chestnut planting mode, which can achieve the purpose of inheriting China’s important agricultural heritage and improving the ecological benefits. This paper introduces preference coefficients to correct for opportunity costs, and through interviews and questionnaires, we obtained the input and output of the single chestnut cultivation, chestnut-maitake, chestnut-millet, and chestnut-chicken and the income of laborers working outside the home in the Kuancheng area. Through analysis and calculation, we obtained the following results: (1) Although the net income of the three chestnut composite modes is higher, their economic input is higher than that of a single chestnut planting mode, and the return on unit investment is lower. (2) The average income of young and middle-aged workers who work outside is higher than that of the local farming industry, so the local chestnut agroforestry plantation has a higher opportunity cost. (3) The final calculation shows that the chestnut-chicken agroforestry operation mode needs no compensation, the chestnut-maitake plantation mode is compensated at least 1608.5 USD ha-1 yr-1, and the minimum compensation for the chestnut-millet plantation mode is 198.3 USD ha-1 yr-1, which can guarantee that farmers receive the full value of their creations. Ultimately, farmers are incentivized to revive the traditional agroforestry production mode to achieve both economic and ecological benefits while inheriting agricultural heritage.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Evaluation of Food and Livelihood Security in a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) Site
    YANG Lun, YANG Jianhui, JIAO Wenjun, LIU Moucheng, LI Wenhua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (4): 480-488.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.04.006
    Abstract83)   HTML3)    PDF (562KB)(22)      

    Based on the basic selection criteria of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) and food and livelihood security research trends, this paper established an evaluation framework and indicator system for food and livelihood security in GIAHS and selected the first GIAHS site in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as a case for empirical evaluation. The results demonstrate that the food and livelihood security of farmers at this site was at a medium level, with an average evaluation value of 2.91, which still lagged behind the level of better food and livelihood security. Specifically, the average values of farmers’ evaluation of food security and livelihood security were 1.43 and 1.48, respectively, which show that farmers’ food security in the study area was at a medium level and that of livelihood security was relatively good. Simultaneously, the more simple a farmers’ economic activities (i.e., agriculture-oriented economic activities or non-agriculture-oriented economic activities), the worse their food and livelihood security; while the more diversified the economic activities (i.e., engaged in part-time economic activities), the better the food and livelihood security.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Ecological Benefit Evaluation of Agricultural Heritage System Conservation—A Case Study of the Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System
    WANG Bin, SUN Yehong, JIAO Wenjun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (4): 489-497.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.04.007
    Abstract56)   HTML3)    PDF (589KB)(10)      

    In order to better understand the developmental conditions and trends of the biodiversity at agricultural heritage sites, the structure and function of the ecosystem and ecological environment in Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System is examined in the decade since the implementation of the GIAHS project. Through the collection of historical data and sample-plot survey, this study collates the data from 2005 to 2013 related to the heritage site to evaluate the ecological benefit of the Agricultural Heritage System conservation. The results show that: (1) Since the implementation of heritage conservation, the variety of traditional rice grown at the heritage sites basically remains stable, the varieties of other crops basically remain unchanged and the varieties of fruit trees and medicinal plants have developed at faster rates. As the ecological environment at the heritage sites gradually improved, the species and richness of the biodiversity in the ecosystem have increased, especially the increasing growth of egrets and boars. (2) From 2005 to 2013 in the Fangshan Town of Qingtian County, the ecosystem areas identified as river, forest, urban and bare land have increased. The increased area of the urban ecosystem is the largest one of them, which is up to 20.30 ha; while the area of the forest ecosystem has increased to 7.29 ha. The areas of wetland, reservoir, farmland and grassland have been reduced, and the area of grassland ecosystem has been reduced the most with a reduction of 28.87 ha. From the changes in the values of the ecosystem services of different ecosystem types, the values of forest ecosystem services have achieved the most growth, reaching up to 92000 yuan yr-1 and the growth of the river and bare land ecosystem service values are not obvious. (3) Over nearly a decade, the soil nutrients and the water quality of rice fields at the heritage site have not obviously changed and the plant diseases and insect pests in the rice fields have not been aggravated. The monitoring indexes are far better than the standard values. With the great support of the local government, the production and living conditions and the living environments of farmers in the villages of the heritage sites have been greatly improved through road reconstruction, water improvement, toilet enhancements and the greening, brightness and beautification of the villages.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Temporal and Spatial Characteristics and Evolution of China’s Inbound Tourism Carbon Footprint
    HAN Zhiyong, LI Tao, LIU Ximei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 56-67.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.006
    Abstract156)   HTML15)    PDF (1171KB)(49)      

