Human Activities and Ecosystem

The Situation with College Express Packaging Waste and Recycling Recommendations—Taking the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences as an Example

  • ZHANG Wenjing , *
  • Graduate School of University of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 102488, China
* ZHANG Wenjing, E-mail:

Received date: 2019-04-08

  Accepted date: 2019-07-02

  Online published: 2019-10-11


Copyright reserved © 2019


Questionnaires and interviews are employed in this paper to investigate and analyze the situation with respect to express packaging waste at the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (GCASS). The survey results show that: (1) the campus receives a large number of express packages and there is, in turn, a considerable amount of packaging waste; (2) there are four main types of express packaging materials: paper packaging, plastic bags, wrapping tapes and package fillers; (3) neither the students nor the school perform well in the recycling of express packaging waste; (4) the samples investigated in this paper can be divided into four categories by cluster analysis, and the author infers from this that the colleges and universities with a large proportion of female students should pay more attention to the issue of recycling of express packaging waste. Several suggestions are presented based on the research results: (1) establishing a campus waste recycling system is the most efficient way to solve the problem of express packaging waste at GCASS; (2) we should advocate for green packaging and manage it from the source of waste generation because most of the express packaging material does not easily degrade naturally, and this represents a huge hidden danger to human health and the environment; (3) the school should cultivate student awareness of environmental protection. If education and penalties are implemented together, the recovery system will run better.

Cite this article

ZHANG Wenjing . The Situation with College Express Packaging Waste and Recycling Recommendations—Taking the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences as an Example[J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2019 , 10(5) : 530 -536 . DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.009

1 Introduction

In recent years, China’s express delivery industry has been developing along with the growth of e-commerce, and the use of express packaging has increased sharply (Fan et al., 2017). Data from the State Post Bureau (2017) shows that China’s express delivery business handled 40.07 billion pieces in 2017, a year-on-year increase of 28%, accounting for 40% of the world’s express delivery industry, and ranking first globally for four consecutive years. During the time of the last“Double 11” Shopping Spree1(1The Double 11 online shopping festival originated with a promotion held by Taobao Mall (Tmall) on November 11, 2009. At that time, the number of participating businesses and promotional efforts were limited, but turnover exceeded expectations, so November 11 become a fixed date for Tmall to hold a large-scale promotion. Nowadays, Tmall is the largest online shopping platform in China. Double 11 has become an annual event in China's e-commerce industry and has gradually affected the international e-commerce industry.)alone, Tmall’s turnover on that day reached CNY 213.5 billion, and logistics orders exceeded 1 billion (Xiao, 2018). It is not difficult to conclude that the development of the express delivery business has made people’s lives more convenient and efficient. At the same time, a large amount of express packaging waste is produced every day, and this has led to the emergence of environmental problems. Owing to a lack of legal supervision, the phenomenon of excessive packaging is still common, and the amount of wastes package materials is a serious problem (Feng et al., 2016). Based on relevant information, the environmental pollution currently caused by packaging waste produced by the express delivery industry is second only to water pollution, marine lake pollution and air pollution (Wang, 2010).
College students, the most extensive and active group of online shoppers, are the main participants in the Internet era and the main producers of express packaging waste. Although the products delivered meet personal consumption needs and desires, the express packaging waste generated by online shopping also brings increasingly serious environmental pollution problems to the campus. However, most colleges and universities in China have not yet established a campus express delivery management system, and express packaging waste disposal has become an urgent problem. Therefore, investigating the status and disposal methods of campus express packaging waste in this context has become a new and important issue (Li et al., 2017; Tao et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2018). This article takes the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (GCASS) as an example to investigate and analyze the situation for campus express packaging waste and make recycling recommendations.

2 Research design

2.1 Research objects

The objects of this research include express companies, school logistics managers, and students at the school. Well-known Chinese express companies such as Shunfeng, Zhongtong, Shentong, Yuantong, and Yunda, etc. are included. The school logistics staff considered include personnel related to packaging waste management, such as dormitory administrators, cleaners, and garbage disposal personnel. Students from all grades are considered, including undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral students.

