资源与生态学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (4): 426-433.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.04.010

• • 上一篇    下一篇

构建农业生态补偿机制 推进农业绿色发展

居学海, 薛颖昊, 习斌, 靳拓, 徐志宇, 高尚宾   

  1. 中国农业农村部农业生态与资源保护总站,北京 100125
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-18 修回日期:2018-02-01 出版日期:2018-07-30 发布日期:2018-07-24

Establishing an Agro-ecological Compensation Mechanism to Promote Agricultural Green Development in China

JU Xuehai, XUE Yinghao, XI Bin, JIN Tuo, XU Zhiyu, GAO Shangbin*   

  1. Rural Energy & Environment Agency, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affaivs of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100125, China
  • Received:2017-08-18 Revised:2018-02-01 Online:2018-07-30 Published:2018-07-24
  • Contact: *GAO Shangbin, E-mail: gorden116@sina.cn
  • Supported by:
    Frame of National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0201201).

摘要: 在中央支农惠农政策的持续支持下,我国粮食实现了多年连续增长,农民收入显著提高。但农业生产方式整体而言较为传统粗放,导致农业资源消耗过度、生态环境问题日趋严重,农产品生产成本增高、质量不能满足日益增长的社会需要。党中央、国务院强调要大力推进农业供给侧改革,调整农业产业结构,转变农业生产方式。而将目前的以保护产量为主的保护价收购等补贴政策,转化为以农业生态补偿为主的绿色补贴是实现农业绿色发展的重要途径。本文介绍了构建农业生态补偿机制对推进农业绿色发展的意义,分析了我国当前农业补贴政策的效能,借鉴发达国家农业生态补偿的经验,阐述了构建农业生态补偿机制的路径选择,提出加快构建农业生态补偿机制的政策建议。

关键词: 农业绿色发展, 农业面源污染, 农业生态补偿机制, 中国

Abstract: In recent years, grain production has been rising steadily, and the income of farmers has been increasing dramatically, thanks in part to the central government’s policy support for agriculture, rural areas and farmers. However, the conventional production mode leads to overconsumption of agricultural resources, increasingly challenging ecological environment impacts, and higher costs of agricultural products whose quality falls short of public expectations. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council both put extra emphasis on agricultural supply-side reform, restructuring of the sector, and a shift in the production mode. This paper explains the significance of the agro-ecological compensation mechanism, analyzes the efficacy of China’s current agricultural subsidy policies, introduces related experience from developed countries, elaborates options to establish the mechanism, and proposes policy recommendations to accelerate its development. This analysis concludes that one of the most important approaches to agricultural green development is to shift the existing subsidy policy from one which aims to ensure the yield by purchasing at a protective price, to a green subsidy which focuses on agro-ecological compensation.

Key words: agricultural non-point pollution, agriculture green development, agro-ecological compensation mechanism, China