Ecological Community Management

A Community Resilience Evaluation and Optimization Strategy based on Stormwater Management

  • ZHANG Quan , * ,
  • XUE Shanshan ,
  • ZOU Chengdong
  • School of Architecture and Art, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230601, China

Received date: 2020-11-05

  Accepted date: 2021-10-29

  Online published: 2022-04-18

Supported by

The National Natural Science Foundation of China(41601581)

The Science Technology Plan Project for Construction Industry of Anhui Province(2011YF-32)


In the context of disaster normalization, the concept of “resilience” has been gradually introduced into the field of disaster prevention and mitigation in urban communities. In order to resist the increasingly frequent disasters caused by extreme weather, it is necessary to shift the focus of building resilient urban communities to the level of stormwater management. Community resilience is a disaster prevention and mitigation capability based on community resources. In order to solve the deficiency of storm and flood management in the current construction of resilient communities in China, it is necessary to establish a quantitative evaluation system to evaluate it. This paper uses the analytic hierarchy process and Delphi method to establish a community resilience evaluation system from the perspectives of community material space level, community management level and individual level. Then three communities in Hefei City, Anhui Province are selected for practical application of the system, and corresponding optimization and transformation strategies are proposed. The results show that: (1) The resilience of community stormwater management is closely related to the integrated environment of the community, the allocation of flood control facilities and the daily disaster prevention and mitigation management; (2) The ability of disaster prevention and mitigation and the awareness of public participation of the residents in all communities are relatively weak, and the communities invest less in the popularization of stormwater management wisdom; and (3) Resilient communities should not only pay attention to the construction of non-engineering disaster prevention measures, but also to the application of small-scale green infrastructure oriented toward stormwater management.

Cite this article

ZHANG Quan , XUE Shanshan , ZOU Chengdong . A Community Resilience Evaluation and Optimization Strategy based on Stormwater Management[J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2022 , 13(3) : 360 -370 . DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.002

1 Introduction

In the context of frequent extreme weather events and the normalization of disasters around the world, most Chinese cities will need to pay a heavy price in the process of disaster responses, which reflects the obvious shortcomings of the cities in disaster response and recovery. The community, as the most basic unit of urban society, has significant vulnerability and sensitivity characteristics which cause it to be most severely affected by all kinds of disasters (Zhan, 2014). In order to reduce the impact of natural disasters on urban communities, some scholars have introduced the concept of “resilience” into the research on disaster prevention and mitigation in urban communities. With the deepening of this research, resilient communities have gradually become a hot topic in the planning field (Hu, 2016).
By analyzing the existing research, we found that there are many studies on the concept discrimination, connotation definition, case analysis and evaluation system construction of community resilience both domestically and overseas. For example, He and Jia (2018) constructed the connotation structure of the resilient community, community safety and community safety resilience from multi-dimensional attributes, such as ethical, functional, economic, community, etc. Shi et al. (2019) proposed an evaluation index system of disaster prevention resilience in a community that consists of organizational resilience, social resilience, economic resilience, and social capital and facility resilience on the basis of summarizing relevant studies at home and abroad. Yang and Gao (2020) combined this with the DPSRC model to build a comprehensive evaluation system for community social resilience and analyzed 16 international communities in Xiaobei, Guangzhou. However, the research on community resilience evaluation from the perspective of stormwater management in China is still insufficient. The establishment of a community resilience evaluation system from the perspective of stormwater management can not only expand the scope of the community resilience evaluation index, but also provide a new perspective for the research on community resilience, which can ultimately reduce the risk of urban communities from natural disasters to a greater extent.