2.2 Research methods

This study uses a combination of interviews and questionnaires. The author visited eight express companies and five school logistics management workers. The interviews collected information on the number of daily express deliveries, the composition of express packaging waste materials, and the recycling of express packaging waste.
The author also used a questionnaire survey to collect information from students. The questionnaire entitled “Research on the Current Situation of Express Packaging Waste at GCASS” included eight multiple-choice questions divided into the following sections: 1) personal profile; 2) personal online shopping frequency; 3) materials used for express packaging; 4) disposal of express packaging waste by individuals and related institutions. The latter three sections were used to gather information on the number of deliveries, the classification of express packaging waste, and the recycling of packaging waste.

2.3 Data collection and analysis

The author randomly selected one day for the interviews, interviewed personnel from each express company at the south gate of the campus, and asked them about the daily express delivery volume. At the same time, the author also interviewed the school’s logistics management personnel, gathering their knowledge and experience on the questions being studied. The author also took photos of the express delivery area, dormitory areas, garbage disposal stations, and other areas as supporting evidence.
The author used Questionnaire Star2(2 Questionnaire Star is a professional online questionnaire survey, evaluation and voting platform, focusing on providing users with powerful, user-friendly online services for questionnaire design, data collection, and custom reports, etc. Its URL is to design the questionnaire and distributed questionnaires via WeChat3(3 WeChat is a free application launched by Tencent on January 21, 2011 to provide instant messaging services for smart mobile terminals. WeChat supports fast transmission of SMS, such as voice messages, videos, pictures and texts, across the network through cross-communication operators and cross-operating system platforms.). In the end, the author collected 240 questionnaires, and the ratio of doctoral, master, and undergraduate students was approximately 1:2:1, which is roughly similar to the ratio of students in GCASS programs. The data was collected on the Questionnaire Star website and analyzed using R language.

3 Research results and discussion

3.1 The daily volume of express deliveries and the amount of packaging waste collected by GCASS

The author interviewed one manager from each company, and asked them the express delivery volume on that day. The conservative estimate was 800-900 pieces every day. In addition, some respondents said that during periods of online shopping promotion activities, such as Double 11, the number of express packages delivered to GCASS per day soars to several or even ten times that of deliveries on a usual day. In this way, the number of packages should be about 1000 per day (see Table 1). According to the most recent statistics, GCASS has only 2000 students, meaning the daily average number of express deliveries has reached 50% of the total number of students. This suggests that the frequency of online shopping among GCASS students is very high, and the campus absorbs a great number of deliveries daily.
Table 1 Average number of packages daily from each express delivery company at GCASS
Company Shunfeng Zhongtong Shentong Yuantong Yunda Baish Jingdong EMS Total
Number 100+ 150+ 120+ 150+ 100 100 80+ 30+ 800+
The author conducted a statistical analysis of students’ online shopping frequency based on the questionnaire, and the results are as follows:
The online shopping frequency of GCASS students is very high. Nearly 70% of the students often purchase online, and there are no students who never buy online. This is a true reflection of the current role online shopping plays in the lives of college students. Given the high frequency of online shopping, the high daily average of express parcels received presented in Table 1 is understandable. Moreover, if the campus receives such a large number of express parcels every day, it is also inevitable that a lot of express packaging waste is generated.
Further analysis of the above data shows that the frequency of online shopping is significantly higher for female students than it is for male students. It can be seen that the proportion of female students at GCASS is higher than that of male students. Because the GCASS is a university specializing in the social sciences, rather than natural sciences, there are many more female students than male students. The ratio of male to female students included in this investigation is approximately 1:2, and this is similar to the gender structure of GCASS. Therefore, we can conclude that the number of express delivery bought by the students of GCASS is relatively high.
A look at the educational level of the students who participated in the investigation data shows that the higher the degree, the lower the frequency of online shopping, which indicates that undergraduates are the most active group of online shoppers. It is the case that the GCASS has a relatively small number of undergraduates and a relatively high number of people with advanced degrees. Consequently, we can predict that as the proportion of undergraduates rises, the average number of express delivery per person will increase.
The author also interviewed school logistics management personnel. Dormitory administrators said that there was a lot of express packaging waste every day, and cleaners claimed that even in non-living areas, a lot of express packaging waste could be found every day. Most of this waste was deposited in trash cans scattered around the campus, but some was discarded by roadsides, in gardens, or around buildings. At the garbage station at the north gate of GCASS, an employee tasked with classifying types of campus waste said that daily express packaging waste accounted for more than 30% of the total waste on campus. During times when online shopping promotion activities are underway, the amount of packaging waste increases dramatically.

