资源与生态学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 5 ›› Issue (4): 390-394.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.015

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中国重要农业文化遗产可持续发展面临的挑战与应对

张灿强1, 刘某承2   

  1. 1 农业部农村经济研究中心, 北京 100810;
    2 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-22 修回日期:2014-11-20 出版日期:2014-12-18 发布日期:2014-12-18
  • 通讯作者: LIU Moucheng
  • 基金资助:

    Consulting Project of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (2013-XZ-22); Soft Science Project of MOA (20140503).

Challenges and Countermeasures for the Sustainable Development of Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems in China

ZHANG Canqiang1, LIU Moucheng2   

  1. 1 Research Center for Rural Economy, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100810, China;
    2 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2014-10-22 Revised:2014-11-20 Online:2014-12-18 Published:2014-12-18
  • Contact: LIU Moucheng
  • Supported by:

    Consulting Project of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (2013-XZ-22); Soft Science Project of MOA (20140503).

摘要: 2012年农业部启动中国重要农业文化遗产发掘工作以来,通过两批申报与评选,有39个传统农业系统入选中国重要农业文化遗产,其中涉及林业19项、种植业14项、农业复合系统4项、其他2项.从遗产系统的起源来看,历史在1000年以上的农业系统有24个.从民族特征来看,20个遗产系统位于少数民族聚居区.当前,农业文化遗产地普遍面临着生态系统的退化与破坏,传统农业技术和农业景观的遗失与废弃,农业规模化与产业化发展滞后,农户的利益分享与激励不足等问题.相对其他遗产类型,农业文化遗产的保护与发展更为复杂和困难.为实现农业文化遗产的可持续发展,要充分发挥政府的主导作用和财政扶持功能,探索农业文化遗产保护与发展的市场化途径与适应性管理,建立多方参与和惠益分享机制,加强农业文化遗产的基础研究工作.

关键词: 中国重要农业文化遗产(China-NIAHS), 可持续发展, 农业景观, 市场化途径, 多方参与

Abstract: In 2012 the Ministry of Agriculture of China launched a project exploring Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (China-NIAHS). Through two rounds of applications and selection in 2012 and 2013, 39 traditional agricultural systems were selected and designated as China-NIAHS, including 19 forestry systems, 14 planting systems, four agricultural complex systems and two other systems. From a system origin perspective there were 24 agricultural systems, some dating back 1000 years. Twenty heritage systems are located in areas inhabited by ethnic minorities. Agricultural heritage systems face general challenges, such as ecosystem degradation and destruction, loss and abandonment of traditional agricultural technologies and landscapes, lagging agriculture scale and industrialization, and limited farmer benefit-sharing and incentives. Compared to other types of heritage, the conservation and development of agricultural heritage systems is more complex and difficult. In order to achieve sustainable development of agricultural heritage systems, the government should play a leading role and improve financial support functions. Local people should also explore market-oriented approaches and adaptive management methods on protection and development of NIAHS. Multi-participation and benefit-sharing mechanisms should be established and basic research needs to be strengthened.

Key words: China Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (China-NIAHS), sustainable development, agriculture landscape, market-oriented approach, multi-participation mechanism