    Reducing carbon emissions and transitioning to a low-carbon economy are important propositions for human sustainability. Since it is closely related with high carbon emissions, international travel makes a substantial contribution to the global carbon emissions. To comprehensively explore the influence of international travel on carbon emissions and develop a sustainable development plan, this paper studies the temporal and spatial distribution and evolution of the carbon footprint of inbound tourism in China’s 30 provinces between 2007 and 2017. In this study, comprehensive calculations and spatial models are adopted to reveal the temporal and spatial characteristics. The results show that the carbon footprint of inbound tourism in China has been increasing continuously from 2007 to 2017. While the carbon footprint increased by 1.94-fold, from 5.623 million tons to 10.8809 million tons, it presented obvious fluctuations by initially increasing rapidly and then dropping slightly. From the perspective of the contributions of various tourism components on the carbon footprint, transportation and post and telecommunications account for the largest proportions. In the past ten years, the variations in the carbon footprint of inbound tourism in most provinces and cities in China were not very extreme, but maintained a relatively stable state. In the spatial dimension, the carbon footprint of China’s inbound tourism tends to decrease from the southeast to the northwest. The highest coefficient of variation is in Ningxia and the lowest is in Liaoning. Based on these results, recommendations are put forward for sustainable development plans in some major cities and provinces for the future.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Relationship between Industrialization, Urbanization and Industrial Ecology in Western China: A Panel Vector Auto-Regression Model Analysis
    WANG Yajun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 68-79.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.007
    Abstract206)   HTML27)    PDF (632KB)(46)      

    As the foundation of modern economic development, industry is the engine of industrialized and urbanized development. Industrial ecology is a high-level form of industry that is achieved after it has reached a certain stage, which guides the coordinated industrial development balancing mankind and nature. The implementation of industrial ecology is an important method and effective approach to realize the sustainable development of industrialization and urbanization. In this article, based on the inter-provincial panel data of western China during 2003-2018, the spatial development trends of industrialization, urbanization and industrial ecology are analyzed, and an empirical method is employed to conduct a robustness test based on the Panel Vector Auto-Regression (PVAR) model to determine the long-term interactions among these three aspects. The results show that it is difficult to manifest the short-term causal relationships among industrialization, urbanization and industrial ecology. After lagging for three periods, they present the Granger causality, the industrial ecology and industrialization have promoted urbanization, and the coefficient for the influence of industrial ecology on urbanization is 0.4612. However, industrialization and urbanization have negative impacts on industrial ecology, and with a 1% increase in industrialization or urbanization, the industrial ecology will decline by 0.2261% or 0.2850%, respectively. With the continuation of the lagging period, industrial ecology will have better interpretability than industrialization and urbanization, and industrialization and eco-friendly development have strong self-accumulation development mechanisms, while the self-accumulation mechanism of urbanization is not obvious, and it might even have a decline. By fulfilling the role of the regional leading industry, the state of unbalanced internal development can be improved, so as to realize mutual promotion between industrialization and urbanization. By improving the utilization rates of resources and energy, efforts should be made to implement green production, significantly promote industrial ecology, and boost high-quality development of both the regional economy and society.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Value and Heterogeneity: Using a Choice Experiment to Evaluate the Coastal Recreational Environment
    WEI Jianhua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 80-90.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.008
    Abstract113)   HTML221)    PDF (3564KB)(37)      

    The management of the coastal park environment is a major ecological and economic development issue. In developing effective policies, relevant information is essential, especially the economic valuation of various recreation-related environmental attributes. This study used Dalian coastal parks as a pilot study area and estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) of tourists using three different discrete choice models. In this study, we analyzed the preference heterogeneity among the respondents regarding a combination of park attributes, and the individual respondent’s WTP values were estimated for each attribute. The results indicate that water quality amelioration and trash reduction had the highest economic values among the given attribute factors. In addition, the estimated tourist WTP varied considerably among different segments, such as among the visitors who preferred different recreational activities. These findings provide valuable information that will allow coastal park managers to develop policies which maintain a balance between tourism development and improvement of the coastal environment.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    A Study on Spatial Variation of Water Security Risks for the Zhangjiakou Region
    LU Chunxia, DENG Ou, LI Yiqiu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 91-98.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.009
    Abstract127)   HTML19)    PDF (268KB)(39)      