2 Resilient communities

2.1 Defining “resilient communities”

The term “resilience” comes from physics, where it describes a material's ability to recover from deformation (Chen, 2008). In the 1970s, it was applied in the field of ecosystem research. In the early 21st century, in order to further promote the sustainable development of cities, it was gradually introduced into the field of urban construction and disaster prevention and mitigation (Cui et al., 2018), and then the concept of the “resilient city” was born. The “resilient city” concept is not put forward to build a “zero disaster city”, but it is proposed to make use of reasonable layout and scientific environmental construction, organic social organizations and active public participation (Wang, 2020), to increase the elasticity of the urban space, and to reduce the vulnerability of the city and create a sustainable urban system. Community is the social and institutional component of a city, and also the smallest unit to face disasters. Building resilient residential communities is an important part of building a resilient city, and also one of the important goals of sustainable urban development in the context of the current disaster normalization.
Resilient communities refer to dynamic communities based on the collective actions of communities that can link internal and external resources, effectively resist disasters and risks, quickly recover from the impacts of disasters, and maintain sustainable development. The “resilience” mentioned here is based on the understanding of disaster reduction on the basis of security, and based on the coordination and cooperation among civil society, government organizations, grass-roots communities and other sectors. It is inclusive and flexible. When a disaster strikes, the community organizations and infrastructure can maintain the security and stability of the community. Besides, endowing the residents in the community with the ability to effectively guarantee the safety of life and property, realize “autonomy”, “mutual assistance” and “collaboration” in the community, and jointly maintain the order and security of the community is the key to building a resilient community.

2.2 Characteristics of community resilience based on stormwater management

In order to cope with urban rain flooding, developed countries introduced the concept of “Stormwater Management”, which has been applied to multiple scales of rain-flood control in cities, communities and sites and has achieved good results (Ellis et al., 2003; Ltd et al., 2009; Benzerra et al., 2012; Che et al., 2014; Stefan et al., 2020). In recent years, in order to cope with the increasingly frequent urban rainstorms, many outstanding experts and scholars have been concerned about China's rainstorms (Che et al., 2010; Jin and Du, 2015; Hu, 2017; Xu et al., 2018), and they have also conducted many studies on stormwater management methods (Che et al., 2010; Dong and Han, 2011; Mo and Yu, 2012; Su et al., 2015; Cai et al., 2016; Yang et al., 2017; Yang et al., 2019).
In April 2012, the concept of “sponge city” was proposed for the first time in the 2012 Low-carbon City and Regional Development Science and Technology Forum (Sun, 2017). A sponge community is the embodiment of a sponge city at the community scale. Small-scale and dispersed technical measures should also be used to manage the production and convergence process of a rainstorm and to recycle rainwater resources to the maximum extent, so as to achieve the effect of community flood control and ecological compensation (Wang and Zhang, 2015). However, community stormwater management based on resilience theory not only requires the community to pay attention to the construction of stormwater management facilities, but it also must include the perspective of the whole process of crisis management, so the prevention and treatment of community rain flooding involves four links: Prevention, response, recovery and disaster reduction (Ma, 2020). This requires a community to be resilient in three ways: environmental, institutional and individual. In terms of environmental resilience construction, it mainly includes the planning of disaster-prevention settlements and the construction of stormwater management facilities, so that communities can have high adaptability and recoverability in all stages of a rain-flood disaster (Etkin, 1999; Vale and Campanella, 2005). In terms of institutional resilience, it mainly includes the establishment of a three-level governance mechanism of “government + social organizations + the public” and a sound disaster early warning system, so that community governance and post-disaster rescue can be guaranteed. In terms of individual resilience construction, it mainly includes the cultivation of post-disaster self-help skills (Liang, 2017), so as to enhance the initiative of community residents in self-prevention and control and their enthusiasm for participating in community governance.

