Table of Content

    30 September 2022, Volume 13 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Ecological Protection and Livelihood Improvement in Ecologically Vulnerable Regions
    ZHEN Lin, XU Zengrang, CHENG Wuxue
    2022, 13 (5):  759-762.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.001
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    Evaluating Ecological Restoration
    Evaluation of Inner Mongolia Wind Erosion Prevention Service based on Land Use and the RWEQ Model
    WANG Yangyang, XIAO Yu, XU Jie, XIE Gaodi, QIN Keyu, LIU Jingya, NIU Yingnan, GAN Shuang, HUANG Mengdong
    2022, 13 (5):  763-774.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.002
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    Inner Mongolia is the important ecological barrier zone in northern China, which plays an important role in the prevention and control of wind in the regional ecosystem. Based on the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) model and the cost-recovery method, this study simulated the wind erosion prevention service (WEPS) in Inner Mongolia in 2010 and 2015, investigated the spatial pattern of material and monetary value of WEPS, and analyzed the differences among various cities and various ecosystems. The results indicated that the total WEPS of Inner Mongolia was estimated to be 73.87×108 t in 2015, which was 4.61×108 t less than in 2010, while the monetary value of WEPS was calculated to be 738.66×108 yuan in 2015, which was 46.16×108 yuan less than in 2010. Among all the leagues and cities, Xilin Gol League supported the highest WEPS, reaching 18.65×108 t in 2015, while Wuhai provided the lowest. The WEPS of Hulunbeier increased the most, by 4.37×108 t from 2010 to 2015. The WEPS in the grassland ecosystem was the highest among the different ecosystems, accounting for more than 55% of the total WEPS in Inner Mongolia, but it was reduced by 1.05×108 t during the same period. The WEPS in the forest ecosystem increased the most, reaching 0.19×108 t. This study found that the implementation of projects such as returning farmland to forests and grasses and sand control effectively increased the WEPS by increasing the forest area. However, unsuitable land use increased the desertification of ecosystems which resulted in a reduction of WEPS in Inner Mongolia.

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    The Evolution of Desertification Control and Restoration Technology in Typical Ecologically Vulnerable Regions
    WEI Yunjie, ZHEN Lin, DU Bingzhen
    2022, 13 (5):  775-785.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.003
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    Global economic development and increasing human activities have brought great challenges to fragile ecosystems. In order to avoid, reduce, and reverse desertification, Chinese and foreign scientists and ecological governance institutions have developed a series of ecological restoration technologies (ERTs) and models in the past few decades. These technologies can improve residents’ livelihoods, strengthen disaster resilience, and launch a comprehensive review of degraded ecosystems in desertification regions. However, some studies and practices have limited the selection and promotion of good technologies and the assessments of these technologies, resulting in the waste and loss of funds and manpower. The objective of this study is to identify desertification control and restoration technologies and models, summarize the evolutionary features and trends of these technologies under different natural conditions, and evaluate the various ERTs that are now available. The data sources of this study include the databases of international organizations, CNKI, related literature and reports, and questionnaires from institutions and experts. First, the three stages of ERTs evolution were summarized, and the key events and social-economic developments were identified as the driving forces of evolution. Then, the four categories of ERTs were identified as biological, engineering, agricultural, and management ERTs. Finally, the key ERTs were evaluated in the five dimensions of the degree of difficulty, the degree of maturity, effectiveness, suitability, and potential for transfer. The management ERTs scores for the degree of difficulty, the degree of maturity, and potential for transfer are higher. This study provides a reference for adapting to local conditions, the comprehensive management, rational development, and utilization of dryland resources, improving the application of ecological technologies, and promoting the export and import of the excellent technologies.

