Resource Management

The Comparative Analysis on Country Park Management between Hong Kong and Beijing

  • ZHANG Shuying , 1, 2 ,
  • LIU Jiaming , 1, 2, * ,
  • LONG Fei 1, 2
  • 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • 2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*Corresponding author: LIU Jiaming, E-mail:

First author: ZHANG Shuying, E-mail:

Received date: 2019-01-04

  Accepted date: 2019-03-20

  Online published: 2019-07-30

Supported by

China National Tourism Administration’s 10000 Travel Talent Program (WMYC20181-004).


All rights reserved


With a comparatively mature state of country park development for China, Hong Kong serves as a model that is emulated by many cities in Mainland China. In contrast, Beijing started to establish country parks relatively late, but along with the nascent “Country Park Loop”, achieving scientific and reasonable operation management is now the major challenge facing Beijing. By comparing the differences between Hong Kong and Beijing country park management in terms of positioning, management organization, legal guarantees, supporting facilities and education, this paper explores the factors of social development stage, urban developmental history and planning, the wilderness concept and financial support which are responsible for those differences. In order to achieve sustainable development, this paper shows that Beijing country parks should seek corresponding solutions according to their own characteristics.

Cite this article

ZHANG Shuying , LIU Jiaming , LONG Fei . The Comparative Analysis on Country Park Management between Hong Kong and Beijing[J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2019 , 10(4) : 451 -459 . DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.012

1 Introduction

Hong Kong was the first city in China to establish country parks. There are now 24 country parks and 22 special areas in Hong Kong, which are composed of natural landscapes such as hills or coastal areas. These country parks emphasize ecological protection and education, and cover an area of ​​443 km2 (AFCD, 2017), which is about 40% of Hong Kong’s total, with a per capita area of ​​about 60.05 m2/p. During the period of the SARS outbreak in 2003, Hong Kong citizens were restricted from leaving the city. In order to get exercise, escape from daily stress and be close to nature, many citizens chose to relax in the country parks, which made visitor numbers and the popularity of the parks increase rapidly. In 2016, the country parks received 13.29 million visitors (AFCD, 2017), which not only satisfied the entertainment needs of local residents and overseas tourists to some extent, but, more fundamentally, this high recognition also directly demonstrated the necessity of country parks in Hong Kong's fast-paced urban life. Beijing has transformed its original green space system to create a “Country Park Loop” (Yao and Tian, 2016; Zhu, 2010), which forms a series of urban green corridors, and it has become the city with the largest number of country parks in China in recent years. In 2007, Beijing launched the construction of “Country Park Loop” in the green belts. As of March 2017, 60 new parks had been built, increasing the total number of country parks in the green belts to 81, with a total area of ​​51.2 km2 (GGB, 2017). This project involves six districts of Haidian, Chaoyang, Fengtai, Shijingshan, Changping and Daxing, but it only accounts for about 0.31% of the city’s total area, and the per capita possession area is 2.47m2/p, which is only a small fraction of the corresponding area in Hong Kong that is cited above. As an essential part of the open space in the urban fringe area, the country parks show the symbiotic relationship between the city and other elements. The healthy development of country parks not only has an important impact on the ecological environment and urban planning, but it is also closely related to the daily lives of the citizens.

1.1 Definition and functions of country parks

However, there is no consensus on the definition and connotation of country parks at present, and scholars from different disciplinary backgrounds currently hold different views. In addition to good natural landscape and traffic accessibility, the UK has put forward requirements for park facilities and the management of country parks, indicating that country parks have the functions of recreation and ecological protection (Director, 2006; Zhang et al., 2013; Fang and Liang, 2014). Country parks in Hong Kong remove the threat that urban development poses to natural landscapes and the survival of flora and fauna, and provide the public with outdoor facilities in the countryside. In terms of location, Hong Kong emphasizes “staying away from the city center” and is committed to creating a scene of “urban, rural, rural and wild integration” (PD, 2017). Green space system planning of Beijing (2004-2020) defines country parks as green spaces located in the nearby suburbs of the city and outside of the built-up areas that provide urban ecological and service functions. As the ecological barriers that prevent the expansion of urban areas for construction and ensure reasonable spatial structures, country parks play a vital role in balancing urban and rural development.
From the perspective of conceptual deduction, country parks contain three major elements: regional characteristics, landscape characteristics and functional characteristics (Chen and Li, 2009), which involve six aspects: location, resources, recreational facilities, design concepts, service objects and urban functions (Zhang et al., 2013). The leading role of the government in the construction of country parks is indisputable, especially in terms of financial investment. Although the focus of the definitions of country parks varies, most of them include the following characteristics: (i) a certain distance from downtown; (ii) natural characteristics of the landscape (original or man-made); and (iii) the roles of outdoor leisure and ecological conservation. At the same time, the functions of country parks are also diverse. Besides recreation, education, greening and restraining urban sprawl as mentioned above, they also improve citizens' cultural quality (Qi et al., 2010), create economic benefits (Liu, 2005), coordinate suburban land usage (Cai, 2009), prevent and reduce disasters, and provide subjects for scientific research.