3 Construction of a community resilience evaluation system

3.1 Factors influencing the “resilience” of community stormwater management

Resilience is the capability of community disaster prevention and mitigation. The academic community has improved its research framework and the theoretical model for disaster prevention and mitigation, and has reached a basic consensus on the evaluation criteria for community resilience, which indicates that resilience requirements at the physical space level, management level and individual level need to be met simultaneously. Based on the current situation of the urban rain-flood response in China, most communities do not meet the basic standards of resilience. Therefore, we need to study all the factors affecting community “resilience” and summarize the problems in the processes of flood control, flood avoidance and disaster relief, and put forward targeted optimization strategies, so as to reduce the vulnerability of communities to disasters and improve the resilience of the communities (Disaster Prevention Research Center, 2017), and ultimately achieve the goal of improving the overall urban stormwater management resilience.
Based on the evaluation criteria of community resilience, this paper analyzes the factors affecting the resilience of community stormwater management. First of all, from the perspective of physical space, the richness and diversity of community resources directly affect the community's ability to cope with the crisis, which is the basic element for building resilient communities. Whether a community has strong adaptability to change is necessary related to whether it has diversified space with mixed functions, necessary emergency resource reserves and a rapid feedback ability in flood control, communication and other aspects. Secondly, from the perspective of management, community empowerment is an important link in resilient community construction. The community management system is the guidance for disaster prevention and reduction, mainly including the establishment of emergency management institutions, disaster monitoring and prevention and control, disaster publicity and education, post-disaster relief and security policies, etc., all of which have a great impact on all stages of rain-flood prevention and disaster relief. Effective community management can play a decisive role in maintaining critical links such as response speed, response measures and reconstruction efficiency. Finally, at the individual level, whether the community residents have the cohesiveness and the knowledge and skills for disaster prevention determines whether the community residents can provide the necessary resources and support to the community during the crisis and play a positive role as the social grid (Kwon et al., 2008).

3.2 Constructing the community resilience evaluation system

3.2.1 Selection of evaluation methods

At present, the construction methods of the community disaster prevention evaluation system in academia mainly include the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), Delphi method, grey correlation analysis method and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Gray correlation analysis is generally used to seek the numerical relationships between factors at all levels in the evaluation system through certain mathematical methods (Liang et al., 2013), which is applicable to relevant studies in the fields of mathematics and economics. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is a type of evaluation method based on fuzzy mathematics. It uses fuzzy mathematics to evaluate things or objects that are restricted by many factors, and is suitable for solving fuzzy, difficult to quantify and non-deterministic problems. Both of the above are methods of quantitative analysis. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a model of quantitative evaluation. It decomposes the elements related to a decision into multiple levels, such as target, criterion and scheme. It is more suitable for the decision problem of a target system with hierarchical and staggered evaluation indexes, and in cases where the target value is difficult to describe quantitatively (Xu, 1988).
Considering that the objective of the research on community resilience in this paper is clear but difficult to describe quantitatively, the AHP is used to construct the evaluation index system of community resilience. The operational process of this method is simpler and the analysis result is more intuitive. However, AHP alone may not be comprehensive enough, and the evaluation results may be too subjective. Therefore, the AHP and Delphi method are adopted in this paper for both quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the selection of evaluation indexes, the opinions of disaster prevention experts, planners, architects and community owners in different fields are taken into consideration comprehensively, which makes the resulting evaluation system more scientific, reasonable and practical. Firstly, several important first-level indexes are summarized based on relevant research results at home and abroad. Then, each first-level evaluation index is subdivided twice and its weight is determined. Finally, the weighted sum of all levels of indexes is comprehensively evaluated.