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    Spatial and Temporal Pattern Changes and Driving Forces: Analysis of Salinization in the Yellow River Delta from 2015 to 2020
    HONG Mengmeng, WANG Juanle, HAN Baomin
    2022, 13 (5):  786-796.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.004
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    China’s Yellow River Delta represents a typical area with moist semi-humid soil salinization, and its salinization has seriously affected the sustainable use of local resources. The use of remote sensing technology to understand changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of salinization is key to combating regional land degradation. In this study, a feature space model was constructed for remote sensing and monitoring land salinization using Landsat 8 OIL multi-spectral images. The feature parameters were paired to construct a feature space model; a total of eight feature space models were obtained. An accuracy analysis was conducted by combining salt-loving vegetation data with measured data, and the model demonstrating the highest accuracy was selected to develop salinization inversion maps for 2015 and 2020. The results showed that: (1) The total salinization area of the Yellow River Delta displayed a slight upward trend, increasing from 4244 km2 in 2015 to 4629 km2 in 2020. However, the area’s salting degree reduced substantially, and the areas of saline soil and severe salinization were reduced in size; (2) The areas with reduced salinization severity were mainly concentrated in areas surrounding cities, and primarily comprised wetlands and some regions around the Bohai Sea; (3) Numerous factors such as the implementation of the “Bohai Granary” cultivation engagement plan, increase in human activities to greening local residential living environments, and seawater intrusion caused by the reduction of sediment contents have impacted the distribution of salinization areas in the Yellow River Delta; (4) The characteristic space method of salinization monitoring has better applicability and can be promoted in humid-sub humid regions.

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    Spatio-temporal Evolution and Flow of Water Provision Service Balance in Jinghe River Basin
    GUAN Mengluan, ZHANG Qiang, WANG Baoliang, ZHANG Huiyuan
    2022, 13 (5):  797-812.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.005
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    Quantifying the whole process of ecosystem services from generation through transfer to use, and analyzing the balance between the supply and demand of regional ecosystem services are of great significance for formulating regional sustainable development strategies, realizing regional ecosystem management, and effective resource allocation. Based on the SWAT model, InVEST model, ArcGIS, and other software, this study analyzed the supply-demand balance of water provision services in Jinghe River Basin, a typical region located in the Loess Plateau, using multi-source data. This research then analyzed the spatial-temporal distribution pattern and spatial matching characteristics of the supply and demand of water provision services in Jinghe River Basin from 2000 to 2015. On this basis, a spatial flow model of water provision service was constructed, the flow rules (flow paths) of the water provision service were explored at the subwatershed scale, and the spatial scope of the supply area and benefit area were depicted. The results show that: (1) Water resource supply and demand in the Jinghe River basin both showed increasing trends from 2000 to 2015. (2) The supply-demand balance of water resources was generally up to the standard, however, there were significant differences between urban and rural areas. The supply-demand balances of the central urban areas of each county were relatively low, and even exceeded the supply in the lower reaches of the Jingyang River, such as Gaoling County, Qindu District, and Jingyang County. In rural areas, due to the small population and industrial distribution, coupled with a better ecological environmental base, the supply-demand balance was relatively high, such as Pengyang County, Lingtai County, Huachi County, Huanxian County, Ningxian County, and Zhenyuan County. (3) From 2000 to 2015, the spatial matching pattern of supply and demand in the Jinghe River Basin showed a trend of decline with fluctuations. In 2015, the supply-demand ratios of more than 60% of the subwatersheds showed trends of decline, and the proportion of under-supply area increased by 55.7% in 2015 compared with that in 2000. (4) The supply areas of water provision service in Jinghe River Basin are distributed in the upper reaches of the basin, and the benefit areas are Huating County, Chongxin County, Yongshou County, Chunhua County, Ganxian County, Liquan County, Qindu District, and others in the middle and lower reaches.

