资源与生态学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 124-135.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.012

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我国交通设施沿线固沙措施与技术研究综述

马宁1,2,3(), 郭群1,2,4, 李宇5, 李胜功1,2,3,4,*()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟院重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.国家生态系统科学数据中心,北京 100101
    3.中国科学院大学中丹学院,北京 100190
    4.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京100190
    5.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所资源利用与环境修复重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-08 接受日期:2020-09-03 出版日期:2021-01-30 发布日期:2021-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 李胜功

Overview of the Measures and Techniques Used to Protect Traffic Lines against Shifting Sands in China

MA Ning1,2,3(), GUO Qun1,2,4, LI Yu5, LI Shenggong1,2,3,4,*()   

  1. 1. Key Lab of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. National Ecosystem Science Data Center, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Sino-Danish College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    4. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    5. Key Lab for Resources Use and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2020-06-08 Accepted:2020-09-03 Online:2021-01-30 Published:2021-03-30
  • Contact: LI Shenggong
  • About author:MA Ning, E-mail: maning19@mails.ucas.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(Pan-TPE);Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA2003020202);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31961143022)

摘要:

流沙是我国沙漠化主要成因之一。本文简要回顾了我国北方沙漠及受沙漠化影响的干旱半干旱地区为保护交通线路而采取的固沙措施和技术,包括工程措施、化学措施和生物措施,主要介绍了这些措施和技术的类型及特点,以及近60年间(1950-2010年)其在不同地区不同交通线路中的应用,包括包兰线、塔里木沙漠公路和青藏铁路沿线的防风固沙。工程措施,如建挡风墙和铺设沙障,在沙漠交通线的防风固沙中非常有效。化学措施因成本高和对环境可能造成的污染风险而应用并不普遍。生物措施比工程和化学措施成本更高,但因其效果好且防护持续时间长而得到推崇。在一些地方,几种措施组合的固沙效果更好。工程措施对沙面的固定以及有条件的地方用地下水或河水灌溉有助于旱生植物的早期定植。本文最后指出了固沙措施和技术的局限性以及未来研究方向。本文对解决蒙古高原受沙漠和沙漠化影响的干旱和半干旱地区与“一带一路”倡议相关的基础设施建设的生态环境问题具有重要意义。

关键词: 交通线路, 沙漠化, 流沙, 风蚀, 防沙体系

Abstract:

Shifting sands are one of the main contributors to desertification in China. This paper briefly reviews the measures and techniques which are used to protect traffic lines by stabilizing and fixing sands in the desert and desertification-affected arid and semi-arid areas in north China. We introduce the types and features of these measures and techniques, including mechanical, chemical, and biological measures, and outline how they have been applied in different areas and in different traffic lines over the past six decades, from 1950s to 2010s, taking the Baotou-Lanzhou railway, the Qinghai-Tibet railway, and the Tarim Desert highway as examples Mechanical measures such as erecting sand-retaining wind walls and placing straw checkerboards have proved to be very efficient for stabilizing shifting sands and protecting traffic lines that pass through the desert areas. Chemical measures are not widely used in the current sand fixing systems because of their high cost and potential pollution risks. Biological measures are preferred because they exhibit much better sand fixation performance and longer duration than the former two types of measures despite their relatively high cost. A combination of different measures is usually adopted in some areas to attain better sand-fixing effects. Stabilizing sand dune surfaces with mechanical measures or irrigation from underground water or river if available helps early recruitment of some drought-tolerant plants (xerophytes). We also point out the restrictions for existing sand-fixing measures and techniques and future research orientation. This review has implications for addressing eco-environmental issues associated with infrastructure construction that is part of the Belt and Road Initiative in desert and desertification-affected arid and semi-arid areas in the Mongolian Plateau.

Key words: traffic lines, desertification, shifting sands, wind erosion, sand fixing system