资源与生态学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 8 ›› Issue (2): 129-140.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.003

• • 上一篇    下一篇

跨境河流的利益共享及生态补偿机制研究进展

韩赜1,2,宋伟1,邓祥征1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 中国地质大学 信息工程学院,北京 100083;
    3. 中国科学院农业政策研究中心,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-02 出版日期:2017-03-28 发布日期:2017-03-28

Progress in the Research on Benefit-sharing and Ecological Compensation Mechanisms for Transboundary Rivers

HAN Ze1,2, SONG Wei1,*, DENG Xiangzheng1,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Scie?nces, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. School of Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China;
    3. Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2016-11-02 Online:2017-03-28 Published:2017-03-28
  • Contact: SONG Wei, E-mail: songw@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    The Projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China (71561137002, 41671177 and 41501192), National Key Basic Research and Development Plan of China (2015CB452702) and National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFA0602402).

摘要: 跨境河流具有重要的地缘政治和地缘经济内涵,但由于人口与经济的快速发展,跨境河流沿岸国常围绕水资源的开发和利用引发地区矛盾。因此,如何从生态的视角解决水资源的公平合理地开发与有效保护生态环境之间的不平衡性成为国际社会面临的主要问题。本文从跨境河流的相关国际水法出发,综述了利益共享、生态补偿机制以及适应性管理体系的研究进展。并发现在法律制度上,国际水法已经形成了一套完整体系,并更加注重水资源的跨境合作与可持续利用;在解决跨境水资源冲突的实践上,呈现从单一的水资源分配(零和结果)向利益共享转变的趋势,以期达到沿岸国多赢的目的,但跨境的生态补偿仍然存在一定困难。在中国,上下游间的横向生态补偿已被中央政府高度重视,为建立省际之间的生态补偿机制提供了指导。从现有实践来看,横向的生态补偿机制仍处于起步阶段,所实施范围小,法律制度薄弱,缺乏市场机制的动力并且依赖财政转移支付。未来,中国应加强跨境水资源在法律制度、国际合作与利益共享方面的研究。由于政府在生态补偿的实践中兼具的多重身份(如推动者,监管机构和买方),为了构建具有适应性管理的跨境生态补偿机制,政府应尽快完善在数据共享平台,水资源消耗标准及相关政策和标准(或条例)等方面的建设。

关键词: 跨境河流, 利益共享, 生态补偿, 水资源

Abstract: Transboundary rivers have important geopolitical and geo-economic connotations, but riparian states of transboundary rivers are often driven by their own rapid population growth and economic development to be-come involved in regional conflicts about the development and use of water resources. Therefore, finding a balance between the need for fair and reasonable development of water resources and the effective protection of environment from an ecological perspective has become a major problem faced by the international community. This paper begins with consideration of international water laws related to transboundary rivers and then reviews advances in the research on benefit-sharing, ecological compensation mechanisms, and adaptive management systems. We believe that existing international water laws form a complete legal system and that more attention needs to be paid to transboundary cooperation and sustainable water resource use. With respect to how transboundary water conflicts are resolved, there is a trend to move away from single water resource allocation (a zero-sum game) to benefit-sharing in order to achieve a win-win situation for riparian states, but there are still some difficulties in transboundary ecological compensation. In China, the central government has paid attention to horizontal ecological compensation between upstream and downstream, offering guidance to promote establishment of inter-province ecological compensation. Based on existing practice, horizontal ecological compensations are still in their infancy, small in scale, supported by a weak legal system, lacking market mechanisms to encourage their use and relying on fiscal transfers as the method of payment. In the future, China will need to intensify its research on legal system development, international cooperation, and benefit-sharing as these impact transboundary water resources. Because government can be seen as a management department with multiple identities (enabler, regulator and buyer), to improve adaptive transboundary ecological compensation mechanisms, government must develop as soon as possible data sharing platforms, standards of water consumption behaviors and intergovernmental policies (or ordinances).

Key words: benefit sharing, water resources, ecological compensation, transboundary rivers