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    Study on the Ecological Degradation of Lashihai Area based on Potential Vegetation
    DOU Hongtao, QI Yanan, LI Haiping
    2022, 13 (5):  813-825.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.006
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    Ecological degradation is a common problem around the world which has a profound impact on the sustainable development of mankind. This paper selects Lashihai basin as the study case, and uses Logistic stepwise regression to simulate the original ecology of the potential vegetation in the area as a reference system for the definition and analysis of the subsequent degree of ecological degradation and its distribution characteristics. The analysis yields four main results. (1) The strong human disturbance areas in the Lashihai region are concentrated in the Lashihai basin, and the main impact factors are roads, residential areas and cultivated lands. (2) Besides lake, there are eight potential vegetation types in Lashihai, among which evergreen coniferous forest is the dominant community, and the other seven planting types of potential vegetation include warm meadow, grass, beach grass, evergreen broad-leaved shrubbery, deciduous broad-leaved shrubbery, warm steppe and alpine grassland. (3) The elevation and average phosphorus content have significant effects on the distribution of potential vegetation, while the different vegetation types have differential sensitivities to environmental factors. (4) On the whole, the degree of ecological degradation in the basin is relatively light, in which the proportion of non-degraded areas accounts for nearly half, the area of mild degradation is about one-fourth, the moderately degraded area is concentrated in areas with strong human disturbance, accounting for only 18.64%, and the severe degradation is rare, occupying an area of only 3.17%.

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    SAR-based Subsidence Monitoring and Assessment of the Factors Involved in the Occurrence of Subsidence, Lahore City
    Atif AHMAD, WANG Chao, TANG Yixian, Mubbashra SULTAN, Attia FALAK, DUAN Wei, WANG Jing
    2022, 13 (5):  826-841.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.007
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    The judicious use and management of natural resources is vital to achieve sustainable development. Land and water are prime natural resources, and their depletion and degradation can lead to serious threats like land subsidence. Land subsidence is a phenomenon of the alteration of elevation at a point on the earth through the sinking of the surface. It occurs when the earth’s surface loses its support. The major causes of land subsidence include groundwater extraction, mining, construction overload, and other similar factors that increase pressure on the surface and eventually subsidize the land. Urban centers with excessive groundwater extraction and infrastructure development are at a high risk of subsidence. Lahore, the second-largest city in Pakistan, is undergoing an enormous increase in population density, uncontrolled urbanization with very large-scale construction projects, and intensive groundwater extraction which are responsible for subsidence directly or indirectly. Therefore, studies on groundwater status and unplanned urban appraisals have seriously urged monitoring of the subsidence in Lahore. Herein, we used freely available Sentinel-1 data for one year (from August 2018 to August 2019), with a high spatial and temporal resolution, to monitor subsidence in Lahore. The data were processed using the SNAP/StaMPS approach for Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSI) analysis, which is an advanced InSAR technique. The displacement velocity map from InSAR processing shows a significant land deformation in the area with values ranging from -114 to 15 mm yr-1. Along with the Sentinel-1 data, we also used supplementary data obtained from various government agencies of Pakistan to study the land cover map, transportation network and waterways of Lahore, soil types, population density, and field points for assessing the results and understanding the roles of various factors in the occurrence of uplift or subsidence. A strong correlation was established between subsidence and various parameters such as groundwater extraction and lowering of the water table, soil type variations, land cover changes, surface water channels, and population density. The deformation map confirms the greatest subsidence in the central part of Lahore, while the uplift is observed in the less populated and rural areas situated near Ravi River. The land subsidence and uplift could be attributed to groundwater extraction and recharge through the canal system and the river, respectively.

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    Analyzing Livelihood
    Analysis of Food Consumption and Its Characteristics in Uzbekistan based on the Emergy Method
    JIA Mengmeng, ZHEN Lin, ZHANG Changshun
    2022, 13 (5):  842-850.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.008
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    Food resources play a great role in human livelihood, so it is meaningful to investigate their utilization and structural evolution, especially in developing countries. This study takes data from FAOSTAT and the World Bank, and applies the emergy method to analyze Uzbek food consumption changes and characteristics from 1992 to 2019. Two main results were obtained: (1) National food consumption showed a persistent increase and had a remarkable change in stages, with the first stage of low-level repetition, the second stage of speeding up and the third stage of high development. The increase of animal-based food consumption was more notable than that of plant-based food consumption. (2) Per capita annual food consumption had a tendency of change that was similar to that of national food consumption. The proportion of animal-based food in the total per capita annual food consumption usually remained about 2-fold higher than that of plant-based food consumption. The main food consumption pattern was the combination of crops such as wheat and rice with meat such as beef. The fruit and vegetable consumption also increased. With the growing population, various changes in food demand will inevitably happen, so it is necessary to take sustainable measures in time to satisfy the new demand and to protect resources and the environment.