3.2.2 Selection of evaluation indexes

Based on the above analysis, this paper deconstructs the resilience of community stormwater management from three dimensions, namely, community physical space, community management and the individual level. Therefore, this paper constructs the evaluation system framework from three aspects: whether the community can effectively prevent the flooding before the occurrence of the rain-flood, whether it can cope and adapt during its occurrence, and whether it can recover quickly after its occurrence. This paper also puts forward four first-level evaluation indexes, namely, comprehensive environment, disaster prevention facilities, management system, and the community residents' disaster resistance ability. Through questionnaire survey and with reference to the National Comprehensive Disaster Reduction Demonstration Community Rating Standard, the authors refined and collated each indicator, and finally determined 20 second-level indicators. The specific indicator system is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Evaluation index system of community resilience based on stormwater management
Dimension First level
Second level indicators Definition of indicator
Comprehensive environment Location and scale The geographical location, surrounding resources and population of the community
Emergency evacuation route Whether the special emergency evacuation path is planned, whether the indication signs are clear
Planning of publicity and education sites for disaster prevention and mitigation Whether the community has planned the special disaster prevention publicity, and a disaster prevention education space
The stormwater drainage capacity of the main elements of the community Waterlogging capacity of buildings, green landscape, road system and public space
The area of a disadvantaged section of a community The proportion of the area of low-lying areas and areas with limited drainage to the total area of a community
Disaster prevention facilities Network communication The fluency and stability of community network broadband
Water, gas and power distribution facilities Stability of water supply, heat supply and power supply
Flood control facilities Whether green rainwater infrastructure has been planned
Emergency supplies reserve Whether adequate life-saving tools and emergency supplies are prepared
Medical assistance resources Whether the medical aid is planned
Management Management
Disaster Reduction Management Agency Whether the community has a neighborhood committee, work supervision bureau, supervision group, resident's autonomous organization
Disaster monitoring capability Whether the community has monitoring records and early warning programmes related to flood control and organizes regular exercises
The implementation of disaster prevention, control and management Whether the community has a clear division of work groups
Publicity and education Whether flood control publicity and education should be carried out through various channels and relevant information should be released in a timely manner
Relief funds Whether the community has an integrated disaster reduction program and a fixed source of funding
The skills of disaster reduction The proportion of vulnerable groups The proportion of vulnerable groups such as the elderly, children and the disabled in the total population of the community
Proportion of residents with a university degree or above The proportion of residents with a college degree or above in the community population
Basic methods for residents to help each other Whether the residents have basic escape methods and mutual rescue methods, this data is obtained through questionnaire survey
Residents' awareness of emergency management The data on awareness of emergency management was obtained through questionnaire survey
The emotional guidance ability of residents The data of emotional counseling ability was obtained through questionnaire survey