1.2 Management of country parks

Favorable management is a key element for the normal operation of a country park (Yao and Tian, 2016). However, due to the short development period of country parks in Mainland China, the current studies focus mainly on conception, planning and construction, spatial layout, and similar aspects, while most studies consider operation and management as only one aspect in the planning and development strategies.
Country parks are the centers of urban ecological protection and one of the methods for effective maintenance and management of urban green space systems (Sun et al., 2015). According to the spatial layout of country parks and cities, Zhu (2010) summarized four “Country Parks-City” models, including surrounded, networked, externally ringed and embedded, and classified the establishment of country parks in Hong Kong and Beijing as serving ecological conservation needs and spatial structure needs, respectively. Sun and Ma compared land use patterns, road traffic structures, supporting facilities, tourist carrying capacity and waste control in the country parks of Shenzhen and Hong Kong through both qualitative and quantitative aspects, and pointed out that country parks should achieve the balanced relationship between “maximum ecological protection” and “moderate construction and development” (Sun et al., 2015). While constructing a multi-finance mechanism, the country parks should also address establishing a sound legal guarantee system, improving the standardization management system, and promoting the combination of professional management and territorial management (Zhang, 2010; Yao and Tian, 2016). Fang and Liang quoted the British Country Park Assessment Manual and the Green Flag Award (Fang and Liang, 2014), which showed that institutional criteria played an important role in safeguarding service quality and served as a reference for the construction and development of country parks in China. Guan determined that talents and publicity in the process of country park management were conducive to protecting the park's legitimate interests and strengthening educational functions (Guan, 2007).
At the same time, country parks should clearly define the division of responsibilities, and strive to create a natural space with distinctive features. Recreational activities should focus on the combination of tourists and nature, enhance the visitor experience and promote product upgrades (Xu and Liu, 2009). He analyzed the problems of Beijing country parks, and offered the opinion that increasing the variety of facilities and strengthening maintenance can effectively improve the management and service levels of the parks (He, 2016). In order to protect the original ecological environment, the Hong Kong country parks have strictly controlled the activities within the parks through a licensing management system (Zhang, 2004). From the perspective of ecotourism, Ma proposed the management characteristics of the legal system, government support, ecological protection, publicity and education, and rational planning of the country parks in Hong Kong, and emphasized that parks could promote ecotourism activities while still playing important roles in recreation and conservation (Ma, 2015).
To embrace above-mentioned rationale, this study focuses on post-management of country parks. Due to different management patterns among cities, each city should comprehensively incorporate its own characteristics in order to achieve sustainable development. To accomplish this, it is necessary to gain theoretical support and guidance. Through comparison and factor analysis methods, this study aims to bridge the research gap of country park management to explore the possibility and methods for improving the quality of country parks in Beijing. Firstly, the country park management modes of Hong Kong and Beijing are compared by stating their respective development statuses and characteristics. Then the influencing factors of county park management are analyzed in detail to reflect the intrinsic relationships and determine the essential characteristics.