3.2 Classification of packaging waste of GCASS

Based on data in the returned questionnaires, the author investigated the material composition of express packaging, and found the following:
Table 2 shows that paper packaging, plastic bags, wrapping tapes and package fillers (generally various kinds of plastic foam) are the four main materials in express packaging. Due to the high cost of paper packaging, Xu (2015) argued that express bags made of polyethylene are widely used. News Agency Xinhua (2017) reports that, in order to secure the package, large amounts of wrapping tape are also used.
Table 2 Material composition of express packaging
Option Subtotal Ratio (%)
Paper packaging 231 96.25
Plastic bag packaging 183 76.25
Wrapping tape packaging 111 46.25
Package fillers 135 56.25
Other 9 3.75
Wrapping tape and the package filler are often paired, with a correlation coefficient up to 0.54; in addition, package filler is closely related to plastic bag packaging with a correlation coefficient of 0.34. Maybe high-priced, precious products require fillers for protection (shock proofing), plastic bags (waterproofing), wrapping tape (reinforcement) and other protective measures, which taken together result in serious over-packaging and the waste of resources.
Chow et al. (2018) suggested that both plastic bags and wrapping tapes are not naturally degradable in a short time, and this represents a huge hidden danger to human health and environmental conditions. Therefore, the problem of campus waste recycling needs to be resolved quickly.

3.3 Recycling of packaging waste at GCASS

To begin, the author interviewed logistics management personnel from the school and learned that recycling efforts for campus packaging waste were not good. When talking about the recycling of express packaging, an employees at the garbage station said that only carton packaging can be taken to garbage collection sites for recycling, which is dissolved into pulp to the large printing plant, about 200 kg per day. Others are sent directly to the landfill for disposal together with kitchen waste. Most of this waste consists of non-degradable materials that cannot be easily recycled.
The author also used questionnaire responses to investigate student behaviors and attitudes towards the recycling of packaging waste, and the results were as follows:First, disposal efficiency of packaging waste is very low for GCASS students. Table 3 shows that nearly 80% of the students of GCASS directly discard express packaging waste. Only a few students pack up packaging waste or take it for further processing.
Table 3 The most common ways for GCASS students to handle express packaging waste
Option Subtotal Ratio (%)
Discard directly 188 78.33
Turn waste into treasure and put to secondary use 32 13.33
Accumulate and sell to a recycling station 14 5.83
Other 6 2.5
Table 4 shows that some students did not realize that express packaging waste causes pollution problems and never considered recycling packaging waste.
Table 4 Ideas of GCASS students regarding establishment of a recycling system
Option Subtotal Ratio (%)
Too much waste, a recycling system should be established 194 80.83
The situation is good, no need to establish a recycling system 21 8.75
Did not consider this problem 25 10.42
Women’s disposal efficiency was significantly lower than that of men, because women had less economic pressure and poor knowledge of recycling. Rambo et al. (2017) studied gender differences and found that males bear more financial responsibility in most families and have a comparative advantage over women in the natural sciences.
Moreover, disposal efficiency was also positively related to the “other” option of express packaging, and this may be connected to the particularity or reusability of other packaging. For example, if a wooden box was used as the express package, the customer rarely directly abandoned it; whereas plastic bags and paper bags were more likely to be discarded directly. This indicates that changing the packaging material or packaging design could improve recycling efficiency. Kun and Xi (2017) proposed that the problem of corrugated paperboard waste could be resolved according to the five step cushion packaging design method. Resource utilization efficiency would also improve.
Secondly, students considered express packaging waste recycling at GCASS to be imperfect. Table 4 above indicates that most of students realized that the amount of express packaging waste is large and that establishment of a recycling system is needed. With regard to the location of waste recycling sites, Table 5 shows that GCASS students proposed that dormitory areas and express delivery areas would be appropriate locations. On the other hand, dormitory areas and express delivery areas are mutually exclusive, while restaurant areas and teaching areas are shared use areas. It can be inferred that in dormitory areas and express delivery areas, separate recycling stations would need to be established to meet the needs of different types of students. However, if funds are insufficient, the school could choose either a restaurant area or a teaching area to establish a recycling station to meet this requirement.
Table 5 Ideas of GCASS students with respect to recycling sites
Option Subtotal Ratio (%)
Express delivery area 151 62.92
Canteen area 47 19.58
Dormitory area 197 82.08
Teaching area 16 6.67
Other 12 5
Thirdly, Table 6 shows that combining multiple methods is a better way to handle the recycling of packaging waste. Nearly 90% of students believed that a reasonable recycling system should be established to better handle express packaging waste. Nearly 70% favored implementation of an effective recycling incentive mechanism, and nearly 50% believed that extensive education is equally important. In addition, it can be seen that the launching of a campus recycling system is the most appropriate and feasible solution for handling express packaging waste on campus. Education and punishment usually appear in pairs, and the correlation coefficient between the two is as high as 0.44, indicating that if education and punishment are implemented together, the recovery system will work better. Song et al. (2018) suggested that education is required for promoting recycling and reuse behavior among consumers. Additionally, Boas and Hidalgo (2019) found that penalties have more significant effects on cultivating people’s good behavior than rewards.
Table 6 Express packaging waste recycling methods
Option Subtotal Ratio (%)
Establish a reasonable recycling system 211 87.92
Conduct extensive publicity and education 117 48.75
Implement an effective reward mechanism 165 68.75
Establish an appropriate punishment system 57 23.75