    Zhangjiakou region is situated in an agro-pastoral ecotone with a fragile ecosystem. While it has limited surface water resources available and serious groundwater over-exploitation, the city is located in the water conservation zone for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development area, so its water security is crucial for the entire Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Therefore, it is of vital significance to determine the zoning management of water resources and decision-making according to the magnitude of water resource security risks. This study built an indicator system for water security risk assessment in line with the principles of scientific validity, comparability, operability, and data availability, and this system gives weights to these indicators using the AHP approach. County-level multi-source data for the study area, based on water resource zones, were collected by using mathematical statistics and 3S technology. With normalized data and a weighting method the water security risks were calculated. The results showed large spatial variations of water security risks in Zhangjiakou on the scales of geomorphic and administrative units as well as river basins. High-risk areas are extensive in the Bashang Plateau, and extremely high risk values are found in the Baxia areas. On the watershed scale, high-risk areas are mainly distributed in the inland river basins and the Yongding River basin. The risk values of the Luanhe River, Chaobai River and Daqing River basins in the Zhangjiakou region tend to decrease from north to south. For the northern and western areas of the Bashang Plateau, the factor of “vulnerability of the disaster-prone environment” contributes the most to the water security risk level. Agricultural water use constrains industrial and ecological water use, but in the context of inadequate water resource endowments, the urban population concentration and industrial development are the main causes of water shortages and water pollution so they contribute more to water security risks. This study of the spatial variation of water security risks in Zhangjiakou can provide an important scientific reference for zone-based management and decision-making for reducing the water security risks in the farming-pastoral ecotone.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Economic Development Status of the Countries along the Belt and Road and Their Correlations with Population and Carbon Emissions
    ZHONG Yang, LIN Aiwen, ZHOU Zhigao, HE Lijie, YUAN Moxi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 539-548.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.001
    Abstract513)   HTML35)    PDF (452KB)(160)      

    The construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road are important measures for allowing China to expand its opening up to the outside world under the background of economic globalization. Based on this consideration, and from the perspective of geo-economics, this study uses a variety of mathematical statistical methods to analyze the economic development status and differences among the 30 countries along the Belt and Road. In addition, the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions in these countries are also analyzed. The results show that the current economic development levels of the countries along the Belt and Road are quite variable; the gaps between the indicators of the economic development of the countries along the Belt and Road are convergent; the GDP, population, and carbon emissions of the countries along the Belt and Road each showed an overall upward trend during the study period, and the changes in these three values showed significant correlations. Across all countries, the correlation coefficients between GDP and population (0.989), between GDP and carbon emissions (0.995), and between population and carbon emissions (0.993), all indicate that the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions are very high. Among them, GDP has the highest correlation with carbon emissions, reaching 0.995. Regression analysis shows that the value of R2 reached 0.995, indicating that the regression fitting effect is very good and the calculation result is highly reliable. Based on these results, this paper proposes the following two suggestions: (1) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should handle the relationship between developing and developed countries; and (2) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should also be linked to China's domestic regional development strategy.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Measurement and Comparison of Urban Haze Governance Level and Efficiency based on the DPSIR Model: A Case Study of 31 Cities in North China
    XIAO Qinlin, TIAN Chao, WANG Yanjun, LI Xiuqing, XIAO Liming
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 549-561.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.002
    Abstract531)   HTML40)    PDF (650KB)(184)      

    In the decisive stage of developing of a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, hazy weather has become a major obstacle to the further advancement of China. Therefore, improving the level and efficiency of haze governance has become essential. Based on the DPSIR model, this paper builds a haze governance level and efficiency index system using the entropy method and the super-efficiency data envelope-analysis (DEA) model to analyze the data for 31 cities in North China from 2007 to 2016. From the aspects of spatial differences and influence factors influencing the comparative analysis, the results are as follows. (1) During the investigation period, the level and efficiency of city haze governance in North China showed a trend of fluctuation and decline, with obvious stages in their characteristics. Haze governance efficiency is much higher than its level, and its mean value reaches the DEA level which indicates that it is effective. (2) A significant regional gradient difference occurs between these two aspects. The haze governance level presents a convex distribution pattern of “east low-middle high-west low”, while the haze governance efficiency presents a concave distribution pattern of “east high-middle low-west high”. (3) The regression results show that economic growth has a negative effect on both haze governance level and efficiency. By contrast, the industrial structure has a positive effect on haze governance level and efficiency, but the significance of its effect on these two is different. On this basis, policy suggestions are proposed for improving the level and efficiency of haze governance in various cities in North China.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    A Study of Food Waste in the Catering Industry in Beijing
    CAO Xiaochang, LIU Xiaojie, CHENG Shengkui, LIU Yao, ZHANG Panpan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 562-569.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.003
    Abstract398)   HTML155)    PDF (710KB)(75)      