3.2.3 Calculation of the evaluation index weights

Due to the variations in the degree of influence of each indicator in the evaluation of community resilience, it is necessary to measure the importance degree of each one to determine its weight. Firstly, experts, research scholars and senior planning, architectural design and planning management personnel in the industry were invited to score relevant indicators from a professional perspective. In order to reflect the spirit of public participation, the views and judgments of the public were also included. Then, yaahp software was used to build a judgment matrix, and a pairwise comparison was made for each level of indicators in the evaluation system to determine the weight of each level of indicators. The specific results are shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Index weights of community resilience evaluation indicators based on stormwater management
First-level indicators Weight Second-level indicators Weight The ranking of importance
0.3953 Location and scale 0.0437 15
Emergency evacuation route 0.1652 6
Planning of publicity and education sites for disaster prevention and mitigation 0.0803 8
The stormwater drainage capacity of the main elements of the community 0.5067 2
The area of a disadvantaged section of a community 0.2041 3
Disaster prevention facilities 0.3953 Network communication 0.0322 17
Water, gas and power distribution facilities 0.0569 12
Flood control facilities 0.5351 1
Emergency supply reserves 0.1767 5
Medical assistance resources 0.1991 4
Management system 0.1179 Disaster Reduction Management Agency 0.1505 14
Disaster monitoring capability 0.1160 16
The implementation of disaster prevention, control and management 0.5197 7
Publicity and education 0.1597 13
Relief funds 0.0542 19
Residents's skills in disaster reduction 0.0916 The proportion of vulnerable groups 0.0489 20
Proportion of residents with a university degree or above 0.0775 18
Basic methods for residents to help each other 0.2878 10
Residents' awareness of emergency management 0.3078 9
The emotional guidance ability of residents 0.2778 11
The index weight calculation steps are as follows:
(1) Weight of first-level indicators: According to the scores of experts, insiders and citizens on the resilience of the community, two indicators for all levels were compared with each other, and the comprehensive proportion was finally determined by constantly measuring the importance of all levels of indicators. General importance was assigned on a scale of 1 to 9.
The judgment matrix Aij was constructed by pairwise comparison. In this way, it is possible to compare the im-portance of all levels of the index set X={x1,..., xn} to the superior indicator factor Y.
After pairwise comparison between each factor from x1 to xn and a superior indicator factor Y, the ratio of influence aij was obtained, where “n×n” represents a square matrix of n rows and n columns with numbers as elements, and n is the number of first-level indicators.
(2) Weight of second-level indicators: All second-level indexes under the first-level index were compared and measured, and the judgment matrix belonging to each second-level index was constructed to finally obtain the weight of the second-level indexes under the influence of the first-level index.
(3) Judgment matrix consistency test: Generally, λmax=n is used as a measure to verify whether Aij is a consistent matrix. If there is a large difference between λmax and n, then the matrix is highly non-consistent.
According to the comprehensive ranking of the weights of the 20 secondary indexes, there are great differences in the weights of the indexes. The results show that among the top 10 second-level indicators, 4 belong to first-level indicators of the community comprehensive environment, 3 belong to first-level indicators of disaster prevention facilities, 2 belong to first-level indicators of residents' skills in disaster reduction, and 1 belongs to first-level indicators of the community management system. Therefore, from the perspective of stormwater management, the construction of resilient urban communities needs to focus on three aspects. First, it is necessary to focus on the planning of disaster-prevention communities, including the road system, public space, green rainwater infrastructure, disaster prevention education sites, etc. Secondly, community organizations should pay attention to community disaster reduction management, and planners should pay attention to the construction of disaster reduction facilities, including emergency supply reserves, disaster warning and monitoring. Thirdly, community organizations should pay attention to the cultivation of residents' awareness and skills in disaster reduction, including education and publicity on disaster reduction and self-help methods.

3.2.4 Evaluation results and grading

By using the above method to determine the weight of all levels of indicators, the quantitative indicators of the stormwater management resilience of a community can be obtained through the process of “weighted summation of second-level indicators—weighted summation of first-level indicators—summation of multiple indicators”, and the comprehensive evaluation results can be obtained. The evaluation results were divided into four grades: Excellent, good, general and poor. The specific classification standards are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 Community resilience rating scale based on stormwater management
Grade Excellent Good General Poor
C Score C≥85 70≤C<85 60≤C<70 C<60

4 Application example

In order to verify the feasibility and applicability of the constructed evaluation system, three different types of residential areas in Hefei were selected for empirical study (Fig. 1). All the selected subjects experienced waterlogging to varying degrees in the rainstorm in June 2020. Yuzhou Community is located at the intersection of Feicui Road and Ziyun Road, adjacent to a wetland park and two key universities, and it has a convenient location and transportation. The community was completed in 2016 and has a pleasant environment, a high greening rate and complete supporting facilities. It represents a new community with a better comprehensive environment. The Yinling Era Garden is located at the intersection of Bianhe Road and Dangtu Road in Yaohai District, close to the urban center, the urban main road and the urban railway. This community was completed in 2011, and has a convenient location and transportation and complete internal facilities. However, the residential structure is relatively complex, as most of the residents are tenants with high mobility, and the surrounding comprehensive environment is also poor. Jungang New Village is located in Changfeng County near the Civilization road, near Fuyang North Road viaduct. This community was completed in 2011 and the building age is the oldest among the three campuses. The housing quality of the community is poor, the internal roads are seriously damaged, and the community still lacks basic supporting facilities, so it represents an old community with a poor comprehensive environment. Whenever there is continuous heavy rainfall, there will be serious water accumulation in this area, threatening the life and property safety of the community residents.
Fig. 1 Location of the research objects in Hefei
By applying the above evaluation system and methods, the comprehensive score of Yuzhou Community is 81.80, so its resilience rating is good. The comprehensive score of Yinling Era Garden is 68.04, so its resilience is general. The comprehensive score of Jungang New Village is 43.82, so its resilience rating is poor. The specific evaluation results are shown in Table 4 (These data come from the statistical data and questionnaire surveys of the community neighborhood committees).
Table 4 Evaluation results of community resilience based on stormwater management
Residential area Comprehensive
Disaster prevention
Residents's skills for disaster reduction Comprehensive weighted score Grade
Yuzhou Community 79.45 86.03 74.28 83.25 81.80 Good
Yinling Era Garden 68.54 74.48 52.28 58.44 68.04 General
Jungang New Village 43.28 38.76 42.03 70.25 43.82 Poor
In order to predict how the rain-flood resilience of the community could be strengthened and improved in the future, the authors comparatively analyzed the scores of the different indicators to identify the indicators with low scores, which reveal the weak dimensions of the resilience construction of the community. Among them, the comprehensive score of Yuzhou Community is the highest, but its score for the community management system is low. The score of Yinling Era Garden is lower in the community management system and the dimension of residents' awareness and skill in disaster reduction. The scores of all dimensions in Jungang New Village are low, so it cannot meet the basic requirements of resilient community construction. Based on the analysis of the evaluation results and field investigation, the problems with disaster prevention and reduction in each community are summarized as follows.

