Temporal Variations in Growth and Aboveground Biomass of Phragmites australis and EVI Analysis in Jiaozhou Bay Coastal Salt Marshes, China

  • College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, China

Received date: 2017-05-20

  Revised date: 2017-09-26

  Online published: 2017-11-30

Supported by

National Natural Science Foundation of China (41771098); Shandong Natural Science Foundation (ZR2014DQ028; ZR2015DM004)


To better ascertain leaf, stem and flower traits, and analyze aboveground allocation during the vegetation period, three sampling vegetation transects were settled and reed samples were collected at intervals to determine morphological parameters and dry and wet weights in Jiaozhou Bay wetland. Remote sensing data were also combined to evaluate regional biomass through EVI regression models. Results show that growth dynamics of leaves and stems changed during the vegetation period. Stem length increased rapidly and peaked in September (194.40 ± 23.89 cm), whereas leaf width peaked in July. There was a significantly negative correlation between stem length and stem diameter with a value of -0.785. Stem biomass was higher than that of leaves, and the maximum value of aboveground biomass was 27.17 ± 3.56 g. F/C exhibited a tendency to increase and values ranged from 0.37-0.76. The aboveground biomass of sample plots reached a peak of 2356 ± 457 g/m2 in September. EVI was 0.05-0.5; EVI and biomass had a better fitting effect using the power-exponent model compared with other models and its function was y = 4219.30 x0.88 (R2 = 0.7810). R2 of the other three models ranked as linear function > polynomial function > exponent function, with the values being 0.7769, 0.7623 and 0.6963, respectively. EVI can be used to estimate vegetation biomass, and effectively solved the problems of the destructive effect to sample plots resulting from traditional harvest methods.

Cite this article

XI Min, KONG Fanlong, LI Yue . Temporal Variations in Growth and Aboveground Biomass of Phragmites australis and EVI Analysis in Jiaozhou Bay Coastal Salt Marshes, China[J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2017 , 8(6) : 641 -647 . DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.011