    Currently, the topic of food waste and its environmental impacts is attracting increasing attention among academic researchers. Based on an investigation of restaurants in Beijing, this study analyzes the quantities, structures, characteristics and costs of the agricultural resources related to food waste in the catering industry in Beijing. The results show that: (1) The average food waste per capita per meal is about 75.02 g (raw) for food away from home among Beijing urban residents, which means that about 10.52% of the food is wasted. (2) According to the quantitative ranking of different categories of food waste, vegetable is the most wasted, followed by meat, aquatic products, and grains. The foods in the other categories are wasted much less. (3) Food waste is affected by the restaurant type, as well as the number, gender, age, education level, and consumption motivation of the consumers. (4) Based on the estimated food waste per capita, about 417.92 thousand tons of food is wasted annually at the consumption stage in the catering industry in Beijing. This food waste amount is equivalent to approximately 765.53 tons of cereals which are wasted, and this represents 79.66% of cereals production and 13.15% of cereals consumption in Beijing. Estimated by the required land use, this amount of food waste means that the total production of approximately 166.12 thousand ha of arable land is being wasted in Beijing.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Evaluation and Driving Force Analysis of Marine Sustainable Development based on the Grey Relational Model and Path Analysis
    GAO Sheng, ZHAO Lin, SUN Huihui, CAO Guangxi, LIU Wei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 570-579.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.004
    Abstract165)   HTML12)    PDF (836KB)(39)      

    With the rapid development of the marine economy, the demand for marine resources development and the pressure on marine environmental protection are gradually increasing. It is critical to evaluate and analyze the driving forces of marine sustainable development in order to promote the coordinated development of the marine economy, resources and environment. Taking Jiangsu Province of China as an example, this paper constructs an evaluation index system for marine sustainable development from the three aspects of marine economy, resources and environment, and calculates the weight of the variation coefficient for each indicator. Based on the grey relational model, the average value of the relational degree, calculated by the average value method of correlation coefficients and the weighting method, is then used to evaluate the status of marine sustainable development in this province. The comprehensive index model is used to analyze the dynamic trend of the evolution of marine sustainable development. The driving forces of marine sustainable development are analyzed by the path analysis method combined with the average values of the grey relational degree for each indicator. This analysis found that the marine sustainable development in 2016 and 2012 was good, the situation in 2007 was bad, and the remaining years were intermediate. Compared with the previous years, the optimal conditions of 2008 and 2012 were obvious. The main driving factors of marine sustainable development are cargo throughput of coastal ports, economic losses caused by storm surges in coastal areas, the area of marine nature reserves in coastal areas, coastal wind power generation capacity, and marine biodiversity.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Supply and Demand Levels for Livestock and Poultry Products in the Chinese Mainland and the Potential Demand for Feed Grains
    HUANG Shaolin, LIU Aimin, LU Chunxia, MA Beibei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 475-482.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.005
    Abstract152)   HTML3)    PDF (638KB)(33)      

    The widening gap between the supply and demand levels for livestock and poultry products in the Chinese mainland poses a significant challenge to the secure supply of feed grains. Therefore, the accurate prediction of the demand potential for feed grains represents a key scientific issue for ensuring food security in the Chinese mainland. This study is based on an analysis of several factors, such as the Chinese mainland’s output, trade volume, apparent consumption of livestock and poultry products, and two different scenarios for predicting the future demand for feed grains are assessed. The results indicate that output and consumption of livestock and poultry products, as well as the country’s trade deficit and the pressure of the supply and demand balance with respect to these products, have been increasing in recent years. The analysis predicts that the demand for feed grains in the Chinese mainland will reach 425.5 or 389.6 million tons in 2030 based on the two scenarios. This finding indicates that with the increasing demand for livestock and poultry products in the Chinese mainland, the demand for feed grains will continue to increase, and the shortfall in feed grains and raw materials will expand further, especially dependence on external sources of protein-rich feed grains will remain high.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    A Comparative Decomposition Analysis of the Factors Driving Energy-related Carbon Emissions from Three Typical Provinces in China: Jiangsu, Henan and Inner Mongolia
    LIU Xianzhao*
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 483-498.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.006
    Abstract190)   HTML2)    PDF (920KB)(32)      