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    Spatial Distribution and Tourism Activation of Traditional Villages in Yunnan Province
    XU Shaohui, DONG Liping
    2022, 13 (5):  851-859.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.009
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    Using ArcGIS to analyze the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province in combination with the actual local conditions of traditional villages, the purpose of this study is to determine the development model suitable for their characteristics. The results show several important features of traditional village distribution. (1) The traditional villages in Yunnan Province have spatial structural characteristics of unbalanced cohesive distribution, and they are mainly distributed in the higher-level cities and prefectures such as northwest Yunnan, west Yunnan and south Yunnan. Among them, the traditional villages of Baoshan City have the highest distribution density of 66.33 per 10000 km2. This is followed by Dali Prefecture and Honghe Prefecture, where the densities of traditional villages are 44.13 per 10000 km2 and 37.66 per 10000 km2, respectively. (2) The factors affecting the spatial distribution structure of traditional villages in Yunnan Province are natural geographical factors, humanistic historical factors and transportation factors. Among them, the natural geographical conditions with a large vertical gap in Yunnan Province gave birth to the human settlement environment of traditional villages. The history of a farming civilization that has been passed down from generation to generation has laid a brilliant and splendid humanistic foundation for traditional villages, and the high-altitude areas are relatively primitive. The transportation conditions have delayed the destruction of traditional villages by urbanization and industrialization. In summary, these factors have affected the spatial distribution pattern of traditional villages in Yunnan Province to some extent. (3) According to the law of the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province, it is necessary to explore the activation path of traditional village tourism with regional characteristics and ethnic characteristics, and also to carry out differentiated development according to the different endowment characteristics of local resources, that is to develop a series of activation modes including agricultural tourism, cultural tourism and ecological tourism.

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    Estimation of the Tibetan Wild Ass Population in Gaize County of Chang Tang Plateau based on the Belt Transect Method and Random Forest Model
    QIAO Tian, XU Zengrang, WEI Ziqian
    2022, 13 (5):  860-869.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.010
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    As a typical representative of the herbivorous wild animals in Chang Tang Plateau, the number of Tibetan wild asses has increased significantly in recent years. Clarifying the distribution, population, and size of its habitats is conducive to formulating the protection plan for wild animals and managing the conflict between people and wild animals in Chang Tang Plateau. Based on the distribution probability of Tibetan wild ass habitats and environmental factors, the number of Tibetan wild asses in Gaize County of Chang Tang Plateau was calculated by using the belt transect method and random forest model, and due to the uncertainty of the calculations, the results were corrected and analyzed. The results show that the living environment of Tibetan wild asses in Gaize County of Chang Tang Plateau is at 4400-4600 m above sea level, 350-400 m away from the river, and the average temperature in the warmest season is 10-12 ℃. The vegetation types of habitats are generally temperate tufted dwarf grass, dwarf semi shrub desert grassland, alpine grass, Carex grassland, alpine cushion dwarf semi shrub desert, among others. On the basis of studying the environmental preferences of Tibetan wild asses, the random forest model was corrected by using the data of the second scientific survey sample line of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for three years. The approximate number of Tibetan wild asses in each of the different areas of Gaize County was obtained. The number of Tibetan wild asses in Gaize Town, Xianqian Township, Gumu Township, Chabu Township, Mami Township, Wuma Township and Dongcuo Township is 855, 3458, 2358, 1453, 743, 943 and 647, respectively. By studying the environmental preferences of Tibetan wild asses and analyzing the results of the belt transect survey, the random forest model can accurately estimate the number of Tibetan wild asses in Gaize County of Chang Tang Plateau.

