资源与生态学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 110-123.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.011

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林业生态扶贫政策的评价与建议:怒江州和阿坝州案例

王亚明1(), 覃凡丁2, 赵广帅1, 奉钦亮2, 吴琼1, 李扬1, 衣旭彤1,*()   

  1. 1.国家林业和草原局经济发展研究中心,北京 100714
    2.广西财经大学,南宁 530003
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-21 接受日期:2020-09-22 出版日期:2021-01-30 发布日期:2021-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 衣旭彤

Policy Assessment and Recommendations for Forestry-based Ecological Poverty Alleviation: An Empirical Study from the Prefectures of Nujiang and Aba, Southwestern China

WANG Yaming1(), QIN Fanding2, ZHAO Guangshuai1, FENG Qinliang2, WU Qiong1, LI Yang1, YI Xutong1,*()   

  1. 1. Economics and Development Research Center of National Forestry-Grassland Administration, Beijing 100714, China
    2. Guangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanning 530003, China
  • Received:2020-08-21 Accepted:2020-09-22 Online:2021-01-30 Published:2021-03-30
  • Contact: YI Xutong
  • About author:WANG Yaming, E-mail: v_wym@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Economic Development Research Center of National Forestry and Grassland Administration Research Project(JYC2018-101)

摘要:

中国采取了长期不懈的扶贫行动,近十年来,人们越来越认识到生态扶贫可以实现环境保护和农村脱贫的双重目标,中国把重点放在深度贫困地区的林业生态扶贫上。然而,贫困人口从林业扶贫项目中获利的程度、贫困户对这些扶贫政策是否满意、以及林业扶贫政策是否有效仍然是个未知数。通过对西南地区“三区三州”深度贫困区具有代表性的怒江州和阿坝州79户农户的问卷调查,运用层次分析法对林业扶贫政策的有效性进行了检验。结果表明,产业扶贫、就业扶贫、小额金融扶贫、结对驻村帮扶四条扶贫路径明显增加了建档贫困户的收入,解决了“两不愁三保障”问题。贫困群众对林业生态扶贫政策感到满意,两州的生态扶贫取得了良好的效果。但是,在政策实施过程中还存在参与不积极、精准识别不完善、资金来源有限和资金不足等问题。我们的研究结果突出了林业产业和公益性岗位在贫困地区扶贫中的重要地位。通过健全林业生态扶贫政策,实现深度贫困区的生态保护和减贫之间的协同是可能的,文章最后还提出了通过林业发展实现扶贫开发和生态环境保护的五项政策建议:(1)精准识别深度贫困地区和贫困人群;(2)选择有效适宜的林业扶贫模式;(3)拓宽扶贫资金渠道;(4)建立林业产业脱贫体系;(5)完善生态保护机制。

关键词: 林业生态扶贫, 林业政策评估与政策建议, 两不愁三保障, 深度贫困地区, “三区三州”

Abstract:

China has adopted a long-term campaign against poverty. In recent decades, there is an increasing understanding that ecological poverty alleviation can meet the dual goals of environmental protection and rural poverty reduction. China is pivoting towards forestry-based poverty reduction in the severely poverty-stricken areas. However, several key factors remain elusive, including the extent to which the poor people benefit from forestry programs, whether they are satisfied with the policies and whether the policies are effective for poverty alleviation. Based on data collected through a questionnaire survey of 79 households in the prefectures of Nujiang and Aba, southwestern China, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach was used to examine the effectiveness of the forestry-based poverty alleviation policy. The results showed that four poverty alleviation pathways, including industry, employment, micro-finance and pairing assistance in villages, had obviously increased the incomes of the filing poor households and solved the problem of “Two Worries-free and Three Guarantees”. The poor were satisfied with the forestry-based ecological poverty alleviation policies and these policies had good effects in fighting against poverty. However, there are still some shortcomings, such as a lack of active participation, imperfect targeted identification, lack of funds and limited sources of funds during the policy implementation. Our results highlight the importance of the forestry industry and the public welfare position in the alleviation of poverty in the poverty-stricken areas. Synergies between ecological protection and poverty reduction are possible through sound forestry-based policies. This article recommends five policies to simultaneously realize the potential of poverty alleviation and environment protection through forestry development.

Key words: forest-based ecological poverty alleviation, forestry policy assessment and policy recommendation, the “Two Worries-free and Three Guarantees”, severely poverty-stricken areas, the “Three Regions and Three Prefectures”