3.4 Cluster analysis of questionnaire samples

In order to explore the underlying relationships among questionnaire variables, and summarize the general laws revealed by the survey, the author operated a cluster analysis of the 240 responses collected.
The author used k-median clustering method (see equation (1)) with R language, and in terms of the variation of the squared error of the errors against the category numbers, it can be concluded that the optimal clustering method is 4 categories.
where ${{x}_{ij}}$ represents the value of variable j for observation i; $\overline{{{x}_{ij}}}$ stands for the mean of variable j in class k; and n and p are the numbers of observations and variables, respectively.
Given the correlation coefficients between the clustering variable and the original variables in this paper, the clustering mainly depends on three variables. These are gender, online shopping frequency and waste disposition efficiency. In light of these three variables, the population can be roughly divided into: 1) women, frequent online shopping, high waste disposition efficiency; 2) women, frequent online shopping, direct discarding waste; 3) men, frequent online shopping, high waste disposition efficiency; 4) men, not frequent online shopping, directly discarding waste.
In conformity with the above cluster analysis, the author believes that college girls are generally keen on online shopping, and their behavior generates a lot of express packaging waste. Some college girls discard waste directly, and this aggravates the campus environmental pollution problem. In comparison, the online shopping frequency and recycling efficiency of college boys are positively related, so boys have less influence on express delivery waste problems than girls. Therefore, the author suggests that olleges and universities with a large proportion of female students, such as GCASS, should pay more attention to the issue of recycling express packaging waste.
Because cluster analysis yields general rules, the results of the GCASS express packaging waste survey can be extended to other universities. For example, universities such as the China Women’s University and the University of International Business and Economics, like GCASS, have large female student populations and should strengthen the management of express packaging waste.

4 Research findings and recommendations

4.1 Main results

The interview and questionnaire information shows that the GCASS campus receives a great many express packages every day, and consequently a lot of packaging waste is generated. There are four main types of express materials: paper packaging, plastic bags, wrapping tapes and package fillers, of which paper packaging accounted for the largest proportion. Plastic bags, wrapping tapes and package fillers are not degradable, and there is a problem of over-packaging。
From interviews with logistics management personnel, the author learned that the recycling of campus packaging waste is badly run. Questionnaire responses indicate that students do not perform well in the recycling of express packaging waste. However, they do realize that the campus lacks a recycling system. In addition to a recycling system, a combination of methods, such as education, reward mechanisms, and a system of penalties, could work together to support recycling awareness.
The above cluster analysis results show that the samples investigated in this paper can be divided into four categories, roughly summarized as: 1) women, frequent online shoppers, high waste disposition efficiency; 2) women, frequent online shoppers, direct discarding of waste; 3) men, frequent online shoppers, high waste disposition efficiency; 4) men, not frequent online shoppers, direct discarding of waste. The results above allow the author to infer that colleges and universities with a large proportion of female students should pay more attention to the issue of recycling express packaging waste.