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    Research on the Patterns and Evolution of Ecosystem Service Consumption in Nepal
    ZHANG Changshun, LIU Chunlan, ZHEN Lin
    2022, 13 (5):  870-879.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.011
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    The study of ecosystem service consumption (ESC) in Nepal not only helps us to understand the intensity and management level of Nepal’s ecosystem utilization, but also provides scientific data support for the establishment and planning of China’s aid to Nepal. Based on the data of food consumption and forestry production and trade, this study dynamically investigated the consumption levels, structure and ecological consumption patterns of farmland, forest, grassland, water and the integrated ecosystem in Nepal and their main driving forces, using the physical quantity accounting method. The results showed that the total consumption of farmland, forest, grassland, water and the integrated ecosystem in Nepal from 1961 to 2018 exhibited a fluctuating increase, with average value of 7.26 Tg yr-1, 6.38 Tg yr-1, 1.10 Tg yr-1, 0.02 Tg yr-1 and 14.76 Tg yr-1, respectively. The annual per capita forest consumption roughly decreased, while the annual per capita consumption of farmland, grassland, waters and integrated ecosystems mostly increased with their growth rates accelerating. The corresponding ecological consumption patterns were the “Log-Cereal-Milk” mode during 1961-1984, the “Log-Cereal-Vegetable-Root-Milk-Sugar” mode during 1985-2007 and the “Log-Cereal-Vegetable-Root-Sugar-Fruit-Milk” mode during 2008-2018. This study indicated that the supply capacity of the ecosystem (production, import and export capacity) and socio-economic factors (population density, per capita GDP and religious beliefs) are the main driving forces that are restricting the evolution of Nepal’s ecological consumption pattern. Although Nepal’s dietary structure has improved significantly, there is still a large gap between it and the standard of a balanced diet. The supply capacities of fruits, meat, eggs, milk and aquatic products should be enhanced to meet people’s demand for a balanced diet. This study can provide data support for the establishment of China’s aid projects to improve Nepal’s livelihood.

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    Assessment of Climate Suitability for Human Settlements in Tibet, China
    LIN Yumei, ZHU Fuxin, LI Wenjun, LIU Xiaona
    2022, 13 (5):  880-887.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.012
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    Climate is an important factor that affects the livability of a region. The climate suitability of a region’s environment for human settlement profoundly affects the regional socio-economic development and the population distribution. Tibet is an area that is sensitive to climate change. Given the impact of global climate change, the climate suitability of Tibet has undergone significant changes. In this study, the temperature humidity index (THI) values for Tibet were calculated, and the relationships between the population distribution and the THI were analyzed quantitatively. In this way, the zoning standards for climate suitability in Tibet were determined such that the climate suitability could be evaluated. The results show that the average annual temperature in the southeast of Tibet, where the population was densely distributed, was relatively high. The mean annual relative humidity showed a trend of gradually decreasing from south to north. Regions with a suitable climate, including the high suitability areas (HSAs), the moderately suitable areas (MSAs) and the low suitability areas (LSAs), accounted for only 7.90% of the total area but accommodated over 40% of the total population. The critically suitable areas (CSAs) accounted for 37.81% of the land area and 48.24% of the total population. Non-suitable areas (NSAs) were widely distributed in Tibet and accounted for 54.29% of the total area and 11.33% of the total population. The results of this study may provide a reference for guiding the reasonable distribution of population and promoting the optimization of the spatial planning in Tibet.

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    Assessing Impact of Restoration on Livelihood
    The Impacts of Relocation on the Livelihoods among Different Agro-pastoralist Groups in an Immigrated Village in Tibet
    ZHU Jin, PAN Ying, ZHAO Zhongxu, LI Zhennan, WU Junxi
    2022, 13 (5):  888-896.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.013
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    China has achieved a comprehensive victory in poverty eradication. Relocation has been the major measure of the poverty alleviation strategy, and 10 million poor people have successfully been relocated in the ‘Thirteenth Five-Year’ period (from 2016 to 2020). This paper established an integrated evaluation index system for the livelihoods of relocated groups and the sustainability of the village, based on the framework of United Nation 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and using the data from questionnaire surveys in Bailang Village, Tibet. The indicator system quantitatively analyzed the changes in the livelihoods of different agro-pastoralist groups before and after relocation from the three aspects of living standards, livelihood assets, and livelihood strategies. The results showed that relocation led to the improvement of the livelihoods of immigrated households. As the duration after relocation increases, the living standards rise steadily, especially in poverty eradication (SDG1), which increased nearly 100%. Relocation affects the livelihood strategies of the relocated groups, in that the original pure farmers chose more diverse livelihood strategies and the non-farm employment ratio (SDG8) of the village increased. The total SDG score increased from the perspective of the sustainable development of the village. The data also showed that relocation had limited impacts on the livelihoods of the aborigines. The results implied that the relocation policy for poverty alleviation has been implemented successfully in this area. This research could support policy optimization for improving the sustainability of the village and the livelihoods of the immigrants.

