资源与生态学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (4): 395-406.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.04.007

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南水北调中线工程横向生态补偿标准研究

杨伦1,2, 刘某承1, 闵庆文1,2, 伦飞3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-05 修回日期:2018-01-22 出版日期:2018-07-30 发布日期:2018-07-24

Transverse Eco-compensation Standards for Water Conservation: A Case Study of the Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion in China

YANG Lun1,2, LIU Moucheng1,*, MIN Qingwen1,2, LUN Fei3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. College of Land Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2017-09-05 Revised:2018-01-22 Online:2018-07-30 Published:2018-07-24
  • Contact: *LIU Moucheng, E-mail: liumc@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:

    Foundation: National Key R&D Plan of China ( 2017YFC0506402); National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 41201586).

摘要:

南水北调中线工程是实现我国水资源合理配置,缓解北方广大地区水资源短缺的重大战略性基础工程。建立跨区域的横向生态补偿机制是实现水资源永续利用的关键核心,而生态补偿量的测算与分配是建立补偿机制的重要基础。本文基于统计数据和问卷调查,通过机会成本法和支付意愿法,建立了针对南水北调中线工程全线的横向生态补偿标准测算模型。在此基础上,引入分别反映水源区和受水区自然资源状况与社会经济发展情况的调整系数,共同确定水源区受偿量和受水区补偿量的分配权重系数和具体金额。结果表明:(1)贯穿南水北调中线工程全线的横向生态补偿标准的上限为25.2亿美元,下限为22.0亿美元。(2)不同受水区的支付标准和水源区的受偿标准存在较大差异。受水区支付横向生态补偿的出资比例由高到低分别为: 河南省出资40.71%,河北省出资35.04%,北京市出资13.67%,天津市出资10.58%。供水区接受横向生态补偿的受偿比例由高到低分别为: 陕西水源区受偿68.45%,湖北水源区受偿21.56%,河南水源区受偿9.99%。(3)影响受水区居民支付意愿的显著性因素包括居民年龄、居民受教育程度、居民收入水平、居民对南水北调工程的了解程度和对生态环境重要性的认识5项。本文基于理论分析,通过实证案例分析了南水北调中线工程横向生态补偿标准的有关问题,为我国建立行之有效的水源地横向生态补偿机制提供借鉴,并对其政策化和法制化发展起到积极地推动作用。

关键词: 横向生态补偿, 机会成本, 南水北调中线工程, 支付意愿

Abstract:

In China, the distribution of water resources is incompatible with the development of productivity. The construction of South-to-North Water Diversion Project has achieved inter-basin water diversion, and the project can alleviate the uneven distribution of water resources phenomenon effectively. However, in recent years, the aggregate effects of water pollution and water resource shortages have been serious. Establishing transverse eco-compensation mechanisms becomes the key method to achieve sustainable use of water resources. Based on statistical and questionnaire data, this paper uses the Opportunity Costs Method and Willingness to Pay approach to establish a transverse eco-compensation standard calculation model for the Middle Route Project of the South- to-North Water Diversion. The results show that the upper and lower limits of the transverse eco-compensation standard for the Middle Route Project is $2.52 billion and $2.20 billion every year, respectively. However, the paying and receiving standards varied widely among different compensation payers and compensation receivers. Meanwhile, the significant factors influencing the paying willingness of the receiver area citizens were age, education level, average revenue per month, knowledge about the South-to-North Water Diversion Project and recognition of the importance of eco-environmental integrity. This study began with a theoretical analysis, then analysed related problems related to calculating transverse eco-compensation standards for the Middle Route Project of the South-to-North Water Diversion by an empirical study. This empirical study helps to establish effective transverse eco-compensation mechanisma and promotea the development of effective policies and legislation.

Key words: Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion, opportunity cost method, transverse eco-compensation standards, willingness to pay