资源与生态学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 99-109.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.010

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围栏引起的有蹄类动物死亡及其对未来祁连山国家公园管理的启示

Sydney M.GREENFIELD1(), Aliana C.NORRIS1, Joseph P.LAMBERT1, 乌力吉2, 色拥军2, 詹瑨祺1, 马兵1, 李灯1, 时坤1,3,*(), Philip RIORDAN1,4   

  1. 1.北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院野生动物研究所,北京 100083
    2.甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区管理局,甘肃 酒泉 736399
    3.陆桥生态中心,北京 100085
    4. Marwell Wildlife,英国汉普郡温彻斯特市汤普森巷 SO21 1JH,英国
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-14 接受日期:2020-09-01 出版日期:2021-01-30 发布日期:2021-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 时坤

Ungulate Mortality due to Fencing and Perceptions of Pasture Fences in Part of the Future Qilianshan National Park

Sydney M. GREENFIELD1(), Aliana C. NORRIS1, Joseph P. LAMBERT1, Wu liji2, Se yongjun2, ZHAN Jinqi1, MA Bing1, LI Deng1, SHI Kun1,3,*(), Philip RIORDAN1,4   

  1. 1. Wildlife Institute, School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    2. Administration of Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve, Jiuquan, Gansu 736399, China
    3. Eco-Bridge Continental, Beijing 100085, China
    4. Marwell Wildlife, Thompsons Lane, Winchester, Hampshire, SO21 1JH, United Kingdom
  • Received:2020-05-14 Accepted:2020-09-01 Online:2021-01-30 Published:2021-03-30
  • Contact: SHI Kun
  • About author:Sydney M. GREENFIELD, E-mail: sydney.greenfield@aggiemail.usu.edu
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31470567)

摘要:

围栏是牧区畜牧业的重要组成部分。但是,这些围栏也给野生动物带来了很多负面影响,会制约它们的活动范围,妨碍其种群扩散甚至会直接导致死亡。甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区未来将成为祁连山国家公园的重要组成部分,本文对该区内围栏的现状及其所产生的影响进行了评估。我们通过70份调查问卷,了解了当地牧民对围栏的看法、围栏对野生有蹄类动物的威胁以及观察到的被围栏缠绕的野生动物的数量。我们发现,如果当地居民发现用于管理牲畜的围栏会伤害到野生动物,他们更可能意识到围栏带来的负面影响,那些认为围栏对野生动物有害的人更有可能支持拆除围栏。然而,对于需要雇用他人来照看家畜的牧民,支持围栏拆除的可能性较小。最佳模型只解释了部分数据差异,这表明虽然对围栏威胁的认识很重要,但其他因素可能也会影响牧民对围栏拆除的支持度。因此,为了能在新的国家公园内成功开展围栏拆除工作,有必要强化社区服务和社区合作,以减少围栏拆除对牲畜管理的影响。调查发现,当地牧民在围栏上发现过死亡的藏野驴、盘羊和藏原羚,其中发现藏野驴的次数明显多于其他两个物种。这一结果表明,前述三个物种可能更容易被围栏缠绕,未来需要加强相关研究,这将有助于推动围栏拆除计划的实施。

关键词: 围栏, 青藏高原, 有蹄类动物, 中国

Abstract:

Fencing is an important part of husbandry for pastoral communities; however, these same fences can have unintended consequences for wildlife populations by restricting movement, reducing connectivity, and causing direct mortality. This paper assesses the current status and effects of fencing present in Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve, soon to be part of the recently proposed Qilianshan National Park. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 70 households to gauge local herders’ perceptions of fences, threats of fencing to native ungulates, and the number of wildlife found entangled in fencing. We found that local communities rely on fencing for livestock management and individuals who had encountered wildlife entangled in fences were more likely to perceive fences as having negative effects. Furthermore, those who perceived fencing as harmful to wildlife were more likely to support the dismantling of fences. On the other hand, families who needed to hire others to tend to their livestock were less likely to support dismantling efforts. However, the best model was only able to account for some of the data variability, suggesting that while perceptions of fences are important, other factors could be influencing support for fence dismantling. Hence, increasing awareness of threats alone may not be enough to generate community support of a fence dismantling program. Therefore, outreach and community collaboration to reduce the impacts of fence alterations upon livestock management will be necessary for a successful fence dismantling program within the new national park. Finally, those surveyed reported finding kiang, argali, and Tibetan gazelle dead in fences, with kiang found more often than the other two. This suggests that these three species may be more vulnerable to fence entanglement and that they are good targets for future studies and dismantling efforts.

Key words: fencing, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, ungulates, China