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    The Evaluation of Urban Green Space Landscape Changes and Ecosystem Services in Beijing
    XIAO Yu, GAN Shuang, HUANG Mengdong, LIU Jia, MAO Hui, ZHANG Changshun, QIN Keyu, XIE Gaodi
    2022, 13 (5):  897-911.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.014
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    As a very important part of the urban ecosystem, the urban green space system plays an active role in maintaining the urban ecosystem stability, providing ecosystem services, and improving the quality of the urban environment. In order to deal with the problems brought about by the deterioration of the urban ecological environment, it is necessary to study and analyze the spatial distribution pattern, evolutionary characteristics and ecosystem services of urban green space to maximize its ecological benefits and comprehensive functions. In this study, we took Beijing urban area as an example, and based on the spatial distribution data of urban green space and remote sensing data, we first calculated the urban green space type transition matrix, landscape pattern index and ecosystem services. Then, we analyzed the changes in urban green space landscape patterns, ecosystem services and their spatial distributions from 2000 to 2020, and studied the interactive relationships between landscape changes and changes in ecosystem services. The results showed three key findings. (1) Beijing’s urban green space construction has achieved remarkable results from 2000 to 2020. The area of green space has increased by 77.41%, mainly from cultivated land and construction land. (2) From 2000 to 2020, the amounts of dust retention, SO2 absorption, NO2 absorption, cooling and humidification, carbon fixation and oxygen release, and rainwater runoff reduction in Beijing's urban green space have shown continuous increases in general. (3) There is a close relationship between urban green space landscape changes and green space ecosystem services, and total area (TA) has the highest correlation with ecosystem services. Except for rainwater runoff reduction, the correlation coefficients between TA and ecosystem services are all higher than 0.85. This research can provide theoretical guidance for optimizing Beijing's green space and determining how to maximize the effect of green space for improving the ecological environment, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the construction of Beijing's ecological environment.

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    Research Progress on Farmers’ Livelihood Transformation and Its Ecological Effects—A Review
    WANG Ding, WANG Xin, HAO Haiguang, LIN Dayi, XIAO Rui
    2022, 13 (5):  912-924.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.015
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    Farmers’ livelihoods and their impacts on the ecosystem are important indicators of human-land relationships. Appropriate livelihood strategies for farmers can meet the needs of human well-being and promote the sustainable use of natural resources, thereby maintaining the health and stability of natural ecosystems. Scholars have carried out a great deal of research on the changes in farmers’ livelihoods, as well as the driving mechanisms and ecological effects, but there are still many controversial issues about the ecological effects of farmers’ livelihood transformation. On the basis of collecting and sorting out the relevant literature, this paper analyzes the previous research results on the transformation mechanism and ecological effects of farmers’ livelihoods, and further explores the coupling relationship. Through the analysis and summary, we find that the choice of farmers’ livelihoods is affected by natural factors, subjective willingness and social policies. The transformation of farmers’ livelihood changes the ways of production, consumption and resource utilization, which in turn profoundly affects the evolutionary process of the natural ecosystems. This paper establishes a research framework for the livelihood transformation mechanism of farmers and its ecological effect, and finally summarizes two directions that need to be studied further in the future: (1) Exploring the interactions between the driving factors of farmers’ livelihood transformation; and (2) Exploring a win-win sustainable mechanism for farmers’ livelihood needs and natural resource utilization.