4.1 Loose community management system unable to effectively organize the full-cycle management of the community

Yinling Era Garden and Jungang New Village have problems such as a loose management system, unclear rights and responsibilities of governance subjects, inflexible governance methods, and simple and crude governance mechanisms, which make community management unable to play its actual role in the necessary work. In the cadre training stage, there is no whole-cycle or systematic learning of disaster prevention knowledge, and there is no assessment of relevant knowledge for management cadres in the selection and appointment stage, which leads to the insufficient professional quality of some cadres in disaster prevention and relief. At the same time, their abilities in improving the community disaster prevention service, strengthening the community disaster bearing function, and giving play to the community disaster relief function are deficient. Therefore, in the process of daily management and disaster response, community managers often fall into the situation of blind management, leading to serious internal consumption of community resources and an insignificant management effect.

4.2 Infrastructure configurations and updates were poorly considered

Communities built in different eras paid different amounts of attention to infrastructure construction, so there are now differences in the strength of resilience. Some older communities have a large amount of grey infrastructure, such as direct drain sewers and large reservoirs, but the planning of green infrastructure with functions of water storage, flood control and environmental improvement is obviously insufficient. Due to the lack of long-term consciousness of the community planners and the difficulty in later renovations, the community's response abilities in pre-disaster warning, in-disaster bearing, post-disaster recovery and other aspects are relatively weak. However, under the influence of resilience concepts at home and abroad, the community can play a better role in disaster prevention and response at a later stage by considering both rigidity and resilience in infrastructure construction.

4.3 Lack of pre-disaster risk assessment and disaster preparedness plans

Most communities do not strictly implement the preparatory work for disaster prevention and reduction. There are problems in the process of disaster risk assessment, such as a disordered assessment system, irregular assessment processes and inaccurate assessment indicators, which lead to the poor quality of risk assessment reports and make it difficult to provide scientific support for the subsequent disaster plan formulation. Jungang New Village and Yinling Era Garden did not formulate emergency management plans as required. Although Yuzhou Community established emergency management plans, they did not take into account the actual characteristics of community disasters, resulting in insufficient relevance of the emergency management plan contents and inadequate effectiveness of the solution measures. In some communities, the amount and types of emergency supplies are insufficient, which is far from meeting the initial needs of various disasters (Zeng, 2015). Moreover, the daily management is relatively independent and there is a lack of coordination, so it cannot possibly play a normal role in the event of a disaster.