    An accurate understanding of the real situation of energy-related carbon emissions and the main factors driving the carbon emissions increments are crucial for China to realize its emission mitigation targets. Adopting the comparative decomposition of an extended LMDI (Log-Mean Divisia Index) approach, this study decomposed the changes in carbon emissions of Jiangsu, Henan, and Inner Mongolia, which are located in the eastern, central and western parts of China. This analysis led to three main findings. 1) During the period of 1996-2017, the energy-related carbon emissions in the examined provinces exhibited upward trends, but with some differences among the provinces. 2) The influences of driving factors on carbon emissions varied distinctly in different provinces and economic stages. Economic growth had the largest positive effect on provincial carbon emissions increases. From 1996 to 2017, the contribution rates of economic development to emissions growth in Henan, Jiangsu and Inner Mongolia were 307.19%, 205.08% and 161.26%, respectively. This influence was followed by urbanization and population size. 3) Energy intensity played a leading role in facilitating emissions-reduction in the examined provinces, except for during the tenth Five-Year Plan, followed by the energy structure. The effect of rural population proportion was the weakest among all the curbing factors. Furthermore, urban and rural resident°s energy consumption per capita demonstrated relatively minor impacts and disparate directions of influence in the different provinces and economic periods, but began to play increasing roles in driving up provincial emissions changes. For example, residential energy consumption in Jiangsu contributed over 7.9% to the total carbon emission growth in 1996-2017, among which urban residents’ per-capita energy consumption contributed more than 3.8%. In view of these findings, policy makers should formulate targeted emission reduction measures that are based on the distinct situations and key factors which affect carbon emissions in each province.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Forecasting Gas Consumption Based on a Residual Auto-Regression Model and Kalman Filtering Algorithm
    ZHU Meifeng, WU Qinglong, WANG Yongqin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 546-552.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.011
    Abstract313)   HTML4)    PDF (2003KB)(56)      

    Consumption of clean energy has been increasing in China. Forecasting gas consumption is important to adjusting the energy consumption structure in the future. Based on historical data of gas consumption from 1980 to 2017, this paper presents a weight method of the inverse deviation of fitted value, and a combined forecast based on a residual auto-regression model and Kalman filtering algorithm is used to forecast gas consumption. Our results show that: (1) The combination forecast is of higher precision: the relative errors of the residual auto-regressive model, the Kalman filtering algorithm and the combination model are within the range (-0.08, 0.09), (-0.09, 0.32) and (-0.03, 0.11), respectively. (2) The combination forecast is of greater stability: the variance of relative error of the residual auto-regressive model, the Kalman filtering algorithm and the combination model are 0.002, 0.007 and 0.001, respectively. (3) Provided that other conditions are invariant, the predicted value of gas consumption in 2018 is 241.81×10 9 m 3. Compared to other time-series forecasting methods, this combined model is less restrictive, performs well and the result is more credible.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Analysis of CO 2 Emissions and the Mechanism of the Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size (IEDS) in Resource-based Cities by Application of Geographical Detector Technology
    ZHANG Wang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 537-545.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.010
    Abstract289)   HTML6)    PDF (1423KB)(58)      

    Resource-based cities are the most important players in responding to climate change and achieving low carbon development in China. An analysis of relevant data (such as the energy consumption) showed an inter-city differentiation of CO2 emissions from energy consumption, and suggested an influence of the Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size (IEDS) in resource-based industrial cities at the prefecture level and above in different regions. Then by geographical detector technology, the sizes of each influencing mechanism on CO2 emissions from energy consumption of the IEDS were probed. This analysis showed that significant spatial differences exist for CO2 emissions from energy consumption and revealed several factors which influence the IEDS in resource-based cities. (1) In terms of unit employment, Eastern and Western resource-based cities are above the overall level of all resource-based cities; and only Coal resource-based cities far exceeded the overall level among all of the cities in the analysis. (2) In terms of unit gross industrial output value, the Eastern, Central and Western resources-based cities are all above the overall level for all the cities. Here also, only Coal resource-based cities far exceeded the overall level of all resources-based cities. Economic scale and energy structure are the main factors influencing CO2 emissions from energy consumption of the IEDS in resource-based cities. The factors influencing CO2 emissions in different regions and types of resource-based cities show significant spatial variations, and the degree of influence that any given factor exerts varies among different regions and types of resource-based cities. Therefore, individualized recommendations should be directed to different regions and types of resource-based cities, so that the strategies and measures of industrial low carbon and transformation should vary greatly according to the specific conditions that exist in each city.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Pricing Weather Derivatives Index based on Temperature: The Case of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 415-423.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.008
    Abstract628)   HTML1)    PDF (863KB)(107)      