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    A Review on the Supply-Demand Relationship and Spatial Flows of Ecosystem Services
    HUANG Mengdong, XIAO Yu, XU Jie, LIU Jingya, WANG Yangyang, GAN Shuang, LV Shixuan, XIE Gaodi
    2022, 13 (5):  925-935.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.016
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    Research on spatial flow as it relates to the relationship between the supply and demand of ecosystem services supports a significant connection between the supply of ecosystem services and human well-being. Understanding the entire process of the production and flow, as well as the use of ecosystem services, accurately assessing the balance of supply and demand of ecosystem services, and establishing a two-way feedback relationship between supply and demand are vital for the scientific management of the ecosystem and ensuring the sustainable development of regional resources. Based on a large number of relevant publications, this paper comprehensively summarizes the concepts and assessment methods of ecosystem service supply and demand from the perspective of ecosystem service supply and demand, and discusses the impacts of land use and climate change on the temporal and spatial changes of ecosystem services under the background of global change. Then, an analysis of the research progress in the ecosystem services spatial flow indicated that there are still deficiencies in the quantification of cultural services, the dynamics of ecosystem service flow and the driving mechanism of ecosystem services. We also propose that clarifying the driving mechanism and transfer process of ecosystem services, and realizing the mutual conversion between different spatial-temporal scales of ecosystem services, is an important approach for improving the application of ecosystem services research in practice in the future.

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    The Characteristic Differences between Ecological Culture and Low-carbon Tourism Cognition under the Vision of Carbon Neutrality
    CHENG Jinhong, LI Shuxiao, WANG Zheng, CHENG Zhanhong
    2022, 13 (5):  936-945.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.017
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    Ecological culture has a low-carbon attribute, which coincides with the concepts of energy conservation and emission reduction in low-carbon tourism. Analyzing the differences in the public perception of the two is of great significance for achieving the carbon neutral goal of tourism. Firstly, the views of nature, equality and ecology in ecological culture, as well as the cognition and participation willingness for low-carbon tourism were identified by using the principal component analysis method. Secondly, all samples were divided into four types of ecological culture cognition: sufficient, relatively sufficient, general and poorer, by the K-means clustering method. Thirdly, significant differences in the low-carbon tourism cognition among different types were revealed by using the ANOVA method. Finally, the influences of the main demographic characteristics on the low-carbon tourism cognition were analyzed. This analysis showed that gender, age, education level and income level had significant differences in some aspects of low-carbon tourism cognition and participation willingness, especially education level. On this basis, several corresponding strategies were put forward for managing the cognitive differences of the different types, which could contribute to the realization of the carbon neutral vision of tourism.

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    Construction of a Comprehensive Observation Network for Natural-Resource Elements in Heihe River Basin, NW China
    PEI Xiaolong, HAN Xiaolong, YANG Hanwen, GAO Tiansheng, ZHANG Chun, GONG Lun, WANG Jiangyulong
    2022, 13 (5):  946-954.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.018
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    The construction of a comprehensive observation platform for natural-resource elements would provide data support for studies of dynamic changes in various natural resources, and could serve the needs of natural-resource management and the construction of ecological civilization during a period of global change. As the second-largest inland river basin in NW China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) lies in the central part of the Silk Road Economic Belt, consequently, pilot studies of resource management in the basin are urgently needed. This paper describes the construction of a comprehensive natural-resource elements observation network in the HRB to meet requirements for natural-resource management, based on natural-resource and Earth-system science. Based on current observations and research, thirteen observation stations were established in different river basins through integration with existing stations, reconstruction and upgrading, and new construction. The main types of land-surface resources in the HRB (grassland, forests, rivers, lakes, deserts, wetlands, and farmland) were included in the observation network constructed for the monitoring of natural-resource elements. Long-term, continuous, and stable observation can yield key data concerning coupling processes, trends of change, and rates of change in natural resources. This is of great significance in improving cognitive ability, scientific management, and strategic decision-making regarding natural resources in the HRB, and can provide a reference paradigm for the observation of and research into natural resources in other basins.

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