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    30 September 2019, Volume 10 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources and Ecology in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Changes of Soil Erosion and Possible Impacts from Ecosystem Recovery in the Three-River Headwaters Region, Qinghai, China from 2000 to 2015
    WANG Zhao, WANG Junbang
    2019, 10 (5):  461-471.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.001
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    Soil erosion poses a great threat to the sustainability of the ecological environment and the harmonious development of human well-being. The revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) was used to quantify soil erosion in the Three-River Headwaters region (TRH), Qinghai, China from 2000 to 2015. The possible effects of an ecosystem restoration project on soil erosion were explored against the background of climatic changes in the study area. The model was validated with on-ground observations and showed a satisfactory performance, with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.62 from the linear regression between the estimations and observations. The soil erosion modulus in 2010-2015 increased 6.2%, but decreased 1.2% compared with those in the periods of 2000-2005 and 2005-2010, respectively. Based on the method of overlay analysis, the interannual change of the estimated soil erosion was dominated by climate (about 64%), specifically by precipitation, rather than by vegetation coverage (about 34%). Despite some uncertainties in the model and data, this study quantified the relative contribution of ecological restoration under global climatic change; meanwhile the complexity, labor-intensiveness and long-range character of ecological restoration projects have to be recognized. On-ground observations over the long-term, further parameterization, and data inputs with higher quality are necessary and essential for decreasing the uncertainties in the estimations.

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    Driving Mechanism of Gross Primary Production Changes and Implications for Grassland Management on the Tibetan Plateau
    SUN Wei, LI Meng, WANG Junhao, FU Gang
    2019, 10 (5):  472-480.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.002
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    The contribution of climatic change and anthropogenic activities to vegetation productivity are not fully understood. In this study, we determined potential climate-driven gross primary production (GPPp) using a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model, and actual gross primary production (GPPa) using MODIS Approach in alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2015. The GPPa was influenced by both climatic change and anthropogenic activities. Gross primary production caused by anthropogenic activities (GPPh) was calculated as the difference between GPPp and GPPa. Approximately 75.63% and 24.37% of the area percentages of GPPa showed increasing and decreasing trends, respectively. Climatic change and anthropogenic activities were dominant factors responsible for approximately 42.90% and 32.72% of the increasing area percentage of GPPa, respectively. In contrast, climatic change and anthropogenic activities were responsible for approximately 16.88% and 7.49% of the decreasing area percentages of GPPa, respectively. The absolute values of the change trends of GPPp and GPPh of meadows were greater than those of steppes. The GPPp change values were greater than those of GPPh at all elevations, whereas both GPPp and GPPh showed decreasing trends when elevations were greater than or equal to 5000 m, 4600 m and 4800 m in meadows, steppes and all grasslands, respectively. Climatic change had stronger effects on the GPPa changes when elevations were lower than 5000 m, 4600 m and 4800 m in meadows, steppes and all grasslands, respectively. In contrast, anthropogenic activities had stronger effects on the GPPa changes when elevations were greater than or equal to 5000 m, 4600 m and 4800 m in meadows, steppes and all grasslands, respectively. Therefore, the causes of actual gross primary production changes varied with elevations, regions and grassland types, and grassland classification management should be considered on the Tibetan Plateau.

