Spatial Patterns of Forest Ecosystem Services and Influencing Factors in the Ganjiang River Basin

  • 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China;
    4. National Marine Data and Information Service Center, Tianjin, 300171, China;
    5. Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, 050022, China

Received date: 2016-05-10

  Revised date: 2016-09-05

  Online published: 2016-11-15

Supported by

the National Basic Research Program of China (2015CB452702); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571098, 41371196 and 41530749); the National Key Technology R&D Program (2013BAC03B04)


As the major component of terrestrial ecosystems, forests play an irreplaceable role in providing ecosystem services and products (e.g. biodiversity, carbon sequestration, water yield and timber). Spatially quantifying ecosystem services and interactions will shed light on sustainable forest management. Main forest ecosystem services including carbon storage, water yield, soil retention and wood volume in the Ganjiang River Basin (GRB) were evaluated and mapped through the integrated use of InVEST3.1.0, CASA modeling and ArcGIS10.2, and relationships between forest ecosystem services and natural or social-economic factors were quantified and discussed based on ArcGIS10.2 and SPSS19.0. Results showed that the spatial pattern of the four ecosystem services is heterogeneous. Forests dominated by broad-leaved forest and bamboo forest in mountainous regions around the GRB provided the largest carbon storage and wood volume services, while forests dominated by Masson pine plantations or Chinese fir plantations in the northeast provided the largest water yield service. The spatial pattern of the soil retention service is more discrete than others, and forests in the southwestern regions showed larger soil erosion modulus than in the northeastern regions. Ecosystem services are closely related to the environmental process and human activities. With altitude or slope increases, the carbon storage and wood volume of forests increased and water yield depth and soil retention decreased. When the regional total population decreased or GDP per capita increased, carbon storage and wood volume increased. Further research into the interactions between environmental factors and ecosystem services is needed in order to understand environmental constraints when dealing with ecological problems.

Cite this article

WANG Xiaoli, DAI Erfu, ZHU Jianjia . Spatial Patterns of Forest Ecosystem Services and Influencing Factors in the Ganjiang River Basin[J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2016 , 7(6) : 439 -452 . DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.06.004