4.2 Recommendations

4.2.1 Establish a recycling system for express packaging waste on campus
The most efficient way to solve the problem of express packaging waste at GCASS is to establish a campus waste recycling system. This research indicates that in dormitory areas and the express delivery area, separate recycling stations are needed to meet the needs of different types of students. If, however, resources are limited, a single recycling station can be established in a restaurant area or teaching area to meet requirements.
Mrkajić et al. (2018) provided a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of Serbia’s packaging waste management system, and advocated working with a third-party company to improve waste recycling efficiency. The author believes that GCASS can consider using this method. The school logistics department can connect the students and a third- party company, with the packaging waste recovered from students handed over to the company for further disposition. The third-party company can use professional methods to convert the recyclable waste for reuse. In this way, with the small logistics ecosystem of the GCASS, a satisfactory cycle can be formed.
4.2.2 Advocate green packaging concepts
Most express packaging material is not easily or naturally degradable, and this represents a huge hidden danger to human health and environment. A solution to this important problem is urgently needed. This research also shows that we can improve recycling efficiency by altering the materials used for packaging. Therefore, we should advocate for green packaging and manage it at the source of waste generation.
One study (Dai, 1997) has identified appropriate packaging, now called green packaging, that can be reused, recycled or degraded, and that does not cause pollution to the human body and the environment throughout the life cycle of the product. That is to say, the packaging materials should meet the requirements of ecological environmental protection throughout their life cycle from raw material selection and packaging manufacturing to use and disposal. We should realize three aspects of green packaging: green packaging materials, green packaging design and green packaging industry.
First of all, to address the facts that express packaging materials are not environmentally friendly and that there is significant waste of packaging, the government should increase supervision and introduce a series of policies that encourage enterprises to use new environmentally-friendly packaging materials and increase the utilization rate of packaging materials. All types of packaging companies should increase R&D efforts and technology upgrades to create and use more degradable packaging materials. For example, Zhang (2016) proposed that Dangdang4(4 Dangdang is a well-known e-commerce book company in China, like Amazon.) promote the use of starch-based degradable environmentally friendly packaging bags that can save 70% of the oil energy required for traditional plastic bags used in packaging for books.
Secondly, in terms of green packaging design, the concepts of “simple, high-tech and long lasting” are encouraged (Zhang, 2003) as ways to protect the natural environment. What’s more, with respect to technology, it is important to pay attention to recyclable, reusable packaging designs, such as designs that are detachable, easy to compress, and easy to fold, making the packaging easier to transport and recycle. Designs for packaging boxes or bottles should focus on uniform formats, making the packages easier to reuse later. Students at the University of California designed a new express package that reduces the use of corrugated paper by 25% compared to conventional packaging and requires no tape to seal (China Packaging, 2014). The material can be folded and recycled within 2-3 seconds after use, providing a good example of green packaging design.
Finally, the development of the green packaging industry involves a wide range of issues, requiring the joint efforts of enterprises, governments, industry associations and consumers to take part in overall management of the entire industry chain in order to achieve better results (Liu, 2012). Schools and students, as member of the society, should also cooperate with the state, government and related industries to jointly promote the development of the green packaging industry.
4.2.3 Cultivate students’ awareness of environmental protection
The research result shows that a combination of methods is better to handle the recycling of packaging waste. The research suggests that if education and punishment are implemented together, the packaging recovery system will run circumstances is receiving environmental education the most no better. Under important factor for college students.
First of all, schools should offer relevant courses about ecological civilization construction, helping students cultivate an awareness of ecological ethics through theoretical study and gradually develop daily habits that protect the environment. Secondly, the school can cooperate with environmental protection associations and environmental protection companies to arrange lectures or training so students can learn how to effectively classify and recycle packaging waste. Önal and Kızılçaoglu (2011) conducted an experiment that brought students in a social sciences teaching program at Necatibey Education Faculty of Balıkesir University to observe a rubbish dump decomposition institution in Balıkesir city. Through observation, the environmental awareness of these students was greatly improved. Thirdly, according to the results of cluster analysis, college girls should be an important target of environmental education compared to boys. Colleges with a large proportion of female students should pay more attention to environmental protection education and should strengthen the management of express packaging waste.
All in all, schools should educate and call on college students to participate and take practical actions in the construction of the campus environment, making their own contributions to the creation of a green campus.