1 Bonanno G, Lo Giudice R, 2010. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by the organs of Phragmites australis (common reed) and their potential use as contamination indicators. Ecological Indicators , 10(3): 639-645.
2 Bonanno G, Pavone P, 2015. Leaves of Phragmites australis as potential atmospheric biomonitors of Platinum Group Elements. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , 114: 31-37.
3 Brix H, Ye S, Laws EA et al ., 2014. Large-scale management of common reed, Phragmites australis , for paper production: A case study from the Liaohe Delta, China. Ecological Engineering , 73: 760-769.
4 Clevering OA, Brix H, Lukavska J, 2001. Geographic variation in growth responses in Phragmites australis . Aquatic Botany , 69(2-4): 89-108.
5 Coops H, van den Brink FWB, van der Velde G, 1996. Growth and morphological responses of four helophyte species in an experimental water-depth gradient. Aquatic Botany , 54(1): 11-24.
6 Duan X, Wang X, Ouyang Z et al ., 2004. The biomass of Phragmites australis and its influencing factors in WuLiangSuHai. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica , 28(2): 246-251. (in Chinese).
7 Engloner AI, 2004. Annual growth dynamics and morphological differences of reed ( Phragmites australis [Cav.] Trin. ex Steudel) in relation to water supply. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants , 199(3): 256-262.
8 Engloner AI, 2009. Structure, growth dynamics and biomass of reed ( Phragmites australis ) - A review. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants , 204(5): 331-346.
9 Feng Z, Zhang X, 2008. The environmental interpretation for the space change of the reed biomass in the Yellow River delta. Research of Soil and Water Conservation , 15(3): 170-174. (in Chinese).
10 Fogli S, Marchesini R, Gerdol R, 2002. Reed ( Phragmites australis ) decline in a brackish wetland in Italy. Marine Environmental Research , 53(5), 465-479.
11 Ho YB, 1979. Shoot development and production studies of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.ex Steudel in Scottish Lochs. Hydrobiologia , 64(3): 215-222.
12 Kastratovic V, Krivokapic S, Djurovic D et al .,2013. Seasonal changes in metal accumulation and distribution in the organs of Phragmites australis (common reed) from Lake Skadar, Montenegro. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 78(8): 1241-1258.
13 Lai W, Wang Y, Peng C et al , 2010. Growth characteristics of four species in surface-flow constructed wetlands. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany , 18(3): 238-244. (in Chinese).
14 Li H, Shao J, Qiu S et al ., 2013. Native Phragmites dieback reduced its dominance in the salt marshes invaded by exotic Spartina in the Yangtze River estuary, China. Ecological Engineering , 57: 236-241.
15 Li LP, Han WX, Thevs N et al ., 2014. A Comparison of the Functional Traits of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in Northern China: Aquatic vs. Terrestrial Ecotypes. PLOS ONE , 9(2): 1-7.
16 Lippert I, Rolletsche H, Kühl H et al ., 1999. Internal and external nutrient cycles in stands of Phragmites australis —a model for two ecotypes. Hydrobiologia , 408-409: 343-348.
17 Liu X, Yang Y, 2012. Allometry analysis of reproductive ramets of Phragmites australis populations from different habitats in the Songnen Plain of China. Acta Prataculturae Sinica , 21(4): 313-318. (in Chinese).
18 Nada RM, Khedr AHA, Serag MS et al ., 2015. Growth, photosynthesis and stress-inducible genes of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel from different habitats. Aquatic Botany , 124: 54-62.
19 Peng Y, Xu W, Bao W et al ., 2008. Aboveground biomass allocation and growth of Phragmites australis ramets at four water depths in the Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, China. Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology , 14(2): 153-157. (in Chinese).
20 Poorter H, Niklas KJ, Reich PB et al ., 2012. Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytologist , 193(1): 30-50.
21 Ritterbusch D, 2007. Growth patterns of reed ( Phragmites australis ): the development of reed stands in carp ponds. Aquaculture International , 15(3-4): 191-199.
22 Rolletschek H, Rolletschek A, Kühl H et al ., 1999. Clone specific differences in a Phragmites australis stand: II. Seasonal development of morphological and physiological characteristics at the natural site and after transplantation. Aquatic Botany , 64(3): 247-260.
23 Rollleschek H, Hartzendorf T, 2000. Effects of salinity and convective rhizome ventilation on amino acid and carbohydrate patterns of Phragmites australis population in the Neusiedler See region of Austria and Hungary. New Phyol , 146(1): 95-105.
24 Shao C, Chen Z, 1995. A study on the growth and biomass of Phragmites communis in Liaohe estuary wetland. Journal of Liaoning University: Natural Science Edition , 22(1): 89-94. (in Chinese).
25 Sjöström M, Ardö J, Arneth A et al ., 2011. Exploring the potential of MODIS EVI for modeling gross primary production across African ecosystems. Remote Sensing of Environment , 115(4): 1081-1089.
26 Son NT, Chen CF, Chen CR et al ., 2014. A comparative analysis of multitemporal MODIS EVI and NDVI data for large-scale rice yield estimation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology , 197: 52-64.
27 Tursun N, Seyithanoglu M., Uygur FN et al ., 2011. Seasonal dynamics of soluble carbohydrates in rhizomes of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants , 206(8):731-735.
28 Wang C, Liang S, Li Y et al ., 2015. The spatial distribution of dissolved and particulate heavy metals and their response to land-based inputs and tides in a semi-enclosed industrial embayment: Jiaozhou Bay, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 22(14): 10480-10495.
29 Yang YH, Fang JY, Pan YD et al ., 2009. Aboveground biomass in Tibetan grasslands. Journal of Arid Environments , 73(1): 91-95.
30 Yang Y, Li J, 2003. Biomass allocation and growth analysis on the ramets of Phragmites communis populations in different habitats in the Songnen Plains of China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology , 14(1): 30-34. (in Chinese).
31 Yang W, Lang Y, Li G, 2014. Concentration, Source, and Carcinogenic Risk of PAHs in the Soils from Jiaozhou Bay Wetland. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds , 34(4): 439-451.
32 Zhang J, Feng L, Yao F, 2014. Improved maize cultivated area estimation over a large scale combining MODIS-EVI time series data and crop phenological information. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing , 94: 102-113.
33 Zhang J, Zhang H, Lu J, 2013. Comparisons of monthly biomass dynamics between aboveground and belowground parts of Phragmites australis in freshwater tidal flat in Yangtze estuary. Wetland Science , 11(1): 7-12. (in Chinese).
34 Zhang Y, 2012. A preliminary study on the characteristics of wetland communities and populations of Phragmites australis in Yinchuan plain[D]. Ningxia, Ningxia University. (in Chinese).