1 Bagstad K J, D J Semmens, S Waage, et al. 2013. A comparative assessment of decision-support tools for ecosystem services quantification and valuation. Ecosystem Services , 5: 27-39.
2 Bai Y, H Zheng, Z Ouyang, et al. 2013. Modeling hydrological ecosystem services and tradeoffs: a case study in Baiyangdian watershed, China . Environmental Earth Sciences , 70(2): 709-718.
3 Bai Y, C Zhuang, Z Ouyang, et al. 2011. Spatial characteristics between biodiversity and ecosystem services in a human-dominated watershed. Ecological Complexity , 8(2): 177-183.
4 Balthazar V, V Vanacker, A Molina, et al. 2015. Impacts of forest cover change on ecosystem services in high Andean mountains. Ecological Indicators , 48: 63-75.
5 Bennett E M, P Balvanera. 2007. The future of production systems in a globalized world. Frontiers in ecology and the environment , 5(4): 191- 198.
6 Budyko M I. 1974. Climate and life. New York: Academic Press, 1-510.
7 Cademus R, F J Escobedo, D McLaughlin, et al. 2014. Analyzing Trade-Offs, Synergies, and Drivers among Timber Production, Carbon Sequestration, and Water Yield in Pinus elliotii Forests in Southeastern USA. Forests , 5(6): 1409-1431.
8 Calvino-Cancela M, M Eugenia Lopez de Silanes, M Rubido-Bara, et al. 2013. The potential role of tree plantations in providing habitat for lichen epiphytes. Forest Ecology and Management , 291: 386-395.
9 China Paper Association. 2010. Almanac of China paper industry. Beijing: China Light Industry Press, 1-814. (in Chinese)
10 Chisholm R A. 2010. Trade-offs between ecosystem services: water and carbon in a biodiversity hotspot. Ecological Economics , 69(10): 1973- 1987.
11 Costanza R, R dArge, R de Groot, et al. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature , 387(6630): 253-260.
12 Daily G C. 1997. Nature’s services: societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Washington DC: Island Press, 1-412.
13 Deal R L, P Hennon, R O’Hanlon, et al. 2014. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services. Forestry , 87: 193-208.
14 Egoh B N, B Reyers, M Rouget, et al. 2011. Identifying priority areas for ecosystem service management in South African grasslands. Journal of Environmental Management , 92(6): 1642-1650.
15 Egoh B N, B Reyers, M Rouget, et al. 2009. Spatial congruence between biodiversity and ecosystem services in South Africa. Biological Conservation , 142(3): 553-562.
16 Fang J Y, G H Liu, S L Xu. 1996. Biomass and net production of forest vegetation in China. Acta Ecologica Sinica , 16(5): 497-508. (in Chinese)
17 Farley K A. 2007. Grasslands to tree plantations: Forest transition in the Andes of Ecuador. Annals of the Association of American Geographers , 97: 755-771.
18 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2010. Global forest resources assessment 2010 main report. docrep/013/i1757e.
19 Ge M L, Z M Feng. 2009. Population Distribution of China Based on GIS: Classification of Population Densities and Curve of Population Gravity Centers. Acta Geographica Sinica , 64(2): 202-210. (in Chinese)
20 Grasso M. 1998. Ecological-economic model for optimal mangrove trade off between forestry and fishery production: comparing a dynamic optimization and a simulation model. Ecological modelling , 112(2-3): 131-150.
21 Hanowski J M, G J Niemi, D C Christian. 1997. Influence of within-plantation heterogeneity and surrounding landscape composition on avian communities in hybrid poplar plantations. Conservation Biology , 11: 936-944.
22 Johnson G W, K J Bagstad, R R Snapp, et al. 2012. Service Path Attribution Networks (SPANs). International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems , 3(2): 54-71.
23 Kanowski J, C P Catterall, G W Wardell-Johnson. 2005. Consequences of broadscale timber plantations for biodiversity in cleared rainforest landscapes of tropical and subtropical Australia. Forest Ecology and Management , 208: 359-372.
24 Lamb D. 1998. Large-scale ecological restoration of degraded tropical forest lands: The potential role of timber plantations. Restoration Ecology , 6: 271-279.
25 Lautenbach S, M Volk, M Strauch, et al. 2013. Optimization-based trade- off analysis of biodiesel crop production for managing an agricultural catchment. Environmental Modelling & Software , 48: 98-112.
26 Li J, Q Q Shao, J Y Liu. 2012. Characteristics of spatio-temporal dynamic changes of the carbon storage of forest vegetation in Xingguo county. Journal of Northwest Forestry University . 27(2): 163-168+74. (in Chinese)
27 Li T, k Liu, S Hu, et al. 2014. Soil erosion and ecological benefit evaluations of Qinling mountains based on the InVEST model. Resources and environment in the Yangtze basin , 23(9): 1242-1250. (in Chinese)
28 Lin Y. 1986. Forests in Jiangxi Province, China. Nanchang: Chinese Forestry Press, 1-951. (in Chinese)
29 Lindemann-Matthies P, D Keller, X F Li, et al. 2014. Attitudes toward forest diversity and forest ecosystem services-a cross-cultural comparison between China and Switzerland. Journal of Plant Ecology , 7(1): 1-9.
30 Liu X M, R C Bu, H W Deng, et al. 2011. Estimation and spatial pattern analysis of forest biomass in Fenglin Nature Reserve based on geostatistics. Acta Ecologica l Sinica , 31(16): 4783-4790. (in Chinese)