    In this paper we present a stochastic model for daily average temperature to calculate the temperature indices upon which temperature-based derivatives are written. We propose a seasonal mean and volatility model that describes the daily average temperature behavior using the mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We also use higher order continuous-time autoregressive process with lag 3 for modeling the time evolution of the temperatures after removing trend and seasonality. Our model is fitted to 11 years of data recorded, in the period 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, obtained from Ethiopia National Meteorological Services Agency. The analytical approximation formulas are used to price heating degree days (HDD) and cooling degree days (CDD) futures. The suggested model is analytically tractable for derivation of explicit prices for CDD and HDD futures and option. The price of the CDD future is calculated, using analytical approximation formulas. Numerical examples are presented to indicate the accuracy of the method. The results show that our model performs better to predict CDD indices.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Study of Factors Affecting Carbon Emissions— Based on an Empirical Analysis of ASEAN
    TIAN Wenju, XU Zheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (5): 500-507.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.05.007
    Abstract183)   HTML2)    PDF (496KB)(78)      
    This paper uses a VAR model to empirically analyze the impact of economic growth, financial development, and urbanization on carbon emissions of the ASEAN countries from 2000 to 2013. The empirical results show that economic growth and carbon emissions, and financial development and carbon emissions have unidirectional Granger causality relationships. Economic growth and urbanization will increase carbon emissions, while financial development will reduce carbon emissions during the initial stage but have little impact on carbon emissions over the long term. Economic growth and urbanization are the main variables to forecast the degree of variance of carbon emissions, while financial development is the least important variable to forecast the degree of variance of carbon emissions. Finally, this study puts forward policy suggestions on improving environmental quality as economic growth, financial development and urbanization occur.
    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research on the Sustainability of Afghanistan Based on the Emergy Analysis
    JIN Lei, LI Haitao, YANG Jinfan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (5): 508-515.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.05.008
    Abstract178)   HTML0)    PDF (666KB)(107)      
    Afghanistan is an important country for the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (the Belt and Road) proposed by China. Due to years of war, Afghanistan is not well-developed economically. However, Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources and unique geographical advantages that are of far-reaching significance for Chinese economic strategic development. To investigate the sustainability of the eco-economic system of Afghanistan, we completed a quantitative evaluation of the emergy of Afghanistan during the period 2008 to 2015 by establishing an indicator system based on an emergy analysis. Results showed that from 2008 to 2015, the total emergy used of Afghanistan increased from 5.56×10 22 sej to 9.75×10 22 sej, among which the proportion of non-renewable emergy was less than 25.7%. This indicates that local resources in Afghanistan have yet to be exploited and utilized effectively and that its economic development relied heavily on the input of external resources. Meanwhile, the Emergy Sustainability Index ( ESI) of Afghanistan from 2008 to 2015 dropped from 3.00 to 0.72, the Environmental Loading Ratio ( ELR) increased from 0.77 to 2.06, and the Emergy Yield Ratio ( EYR) dropped from 2.31 to 1.49, reflecting the imbalanced utilization of resources and the low level of economic development in Afghanistan. As a result, the potential for sustainable development of Afghanistan is relatively great. Basic infrastructure construction and reasonable exploitation of natural resources are the urgent needs.
    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Assessing the Impact of the Sloping Land Conversion Program on Rural Household Income in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River, China
    HUANG Jiali, ZHAO Hui, LIU Yunwei, YANG Jianying
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (5): 516-525.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.05.009
    Abstract157)   HTML1)    PDF (779KB)(96)      
    One secondary target of the SLCP is poverty reduction. Therefore, the impact of the SLCP on household income is a subject of much research. This study was conducted to determine whether the SLCP has affected incomes of households at different income levels13 years after its implementation. Using survey data from 2012 on rural households’ livelihoods in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River in Sichuan Province and using the non-participating households as a reference, the current impact of the SLCP on household income is calculated with a multiple linear regression model and a quantile regression model. The socio-geographic features of participating and non-participating households are also be compared. The results show no significant differences between the SLCP participating and non-participating households in many socio-demographic characteristics. Participating in the SLCP had no significant impact on household income at all income levels in the study area in 2012. This finding suggests that the SLCP is not currently increasing household income significantly in the study area, and that the implementation plan of the SLCP should be changed in this area in order to achieve its poverty reduction goal.
    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics