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Exploring the Scale Effects of Tradeoffs and Synergies of Multifunctional Cultivated Land—Evidence from Wuhan Metropolitan Area
YANG Fengyanzi, Email: 479508644@qq.com 
Received date: 20201228
Accepted date: 20210830
Online published: 20221012
Supported by
The National Natural Science Foundation of China(71673105)
The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(2662016PY116)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the tradeoffs and synergies of multifunctional cultivated land (MCL) at multiple scales. The study area is Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China. The entropy method and the method of Spearman's rank correlation were employed for the analysis of combined land use/cover data, administrative division data, population data and statistical yearbook data, from the multiscale perspectives of cities, counties and townships. The results showed that: (1) The multifunctionality of cultivated land had obvious spatial differences and its overall spatial patterns were relatively robust, which did not change very much at the single scale. (2) At each single scale, the MCL's tradeoffs and synergies had spatial heterogeneity. (3) Scale effects existed in the MCL's tradeoffs and synergies. From the prefecturelevel city scale, to the county scale, and to the township scale, the MCL's tradeoffs were changed to synergies, and some synergic relationships were enhanced. This article contributes to the literature by deepening the multiscale analysis of tradeoffs and synergies of multifunctional cultivated land. The conclusions might provide a basis for helping policymakers to implement protection measures for the multifunctionality of cultivated land at the right spatial scale, and to promote the higherlevel synergies of multifunctional cultivated land to realize its sustainable use.
YANG Fengyanzi , HU Weiyan . Exploring the Scale Effects of Tradeoffs and Synergies of Multifunctional Cultivated Land—Evidence from Wuhan Metropolitan Area[J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2022 , 13(6) : 1116 1127 . DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674764x.2022.06.016
Fig. 1 Location of the Wuhan Metropolitan Area in China 
Fig. 2 Technical roadmap of the tradeoffs and synergies of multifunctional cultivated land 
Table 1 Evaluation system of multifunctional cultivated land in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area 
Function type  Evaluation index  Property  Calculation method^{**}  Weights  

City  County  Township  
F1: Production function  F11: Grain yield (t)  +  ${{y}_{1ij}}={{Y}_{1i}}\times \frac{{{A}_{ij}}}{{{S}_{i}}}$.  0.0769  0.1028  0.1102 
F12: Vegetable yield (t)  +  ${{y}_{2ij}}={{Y}_{2i}}\times \frac{{{A}_{ij}}}{{{S}_{i}}}$.  0.1308  0.1388  0.2296  
F13: Fruit yield(t)  +  ${{y}_{3ij}}={{Y}_{3i}}\times \frac{{{A}_{ij}}}{{{S}_{i}}}$.  0.1399  0.1347  0.2423  
F14: Land reclamation rate (%)  +  Cultivated land area / total land area  0.0504  0.0611  0.0592  
F2: Ecological function  F21: Fertilizer application rate (t)    ${{y}_{4ij}}={{Y}_{4i}}\times \frac{{{A}_{ij}}}{{{S}_{i}}}$.  0.0278  0.0331  0.0109 
F22: Carbon fixation and oxygen release (t ha^{1})  +  CO_{2} Absorption + O_{2 }Release  0.0786  0.1030  0.1107  
F23: Habitat fragmentation (/)    (Area fragmentation index + distribution fragmentation index)/2  0.0379  0.0436  0.0326  
F24: Per capita ecological carrying capacity of cultivated land (/)^{*}  +  Per capita cropland resource endowment × cropland yield factor × cropland equilibrium factor  0.0441  0.0438  
F3: Social function  F31: Food selfsufficiency ratio (%)  +  Food output/ (resident population × 400 kg)  0.0434  0.0610  0.0772 
F32: Per capita cultivated land area (m^{2} person^{1})  +  Cultivated land area / resident population  0.0470  0.0391  0.0567  
F33: Proportion of agricultural output value (%)^{*}  +  Agricultural output value/GDP  0.0878  0.0782  
F34: Proportion of employed population in primary industry^{*} (%)  +  Number of employees in primary industry / total number of employees  0.0547  
F4: Landscape function  F41: Aggregation index (/)  +  Fragstats 4.2 (AI）  0.0415  0.0396  0.0233 
F42: Shannon's diversity index (/)  +  Fragstats 4.2 (SHDI)  0.0527  0.0372  0.0161  
F43: Contagion index (/)  +  Fragstats 4.2 (CONTAG)  0.0318  0.0393  0.0164  
F44: Perimeter area fractal dimension (/)    Fragstats 4.2 (PAFRAC）  0.0548  0.0446  0.0148 
Note: (1) F24、F33、F34 marked with an asterisk mean the multifunctional cultivated land that were only quantified at the city or county scale and the other functions were quantified at all scales; (2) In the calculation method, y_{1}_{ij}, y_{2}_{ij}, y_{3}_{ij} and y_{4}_{ij} represent the total grain output, vegetable output, melon and fruit yield and agricultural fertilizer use amount of the jth township in the ith county administrative region, respectively; Y_{1}_{i}, Y_{2}_{i}, Y_{3}_{i} and Y_{4}_{i} represent the total grain output, vegetable output, melon and fruit yield and agricultural fertilizer use amount of the ith county, respectively; A_{ij} represents the total cultivated land area of the jth township in the ith county, and S_{i} represents the total cultivated land area of the ith county. 
Table 2 Data sources and descriptions 
Type  Source  Format 

Land use/cover  Bureau of Natural Resources and Planning of Hubei Province  Vector 
Administrative division data  NGCC (http://www.ngcc.cn/ngcc/)  Vector 
Population data  Resource and Environment Science and Data Center (http://www.resdc.cn/)  Raster 
Socioeconomic statistics  Hubei Provincial Bureau of Statistics (http://tjj.hubei.gov.cn/)  Spreadsheet 
Agricultural production data  Hubei Provincial Bureau of Statistics (http://tjj.hubei.gov.cn/)  Spreadsheet 
Fig. 3 Multiscale spatial distribution patterns of the single functions of cultivated land in Wuhan Metropolitan AreaNote: From column 1 to column 4, ad, is used to represent the production function, ecological function, social function and landscape function of cultivated land, respectively; while line 1 to line 3 uses 13 to represent city scale, county scale and township scale, respectively. 
Fig. 4 Multiscale spatial distribution pattern of multifunctional cultivated land in Wuhan Metropolitan AreaNote: ac is the multifunctional degree of cultivated land measured by the weighted comprehensive index method at the city scale, county scale and township scale; df is the multifunctional degree of cultivated land measured by Simpson's reciprocal index method at the city scale, county scale and township scale. 
Fig. 5 Scale effect of tradeoffs and synergies of multifunctional cultivated land in Wuhan Metropolitan AreaNote: a, b, and c represent the city scale, county scale, and township scale, respectively; *, and ** indicate a significance level of 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. 
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