资源与生态学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (2): 164-173.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.02.006

所属专题: 生态旅游专辑

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旅游生态补偿视域下的自然保护区利益关系结构分析——以三亚珊瑚礁国家级自然保护区为例

陈海鹰1, 何琳思2, 李鹏2, 曾小红3, 游长江1   

  1. 1. 海南大学旅游学院,海口 570228;
    2. 云南大学工商管理与旅游管理学院,昆明 650091;
    3. 中国热带农业科学院科技信息研究所,海南儋州 571737
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-22 修回日期:2017-09-30 出版日期:2018-03-30 发布日期:2018-03-30

Relationship of Stakeholders in Protected Areas and Tourism Ecological Compensation: A Case Study of Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve in China

CHEN Haiying1, HE Linsi2, LI Peng2,*, ZENG Xiaohong3, YOU Changjiang1   

  1. 1. Tourism College of Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China;
    2. College of Business Administration and Tourism Management, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China;
    3. Institute of Scientific and Technical Information, CATAS, Danzhou, Hainan 571737, China
  • Received:2017-06-22 Revised:2017-09-30 Online:2018-03-30 Published:2018-03-30
  • Contact: * LI Peng, E-mail: leap58@yahoo.com
  • Supported by:
    The National Natural Science Foundation of China (41661111;41361107;41561111); the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province (413125).

摘要: 明确有关利益主体在特定区域和事物发展情境下的角色及互动关系,是界定各主体的权、责、利内容并构建相应补偿机制的基本前提。自然保护区作为自然-经济-社会复合的地域系统,存在生态保护的公益性与地方社会经济发展的私利性之间的矛盾运动,以及不同主体围绕生态资源利用和环境保护、以生态经济利益为基本内容的复杂利益关系。旅游发展相关要素注入将导致自然保护区原有利益主体关系格局的深刻变化。旅游生态补偿实施过程,是对旅游背景下利益主体之间权-责-利匹配关系的重构过程,也是形成不同主体间利益平衡和制约关系的重要途径。文章以尚处旅游生态补偿机制探索进程中的三亚珊瑚礁国家级自然保护区为案例,对旅游背景下该保护区利益关系主体及其基本利益诉求特征进行分析;借助Mitchel等提出的三要素评分法,界定该保护区旅游生态补偿所涉及利益相关者的基本属性特征,将补偿利益相关者划分为核心层、紧密层和外围层三个层次。在此基础上,分析核心层利益相关者的权责关系以及各自在旅游生态补偿合理实施后的利益变化情况;继而,以旅游生态补偿实施对各主体的相关利益影响为切入点,解析补偿实施过程中不同主体间的利益配置和影响制约关系,构建该保护区旅游生态补偿系统共生界面的利益关系结构模型。本研究可帮助人们进一步认知旅游生态补偿这种新型生态补偿途径的运作机理,并为自然保护区旅游背景下多方主体利益关系协调路径探寻提供有益参照。

关键词: 利益相关者, 利益主体关系结构, 旅游生态补偿, 三亚珊瑚礁自然保护区

Abstract: The first step to defining the rights, responsibilities and interests of stakeholders and constructing a compensation mechanism is to identify the stakeholders and clarify their mutual relationships. Nature reserves are complex ecosystems involving nature, the economy and society. There exists a conflict between the public welfare benefits of ecological conservation and the private gains to be realized from social and economic development. There also exist in a nature reserve complex relationships among stakeholders, involving the utilization of ecological resources, ecological conservation and ecological-economic interests. The introduction of tourism brings substantial changes to the existing stakeholder benefit structure in a nature reserve. The implementation of tourism ecological compensation (tourism payment for ecological service) is a process for redefining the distribution of rights, responsibilities and profits among stakeholders and it is also an essential way to balance the interests of the stakeholders. This paper uses a case study of Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve in China to examine the characteristics of stakeholders and analyze their interests. According to the method for defining basic attributes proposed by Mitchel and other scholars, in cases of tourism ecological compensation, stakeholders can be classified as definitive stakeholders, expectant stakeholders and latent stakeholders. This paper applies these classifications and then analyzes the relationships between the rights and responsibilities of these stakeholders and how these change after the implementation of compensation. Additionally, based on the impact compensation has on different stakeholders, changes in the relationships can be analyzed and the structure of the stakeholders can be modelled. This case study of the Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve illustrates the operationalization of a new mechanism for tourism ecological compensation. The paper illustrates a method for coordinating the relationships among the stakeholders involved with this national-level nature reserve.

Key words: benefit structure of stakeholders, Nature Reserve, Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve (SCRNNR), stakeholder, tourism ecological compensation (TEC)