2 The comparison of country park management in Hong Kong and Beijing

2.1 Positioning

According to their urban forms and layout characteristics, the cities of Hong Kong and Beijing can be divided into “urban-rural-countryside-nature” and “urban-suburban-rural- wild” areas. The configurations and guiding functions of green spaces in the different geographical areas are different. Specifically, as shown in Fig. 1, the layout of green spaces in Hong Kong is relatively scattered, but the green spaces with a prominent function of ecological conservation are concentrated in the countryside; while Beijing has more different types of green spaces and adopts the development mode of conglomeration. Focusing on country parks, the ecological functions of Hong Kong country parks are more prominent than in the parks of Beijing, but they are also relatively far from the city center.
Fig. 1 Comparisons of green space types between Hong Kong and Beijing
Hong Kong endows green spaces with the role of ecological protection. Ecologically sensitive areas are classified as special areas or restricted areas to meet the needs of key conservation goals, and marine biodiversity is addressed through the establishment of marine parks and the Cape D'Aguilar marine reserve. Urban parks, animal parks and plant parks are generally located near residential areas with more artificial facilities. In addition, sites of special scientific interest, such as nature reserves, marine reserves and green belts, have their planning intentions indicated in the statutory plans of Hong Kong, allowing different levels of human activities, and this represents an administrative measure. As the largest type of green spaces, country parks often undertake the functions of the other types, combining natural conservation and recreational destinations, perfecting the division and composition of the green space system, and playing an indispensable role in residents’ lives.
Beijing has divided its urban green spaces into 11 interlaced and complementary functional types, and has established an ecological protection system dominated by mountain forests, plain forests and downtown green spaces. It is worth mentioning that ecological barriers, ecological corridors, wind-sand control areas and a greening system around the city are connected and form a large network, which is an important part of protecting ecological security, resisting wind-sand, conserving soil and water, and beautifying the environment. As the main greening areas, national parks, nature reserves, forest parks, wetlands, historical parks and surrounding protected green spaces provide recreational facilities and strengthen the protection of natural resources and human resources in the region. Beijing’s country parks also combine urban ecology and service functions, but in terms of natural attributes and comprehensive utility, they are more similar to urban parks.

2.2 Management organization

The administrative system in Hong Kong is sound and the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) is responsible for managing the country parks (Fig. 2). The administration bureau consists of two divisions, namely, the management division and the ranger services division, which are responsible for administrative coordination and field maintenance, respectively. As a statutory advisory body, the country and marine parks board makes recommendations to the director on matters relating to country parks. Hong Kong has implemented a strict permit system for selling goods, constructing buildings and performing other activities (AFCD, 2017), which not only regulates the behavior of visitors, but also facilitates the parks’ daily management.
Fig. 1 Comparisons of green space types between Hong Kong and Beijing
Fig. 2 Management framework of country parks in Hong Kong
Country parks in Beijing have separate pre-construction and post-management systems (Fig. 3). The construction of the Country Park Loop is subject to the government’s system of responsibility. The district governments are the main bodies of responsibility, and the relevant departments cooperate closely and perform the duties of supervision and inspection. The municipal gardening and greening bureau sets up the plain greening division that is responsible for formulating the management measures and planning for the greening and afforestation of isolated areas and green belts. After the completion of the park, a park management and protection mechanism is established with the district and township governments as the main responsible parties and landscapers as the main body. In general, district governments may appoint other departments to either administer or set up temporary country park management agencies.
Fig. 3 Management framework of country parks in Beijing

2.3 Legal guarantee

In terms of the legal system, Hong Kong promulgated the Country Parks Ordinance in 1976, which serves as the legal safeguard and implementation guide, and clearly outlines the designation and management of country parks and special areas. Since then, in order to standardize the management of the countryside, a series of relevant laws and regulations, such as Marine Parks Ordinance, Protection of Endangered Species of Animals and Plants Ordinance, Town Planning Ordinance and others, have been passed in succession and now form the legal force for the Country Parks Ordinance (Fig. 4). Therefore, the jurisdiction and facility requirements of different green space types are clearly defined, which promotes the harmonious and unified functioning of the green space system.
Fig. 4 Horizontal complementary relationship of country park regulations adopted by Hong Kong
Although corresponding policies to regulate and manage different types of green space resources in Beijing exist, special laws or regulations on country parks have not been issued. The Green Space System Planning of Beijing (2004- 2020) and the Overall Planning of Parks Loop in the Green Belts in Beijing have determined the connotation, functions and classification of the country parks. The Guidance for the Construction of Country Parks Loop in the Green Belts issued in 2007, and the Notice for Country Parks Management and Maintenance issued in early 2017, further specify the management mechanism of the parks. Therefore, it can be seen that Beijing’s legal system for country parks is vertically progressive and has a nested relationship layer-by- layer (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5 Vertical progressive relationship of country park regulations adopted by Beijing