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    Plant Ecosystem
    Greenness Index from Phenocams Performs Well in Linking Climatic Factors and Monitoring Grass Phenology in a Temperate Prairie Ecosystem
    ZHOU Yuke
    2019, 10 (5):  481-493.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.003
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    Near-surface remote sensing (e.g., digital cameras) has played an important role in capturing plant phenological metrics at either a focal or landscape scale. Exploring the relationship of the digital image-based greenness index (e.g., Gcc, green chromatic coordinate) with that derived from satellites is critical for land surface process research. Moreover, our understanding of how well Gcc time series associate with environmental variables at field stations in North American prairies remains limited. This paper investigated the response of grass Gcc to daily environmental factors in 2018, such as soil moisture (temperature), air temperature, and solar radiation. Thereafter, using a derivative-based phenology extraction method, we evaluated the correspondence between key phenological events (mainly including start, end and length of growing season, and date with maximum greenness value) derived from Gcc, MODIS and VIIRS NDVI (EVI) for the period 2015-2018. The results showed that daily Gcc was in good agreement with ground-level environmental variables. Additionally, multivariate regression analysis identified that the grass growth in the study area was mainly affected by soil temperature and solar radiation, but not by air temperature. High frequency Gcc time series can respond immediately to precipitation events. In the same year, the phenological metrics retrieved from digital cameras and multiple satellites are similar, with spring phenology having a larger relative difference. There are distinct divergences between changing rates in the greenup and senescence stages. Gcc also shows a close relationship with growing degree days (GDD) derived from air temperature. This study evaluated the performance of a digital camera for monitoring vegetation phenological metrics and related climatic factors. This research will enable multiscale modeling of plant phenology and grassland resource management of temperate prairie ecosystems.

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    Species Abundance Distribution Patterns of a Toona ciliata Community in Xingdoushan Nature Reserve
    WANG Yang, ZHU Shengjie, LI Jie, HE Xiuling, JIANG Xiongbo, ZHANG Min
    2019, 10 (5):  494-503.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.004
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    With the goal of model fitting species abundance distribution patterns of the tree, shrub and herb layers of the natural Toona ciliata community in Xingdoushan Nature Reserve, Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Hubei Province, we used the data collected from the field survey and employed different ecological niche models. The models tested were the broken stick model (BSM), the overlapping niche model (ONM) and the niche preemption model (NPM), as well as three statistic models, the log-series distribution model (LSD), the log-normal distribution model (LND) and the Weibull distribution model (WDM). To determine the fitted model most suitable to each layer, the fitting effects were judged by criteria of the lowest value of Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Chi-square and the K-S values with no significant difference (P>0.05) between the theoretical predictions and observed species abundance distribution values. The result showed: (1) The fitting suitability and goodness of fit of the tree, shrub and herb layers by using the three ecological niche models were ranked as: NPM>BSM>ONM. Of the three statistical models, by accepting the fitting results of the three layers, WDM was the best fitting model, followed by LND. By rejecting the fitting tests of the herb layer, LSD had the worst fitting effect. The goodness of the statistical models was ranked as: WDM>LND>LSD. In general, the statistical models had better fitting results than the ecological models. (2) T. ciliata was the dominant species of the tree layer. The species richness and diversity of the herb layer were much higher than those of either the tree layer or the shrub layer. The species richness and diversity of the shrub layer were slightly higher than those of the tree layer. The community evenness accorded to the following order: herb>shrub>tree. Considering the fitting results of the different layers, different ecological niche models or statistical models with optimal goodness of fit and ecological significance can be given priority to in studying the species abundance distribution patterns of T. ciliata communities.

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    Human Activities and Ecosystem
    Different Irrigation Methods and Their Comparisons Based on the Parametric Evaluation Method in Khosouyeh Dam Subbasin, Iran
    Masoud MASOUDI, Reza ZARE
    2019, 10 (5):  504-510.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.005
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    Today, the world's population is rising dramatically, and in line with this increase in the population of food and agricultural products, there must be an increasing in the number of problems associated with this process of agricultural land. Then it is necessary to use the maximum potential of this lands that product maximum yield without any damage. To reach this objective, land suitability evaluation is the most important way that can reach human to this objective. The main objective of this research was to compare different irrigation methods based on a parametric evaluation system in an area of 221402 ha in the Khosouyeh Subbasin of the Fars province, in the south of Iran. After preparing land unit map, 37 points were selected for sampling. Soil properties were evaluated and analyzed. Suitability maps for drop and gravity irrigation were generated using GIS technique. The results revealed land suitability of 98.42% of the case study was classified as permanently not suitable (N2) and 1.52% currently not suitable (N1) for gravity irrigation. On the other hand, land suitability of 77.73% of the case study was classified as permanently not suitability (N2), 6.05% currently not suitable (N1), 12.43% marginally suitable (S3) and 3.79% moderately suitable (S2) for drop irrigation. The limiting factors for both kinds of drop and gravity irrigation are soil depth and slope of land.