4.4 Residents' awareness of disaster prevention is weak, and their independent disaster prevention ability is poor

There are many reasons for the lack of awareness of self-directed disaster prevention and relief among many community residents. On the one hand, the publicity and education of disaster prevention and reduction are not given enough attention in the daily life of the community. Only on major holidays are the publicity activities of disaster prevention and relief carried out on their own initiative, and the scale of the activities is small and the impact is not extensive. On the other hand, some community residents have little experience in disasters and even feel that disasters will not happen to them. They pay little attention to the disasters that haven't happened yet and have no desire to actively understand the knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction. As a result, they have little understanding of the relevant national laws and regulations on earthquake prevention and reduction or how to deal with sudden disasters (Chen and Song, 2018). Moreover, with the aging of the population in China, the proportion of the elderly in the community is constantly increasing. In the process of dealing with a disaster, the elderly often have the characteristics of weak disaster prevention ability due to their lack of physical fitness, rigidity of thinking and other reasons. At the same time, the unreasonable structure of volunteers for comprehensive disaster prevention in some communities and the unbalanced proportions of disaster prevention resources also give rise to the poor autonomous disaster prevention ability of the whole community.

5 Optimization strategy

5.1 Improve the organization and management mechanism as well as the resilience of grassroots services

Realizing effective community full-cycle management is the primary goal of perfecting the organization management mechanism. The community should pay attention to the optimization and upgrading of the organizational management system, strengthen the effective integration of resources inside and outside the jurisdiction, and form a strong force to maintain the stability of the community. In the daily management and disaster organization management, the community should build a multi-party communication platform, listen to the opinions of different stakeholders in the community, accurately understand the residents' needs for disaster prevention, and realize the refinement of community management. Through the establishment of community management committees, residents are encouraged to participate in community public affairs, so as to enrich the management levels of community organizations (Yang et al., 2020), promote the diversification of governance subjects, professional governance methods, and the effectiveness of governance mechanisms, and form a multi-level cooperative organizational management system. In the process of community resource integration, we should attach great importance to the construction of community volunteers, optimize the composition of the volunteer teams, and give full play to the role of the volunteer teams in community management. At the same time, the community should establish a complete cadre selection mechanism, build a full-cycle knowledge learning system, and sufficiently train cadres' in disaster prevention and relief expertise. Based on the digital background, intelligent management is introduced into the community management mechanism, and new technologies such as big data, cloud computing and sensing facilities are comprehensively applied to assist the community management in making decisions before, during and after disasters, so as to improve the scientific and effective decision-making (Lu, 2019).

5.2 Build stormwater and flood management facilities to enhance the resilience of the human living environment

Traditional community space governance measures are keen to set up fast and direct line municipal facilities, but lack the consideration of green rainwater infrastructure, which makes the community suffer great damage due to the lack of facility flexibility in the process of dealing with rain-flood disasters. Therefore, the improvement of stormwater management facilities in urban communities can, to a large extent, improve the resilience of the human living environment to natural disasters. As the most critical element in the application of community stormwater management, green rainwater infrastructure is often given priority in the renovation and transformation of community infrastructure (Liu et al., 2008). First of all, the community should improve and supplement the existing green rainwater infrastructure and help the community effectively deal with the rain-flood damage by constructing diversified biological retention facilities, setting up ecological vegetation shallow gulfs and optimizing the plant space configuration mode (Yan et al., 2013). Secondly, the community can also transform the idle grey infrastructure into roof gardens, rainwater gardens, etc., to improve the proportion of permeable pavement, so as to achieve the purpose of rainwater collection, storage and utilization, and realize the sustainable development of community stormwater management. Finally, by using sponge city concrete technology, communities can improve their green infrastructure network, build different levels of green infrastructure systems, and achieve the ecological balance of a larger area.