2.4 Supporting facilities

The facilities of country parks in Hong Kong and Beijing generally cover the categories listed in Table 1. In Hong Kong, sites that are dense with facilities are often used as the starting or ending points of visiting trails, while park entrances are usually combined with parking lots, visitor centers and pavilions. The combined distribution pattern concentrates the activity areas, not only providing convenience for tourists, but also facilitating park management. However, it is also a major challenge for evacuating people and avoiding excessive congestion. The facilities in the parks highlight the original wilderness culture, mostly by using wood materials, integrating with the surrounding landscapes in shape, being close to the natural environment in style, paying attention to practical usage, and advocating energy conservation and environmental protection. By restoring, or trying to restore, the inherent features of nature, in addition to allowing visitors to experience the natural wilderness, Hong Kong fully demonstrates the multi-dimensional wilderness values, including scientific value, economic value, aesthetic value, diversity and identity value.
Table 1 Categories of country park facilities
Category Examples in Hong Kong Examples in Beijing
Guided facilities Road signs, warning signs, guidebooks Road signs, warning signs, guidebooks
Educational facilities Interpretation boards, visitor centers, guided tours, publications Interpretation boards, visitor centers
Recreational facilities Fitness equipment, barbecue area, camping area, golf course, kite area Fitness equipment, basketball court, badminton court, table tennis court, car camping, fishing area, children's game area
Traffic facilities Traffic outside the park, country trails (country trails, family trails, cycle trails, jogging trails, tree trails, etc.), car parks Traffic outside the park, parking lot, cruise ship, bicycle health road, natural education classics, tree research path
Supporting facilities Rest facilities (desks, chairs, pavilions, etc.), sanitary facilities (toilets, etc.) and safety facilities (emergency telephone booth, safety management station, etc.) Rest facilities (desks, chairs, gazebo, etc.), health facilities (toilets, garbage cans, etc.) and safety facilities (safety management station, etc.)
Barrier-free facilities Barrier-free toilets, blind trails, braille maps Theme park for the disabled
In contrast, the facilities distribution of country parks in Beijing are scattered along the roadsides with a low degree of aggregation. In addition, artificial facilities like paths, street lamps, garbage cans, and others, are added to enhance the accessibility of the original forest areas (Zhu, 2010). Educational and barrier-free facilities, however, have not received enough attention, which makes it more difficult to carry out education activities and field activities, and limits their use by people with disabilities. At present, the contradiction between the supply and demand of supporting facilities is relatively prominent. In some cases, toilets cannot even be used in winter, which is extremely inconvenient for tourists. In addition, the underrepresentation of wilderness culture and values in Beijing’s country parks may be confined by geographical conditions and natural resources.

2.5 Education

Hong Kong advocates the combination of natural conservation and education, and Beijing regards “the publicity and display of science, education and culture” as an important indicator for park grade assessment (GGB, 2017), indicating that the two cities still attach great importance to public education in their country parks. Fig. 6 shows the ways of providing education in country parks.
Fig. 6 Major types and contents of education activities in country parks
In daily operation, Hong Kong not only prints various publicity publications and places them in the visitor centers, but also releases a great deal of popular science information through the official website of AFCD, such as species introductions, geological knowledge, conservation policies, and natural conservation activities, so that the public can have first-hand materials at any time. Besides the visitor centers of Ngong Ping, Shing Mun, and Tai Mo Shan, the natural education centers dedicated to lions and forest biodiversity have different themes of natural education, field studies and natural guided tours for different groups of people. For example, Ngong Ping only provides public guided tours, but the four others provide different activities for different levels of students. Tourists can directly fill in the application forms online to book this service. In 2016, more than 350, 000 people participated in various natural conservation and education activities in the country parks (AFCD, 2017).
There have been a large number of related news reports on country parks since the early stages of construction in Beijing. By emphasizing their ecological positioning and functions, they have gained a high popularity among the public. However, the official website of the municipal gardening and greening bureau only includes overviews of 49 of the country parks. The content is too simple to show the unique charm and ecological importance of the country parks, and the planning and promotion of corresponding knowledge publications are inadequate. Secondly, educational activities on the forests and wildlife (such as summer camps, plant photo contests, etc.) are mainly concentrated in the forest parks and wetland parks. The functions of sightseeing and entertainment in the country parks are given priority over education. Therefore, relevant science activities are insufficient or just limited to introducing species and historic sites, which leads to low visitor participation and interactivity. For example, the Ancient Pagoda Park with the pagoda of ten Buddha from the Ming dynasty provides a place for tourists to understand the architectural style and Buddhist culture, but fails to adequately explore its cultural connotation and create unique scientific and educational activities.