5 Conclusions

In summary, using questionnaires and interviews, the author analyzed the express packaging waste situation at GCASS. First of all, the campus receives large numbers of express deliveries and these generate a large amount of packaging waste. Secondly, there are four main types of express packaging materials: paper packaging, plastic bag packaging, wrapping tape and package fillers, most of which are not naturally degradable. Thirdly, students’ awareness of express waste recycling is inadequate, and the school lacks an effective recycling system. Finally, according to a cluster analysis, the survey samples can be divided into four categories. From the cluster analysis, the author further concludes that colleges and universities with a large proportion of female students should pay more attention to the issue of recycling of express packaging waste. Therefore, the results of the GCASS can be extended to other colleges and universities all over the country, and used to improve the college express packaging waste recycling.
Based on the analysis of the express packaging waste situation at GCASS presented in this paper, the author has the following suggestions: First and most important, GCASS should coordinate with a third-party provider to establish a reasonable campus waste recycling system. In addition, the author recommends a green packaging concept, that includes three aspects: green packaging materials, green packaging design and green packaging industry. Finally, schools should use various methods to strengthen students’ awareness of environmental protection. We should pay more attention to college girls who shop online frequently but have low recycling efficiency. Colleges with a large proportion of female students should take notice of the need for environmental protection education.
Boas T C, Hidalgo F D . 2019. Electoral incentives to combat mosquito-borne illnesses: Experimental evidence from Brazil. World Development, 113:89-99.

China Packaging . 2014. University of California students designed a new express package. China Packaging, (3):21. (in Chinese)

Chow C, Wong W, Chan C , et al. 2018. Converting inert plastic waste into energetic materials: A study on the light-accelerated decomposition of plastic waste with the Fenton reaction. Waste Management, 75:174-180.

Dai H . 1997. The definition and classification goal of green packaging. China Packaging, (4):28. (in Chinese)

Fan W, Xu M, Dong X , et al. 2017. Considerable environmental impact of the rapid development of China’s express delivery industry. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 126:174-176.

Feng M, Cao G, Cheng L , et al. 2016. Status and greenization of express packaging. Journal of Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, 24:22-25.

Kun G, Xi W . 2017. Design and analysis of cushioning packaging for home appliances. Procedia Engineering, 174:904-909.

Li Y, Wei Z . 2017. Analysis of the status quo of garbage and improvement measures—Taking Inner Mongolia Normal University as an example. Environment and Sustainable Development, 42(4):97-99. (in Chinese)

Liu Y . 2012. Study on the development countermeasures of green packaging industry under the background of low carbon economy. Ecology and Economy, 1:144-146, 156. (in Chinese)

Liu Y, Shuang J . 2018. Research on the status quo and management path of express packaging waste in colleges and universities — Taking Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology as an example. Environment and Development, 30(3):58-59, 87. (in Chinese)

Mrkajić V, Stanisavljevic N, Wang X , et al. 2018. Efficiency of packaging waste management in a European Union candidate country. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 136:130-141.

Önal H, Kızılçaoglu A . 2011. The contribution of cooperative learning approach to the awareness of environment in Geography. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 19:427-433.

Rambo C, Mocelin R, Marcon M , et al. 2017. Gender differences in aggression and cortisol levels in zebrafish subjected to unpredictable chronic stress. Physiology & Behavior, 171:50-54.

Song P, Zhao X Y, Cheng X Y , et al. 2018. Recycling the nanostructured carbon from waste tires, Composites Communications, 7:12-15.

State Post Bureau . 2017. 2016 Annual Express Market Regulatory Report. Beijing, 7. (in Chinese)

Tao X, Huang X, Ling Y . 2017. Research on the reverse logistics recycling model of express packaging under low carbon economy—Taking Xiasha University City as an example. Modern Business & Trade, 1:36-38. (in Chinese)

Wang C . 2010. Green express packaging for “online shopping”. China Packaging, 7:52-55. (in Chinese)

Xiao L . 2018 Tmall double eleven closed: GMV213.5 billion yuan high, Ali ecological effect is initially. . (in Chinese)

Xinhua N A . 2017. China’s express delivery industry packaging waste of up to one million tons, the total length of tape can go around equator for 425 turns. E-commerce, 3:56-57. (in Chinese)

Xu A X . 2015. Research on express packaging problems and countermeasures in online shopping. Logistics Engineering and Management, 37(6):126-128. (in Chinese)

Zhang H . 2016. Research on express packaging problems and countermeasures. Science and Technology Outlook, 5:268-269. (in Chinese)

Zhang J . 2003. On the design of green packaging art. Packaging Engineering, 6:69-71. (in Chinese)