5.3 Implement disaster risk assessments to improve disaster prevention resilience of the communities

In the process of community management and disaster risk management, scientific methods should be used to carry out regular disaster risk assessments of the community, so as to identify and prevent possible risks in advance, to provide a practical basis for the community to make decisions and implement measures in advance, and to reduce the human and economic losses of the community when disasters occur. In the process of community risk assessment, community managers need to reasonably assess the scope of disaster risk they are responsible for, and analyze the past disasters within the scope as well as the existing geographic, meteorological, environmental and other information. At the same time, with the help of experts to establish a reasonable risk assessment system, choose the scientific evaluation index to delimit the community risk zoning. Finally, according to the size of disaster risk in different regions, to develop targeted disaster prevention and mitigation measures and disaster management strategies (Dufty, 2012; Huang et al., 2019).

5.4 Preset disaster emergency response plans to enhance the resilience of the communities

Pre-disaster prevention and preparedness play an important role in reducing the risk of urban floods and flood disasters and improving the emergency response capacity of the communities. To build the disaster emergency plan system, we should not only consider the characteristics of various disasters and formulate comprehensive plans suitable for a variety of situations, but also highlight the special situations of each community and formulate individually optimized plans. At the same time, we should consider how to effectively connect the disaster emergency plans of the communities and the higher level, and promote the formation of a deeper and broader disaster emergency plan system. The community could organize residents to set up a joint disaster prevention working group to attract professionals within the community, carry out regular reviews and verification of the disaster emergency plan, and ensure the normal development of the emergency plan. When formulating the disaster emergency preplan, the working group shall, in combination with the results of the community disaster risk assessment and with the assistance of professional scholars, formulate a complete set of disaster emergency measures to clarify the responsibilities and obligations of all the main bodies in the community at different stages of a disaster. In addition, they should strengthen the daily management of the emergency plan, pay special attention to the necessary adjustments of the disaster prevention system or the responsibilities of the emergency organization, and regularly update and revise the prepared plan to ensure its practicability and applicability.

5.5 Strengthen the residents' disaster prevention ability and consolidate their independent disaster prevention resilience

As the most active component in urban communities, residents tend to suffer more from disasters due to the uneven distribution of spatial resources and power within the communities. Therefore, the ability of residents to maintain the safety of their own life and property becomes a key link to improving the resilience of communities. The improvement of community resilience needs to pay attention not only to the construction of the community physical space and management system, but also to the construction of community residents' awareness and ability for independent disaster prevention and relief. In daily life, the publicity board of the neighborhood committee, community sign system and other facilities can be used as a learning platform for community residents' self-rescue knowledge for disaster prevention, subtly affecting residents' awareness of self-prevention. At the same time, professional staff are invited to sink into the community to gain a deep understanding of the community culture, and a series of knowledge lectures on disaster prevention should be held to teach the knowledge and skills of avoiding the risks of rain and floods to the residents and families. Furthermore, the neighborhood committee can be used as the core to hold regular drills of disaster prevention and relief, for the practice and exploration of residents after daily learning, so as to enrich the learning form of disaster prevention knowledge, and they should reward the residents who perform well in the drill, and actively encourage community residents to improve their ability for independent disaster prevention and relief. In addition to learning the knowledge of disaster prevention and relief, the community spirit should be incorporated to form a new trend of disaster prevention thought based on residents' initiative and mutual help, so as to consolidate and improve the community's ability for disaster prevention and resilience.

6 Conclusions

Against the background of disaster normalization, extreme weather occurs frequently in China, and urban flood and waterlogging disasters tend to occur more frequently. A resilient community is the smallest defense unit against sudden rain flooding. With a perfect regulation ability and stable circulation system, it has obvious advantages in disaster prevention and reduction compared with a traditional community and has become a new model of community construction. This paper firstly summarizes the status of research on disaster prevention communities in China, and then constructs a community resilience evaluation system based on stormwater management. The results show that urban community construction should focus on improving the resilience of disaster-prevention community planning, green infrastructure, management systems and mechanisms, and residents' disaster-prevention awareness and skills in the future. Most importantly, the main role of community organizations should be brought into play to guide the active participation of community residents and integrate the community into a good circulatory system, so that the community can quickly respond to various crises with the needed flexibility, recover from them and enhance their resilience.
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