3 Discussion

With the construction of the “Country Parks Loop”, country parks have undoubtedly become a necessary option for maintaining the ecological environment in Beijing, as well as important places for residents' exercise, recreation and education. Nowadays, many parks have been completed and opened, but the results are not satisfactory. In comparison with the outstanding achievements of Hong Kong, except for the availability of resources, the differences between Hong Kong and Beijing are caused by multiple factors. According to Hong Kong’s experience, Beijing needs to adjust its management solutions to promote the process of sustainable development (Fig. 7).
Fig. 7 Comparison of influencing factors and countermeasures of country parks between Hong Kong and Beijing
Specifically, the differences in the status quo of the country parks in the two cities are mainly caused by four factors: the stage of social development, the history and planning of urban development, the wilderness concept, and financial support.
(1) Stage of social development. Hong Kong has a relatively high level of economic development, and pays more attention to the ecological environment. The country park system was introduced into Hong Kong back in the 1970s. A good socio-economic foundation provides a solid material foundation for the development of Hong Kong’s country parks. However, the economic development level of Beijing is lower than that of Hong Kong, and the ecological protection work lags behind the social development level. The urban green space represented by country parks has not received enough attention in Beijing. As a result, Hong Kong has established a fixed management system that is well equipped, whereas Beijing is still in the construction period with rapid development and inevitable problems. Because of the symbiotic relationship between country parks and the whole city, the healthy development of Beijing country parks not only has an important impact on the ecological environment and urban planning, but it is also closely related to the daily life of citizens.
(2) History and planning of urban development. Hong Kong has long been committed to the development of livable and intensive cities. Based on the full protection of green spaces, Hong Kong strives to maximize land use efficiency. Therefore, Hong Kong strictly abides by the relevant management policies on the designation and management of country parks. Moreover, in order to improve accessibility, country parks have deeply penetrated the urban layout. Although the construction of ecological civilization is an inevitable requirement for accelerating the transformation of Beijing into a harmonious and livable capital among world-class cities, the construction of country parks has not played a significant role due to the relatively short construction time and weak supervision. In addition, the country parks of Beijing are mostly located on the periphery of the city and form a ring in spatial layout, which endows them with the function of limiting urban sprawl by physically providing the framework and division of geographical space.
(3) Wilderness concept. The natural landscape of Hong Kong has a congenital development advantage. With rolling hills as the backbone and rich water bodies and lush vegetation as supplements, Hong Kong constitutes a unique and changeable landscape resource (Guan, 2007). Furthermore, country parks are green resources that are assessed only after repeated reviews, so that they are full of natural landscapes, cultural landscapes and biological landscapes with outstanding recreational value, conservation value and educational value. Through the integration of their original resources, Hong Kong’s country parks create a pure natural wilderness space for tourists, allowing them to experience the fun of the wilderness and natural charm. In order to encourage citizens to develop good visiting habits, all dustbins in the country park paths were removed in 2017 (AFCD, 2017). However, Beijing lacks a variety of natural beaches and forests, which limits the wild authenticity of its outdoor activities. Although most country parks in Beijing are located at the junction of urban and rural areas, the surrounding areas are mostly urbanized, and residents have a greater demand for outdoor leisure. Therefore, the facilities of country parks should be designed to serve the residents, although this encourages artificial planting and construction to be used in the construction of country parks and results in too many unnatural features.
(4) Financial support. Because of the characteristics of strong public welfare, the operating capitals of country parks in both Hong Kong and Beijing are mainly from the government. The difference is that the Beijing municipal government and the district government share all the costs at a ratio of 7: 3; while in Hong Kong, in addition to the government, social organizations like Friends of Country Parks Association also raise a great deal of funds to support the country parks. The construction and maintenance of country parks bring great financial pressure to the Beijing government, so exploring the best way to broaden the source of funds has become a key factor affecting the sustainable development of the country parks. However, due to the imbalance between the supply and demand of urban public green space, the land prices around the country parks have increased, resulting in "value spillover". Therefore, the government can collect appropriate special fees for real estate, tourism and other industries through taxes as a way to maintain the parks.