31 Locatelli B, Imbach P, Wunder S. 2014. Synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem services in Costa Rica. Environmental Conservation , 41(1): 27-36.
32 Lu N, B J Fu, T Jin, R Chang. 2014. Trade-off analyses of multiple ecosystem services by plantations along a precipitation gradient across Loess Plateau landscapes. Landscape Ecology , 29: 1697-1708.
33 Meehan T D, C Gratton, E Diehl, et al. 2013. Ecosystem-Service Tradeoffs Associated with Switching from Annual to Perennial Energy Crops in Riparian Zones of the US Midwest. Plos One , 8(11): 1-13.
34 Mitchell M G E, E M Bennett, A Gonzalez. 2014. Forest fragments modulate the provision of multiple ecosystem services. Journal of Applied Ecology , 51(4): 909-918.
35 National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2010. China Statistical Yearbook 2010. Beijing: China statistics press, 1-1034. (in Chinese)
36 Onaindia M, B Fernández de Manuel, I Madariaga, et al. 2013. Co-benefits and trade-offs between biodiversity, carbon storage and water flow regulation. Forest Ecology and Management , 289: 1-9.
37 Ouyang Z Y, R S Wang, J Z Zhao. 1999. Ecosystem services and their economic valuation. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 10(5): 635- 640. (in Chinese)
38 Pan T, S H Wu, E F Dai, Y J Liu. 2013. Spatiotemporal variation of water source supply service in Three Rivers Source Area of China based on InVEST model. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology , 24(1): 183-189. (in Chinese)
39 Pergams O R, P A Zaradic. 2008. Evidence for a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 105(7): 2295- 2300.
40 Potter C S, J Randerson, C B Field, et al . 1993. Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data. Global Biogeochemical Cycle , 7(4): 811-841.
41 Richard S, C K Rebecca, W Spencer, et al. 2014. InVEST 3.1.0 beta user’s guide. The Natural Capital Project , 71-155.
42 Sa nchez-Canales M, A Lopez-Benito, V Acuna, et al. 2015. Sensitivity analysis of a sediment dynamics model applied in a Mediterranean river basin: Global change and management implications. Science of the Total Environment , 502: 602-610.
43 Schmerbeck J, Fiener P. 2015. Wildfires, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity in Tropical Dry Forest in India. Environmental Management , 56(2): 355-372.
44 Sheng W T. 2014. Plantation forest and their silvicature systems in China. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House.
45 Tadesse G, Zavaleta E, Shennan C, et al. 2014. Prospects for forest-based ecosystem services in forest-coffee mosaics as forest loss continues in southwestern Ethiopia. Applied Geography , 50: 144-151.
46 Tallis H, P Kareiva, M Marvier, et al. 2008. An ecosystem services framework to support both practical conservation and economic development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 105(28): 9457-9464.
47 Tilman D, K G Cassman, P A Matson, et al. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature , 418(6898): 671-677.
48 Turner K G, M V Odgaard, P K Bocher, et al. 2014. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark: Trade-offs and synergies in a cultural landscape. Landscape and Urban Planning , 125(SI): 89-104.
49 Van Wilgen B W, D M Richardson. 2014. Challenges and trade-offs in the management of invasive alien trees. Biological Invasions . 16: 721-734.
50 Vihervaara P, M Kamppinen, T Kumpula, et al. 2013. Biodiversity trade- offs and globalizing forestry. Forest Policy and Economics , 26: 147-148.
51 Wang B, W J Wei. 2007. Carbon Storage and Density of Forests in Jiangxi Province. Jiangxi Science , 25(6): 681-687. (in Chinese)
52 Wang X L, G Fan. 2004. Analysis on the Regional Disparity in China and the Influential Factors. Economic Research Journal , (1): 33-44. (in Chinese)
53 Wei W J, B Wang, H Guo. 2008. Forest Carbon Sink of Jiangxi Province Based on Forest Resource Inventory Data. Meteorology and Disaster Reduction Research , 31(4): 18-23. (in Chinese)
54 Wu D, Q Q Shao, J Y Liu. 2011. Spatio-temporal dynamics of forest carbon storage in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1985-2030. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology , 22(1): 41-46. (in Chinese)
55 Xie G W. 1992. Research on current situation, problems and Countermeasures of forest resources in Jiangxi, China. Forest Resources Management , (4): 11-16. (in Chinese)
56 Zeng W S. 2012. Analysis on biomass conversion factors of five tree species in China. Forest Resources Management , (5): 85-88. (in Chinese)
57 Zheng J Y, Y H Yin, B Y Li. 2010. A New Scheme for Climate Regionalization in China. Acta Geographica Sinica , 65(1): 3-12. (in Chinese)
58 Zhou W B, J B Wan, B F Zheng. 2012. Ecological protection and comprehensive utilization of resources in five watersheds and one lake in Jiangxi Province.Beijing: Science Press, 1-308. (in Chinese)
59 Zhu H N, Z Zhan, Y N Yang, et al. 2009. Current situation, problems and countermeasures of forest management in Jiangxi Province. Jiangxi Forestry Science and Technology , (1): 36-39. (in Chinese)