Admittedly, the primary task for Beijing is to figure out its own best features and create a suitable approach for sustainable development based on the successful experiences of Hong Kong. To do so, the following five issues should be addressed.
(1) The ecological functions of country parks in Beijing are generally not prominent, and are further obscured by the additional functions of restraining urban expansion, coordinating urban-rural relations, and preventing disasters and risks. As a result, the functions are similar to those of urban parks, and because of their locations at the borders between urban and rural areas, it is particularly important to balance the interests of all stakeholders for stable development. Compared with the lesser human intervention in Hong Kong, Beijing should strengthen regional management, carefully select facilities in the country parks, create suitable artificial landscapes, and enhance the dependence of tourists. Besides summarizing tourists’ sightseeing preferences and habits, Beijing should also address guiding tourists’ behaviors and protecting the ecological resources in the park.
(2) AFCD is fully responsible for the operation of country parks in Hong Kong, which is beneficial for centralized and overall planning. However, the separation of Beijing's planning and construction from management and protection leads to the problem of inconsistent standards in the implementation process and affects the continuity of management strategies. Therefore, for the development of country parks it is necessary to clarify the responsibilities of management agencies and reduce, or even eliminate, the phenomenon of multiple-management.
(3) The laws relevant to Beijing’s country parks present a nested relationship layer-by- layer, and lack the support of special laws and regulations, resulting in the lack of legal protection for many problems that arise in the actual construction. Therefore, promoting the establishment of special regulations and integrating the planning, construction and management of country parks into the legal system can provide the necessary support for future development.
(4) In terms of facilities, Beijing should strengthen the construction of educational facilities and barrier-free facilities, take into account different levels of tourists and needs, enrich park activities, and provide tourists and residents with a good environment for entertainment options, such as the addition of fitness equipment, jogging trails, and barbecue venues. Under the realistic conditions that the natural landscape lacks the appropriate characteristics, Beijing country parks cannot highlight the “wild” very well. So creating a place more in line with the needs of tourists is the key issue to be addressed by Beijing. At the same time, Beijing should not blindly follow Hong Kong by creating pure natural ecotourism, but it should combine the functions of urban parks, make appropriate transformations of some country parks, increase their entertainment properties and public facility configurations, strengthen supervision and inspection, and promote the transition from wild interests to convenient leisure activities.
(5) For the country parks with outstanding recreational value, Beijing should make efforts to explore cultural connotations and create the preferred places for citizens to relax and be entertained. By defining the thematic features, expanding the participation mode of tourists, and consciously improving tourists' experience, the purpose of enhancing tourists' satisfaction and ensuring the quality of the park can be achieved. In addition to increasing cultural value, Beijing also should actively establish or improve the official public website, the official WeChat account, and other online advertising platforms, and also establish visitor centers and organize guided tours and educational activities, paying special attention to the cooperation with schools and communities, in order to impart the concept of natural conservation to the public.

4 Conclusions

Basically, the country park management in Hong Kong and Beijing represent two stages: Hong Kong has formed fixed management system so that during mature period; Beijing, on the other hand, is in the rapid construction period although faces many problems. Among above analysis results, there exist several differences on Hong Kong and Beijing country park management relating to positioning, management organization, legal guarantee, supporting facilities and education. Then this study found that these differences result from following main factors, namely stage of social development, history and planning of urban development, wildness concept and financial support. According to experience of Hong Kong, Beijing should balance the benefits of different stakeholders, clarify the responsibilities of management agencies, promote the establishment of special regulations and laws, enrich the variety of facilities and recreational activities, explore cultural connotation and organize educational activities in the future development of country park. This study only compares country park management in Hong Kong and Beijing, it is necessary to consider more management modes in different countries or regions to formulate more scientific and reasonable policies and measurements for Beijing country park.
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