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    Traditional Tea-grass Integrated System in Shizuoka as a GIAHS Site: Values and Conservation—Background of Application and Efforts after Registration
    Hidehiro INAGAKI, Yoshinobu KUSUMOTO
    2019, 10 (5):  511-517.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.006
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    The traditional tea-grass integrated system in Shizuoka is the first example of a Globally Important Agriculture Heritage Systems (GIAHS) site in Japan that was proposed by a local government. In this paper, we report the background and circumstances leading to the recognition of this system, its registration as a GIAHS, and its current use after registration. Although semi-natural grasslands have decreased considerably in Japan, we found unique semi-natural grasslands with no pest insects and a rich biodiversity around the tea fields. These grasslands and the farming method employed are known as “Chagusaba”, which was registered as a GIAHS in 2013. However, the registration process for GIAHS was not easy, as many local farmers do not understand the value of their traditional farming methods or the GIAHS honor. After registering Chagusaba as a GIAHS, our main agenda was branding. Traditional farming, with time and effort, produces high-quality tea. As labor saving technologies in agriculture have progressed in Japan, the price of high-quality tea has declined, and consequently, the numbers of farmers performing the inefficient traditional farming methods are decreasing. It is necessary to correctly brand the Chagusaba-grown tea and reflect the value of the traditional farming method in the price. The local government of the Shizuoka Prefecture is currently working on implementing a certification system, which includes scientific evaluation using GPS, and the introduction of biodiversity indicators.

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    Delimitation of Urban Growth Boundary Based on the Coordination of Ecology and Residential Activity Spaces: A Case Study of Jinan, China
    JIA Kun, ZHANG Chao, YANG Yanzhao, YOU Zhen
    2019, 10 (5):  518-524.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.007
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    Delimitation of an urban growth boundary (UGB) can effectively curb disorderly urban expansion, optimize urban development space and protect the ecological environment. Eco-environmental sensitivity was evaluated and areas prohibiting construction expansion were extracted by establishing an index system. Point of interest (POI) and microblog data were utilized to analyze the expansion of residential activity space. Urban space expansion potential was calculated using a comprehensive evaluation model, and an urban growth boundary for Jinan in 2020 was delimited combining the predicted urban expansion scale. The results showed that: (1) An evaluation of eco-environmental sensitivity can effectively protect ecological land and provide an ecological basis for urban expansion. Regions with high eco-environmental sensitivities in Jinan are located along the banks of the Yellow River and Xiaoqing River and in southeast mountainous areas, but eco-environmental sensitivities in the central, north and southeast areas are relatively low; (2) The model to evaluate urban residential activity expansion can quantify the spatial distribution of urban residents' activities. Regions with high potential for residential activity space expansion in Jinan are mainly concentrated in the middle of Jinan and most are part of existing built-up areas and surrounding areas; (3) The method that delimits urban growth boundaries based on the coordination of ecology and residential activity space is reasonable. Spatial expansion in Jinan mainly extends towards the east and west wings, and the boundary conforms to the spatial strategy guiding Jinan’s development and is consistent with the overall layout in related plans. Considering both ecological protection and the internal forces driving urban expansion, the method of urban growth boundary delimitation used in this study can provide a reference and practical help for studies and management of urban development in the new era.

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    An Evaluation of the Effect of Termites on Rangeland Degradation: The Case of Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
    Yeneayehu FENETAHUN, XU Xinwen, WANG Yongdong
    2019, 10 (5):  525-529.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.008
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    The infestation rate of termites in the Yabello rangeland, caused by both climatic and human factors, is of interest at certain times. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the impact of termites and determine appropriate management measures in the study area. Data was collected from three kebeles of the Yabello district (Dida Tuyura, Danbal-Waccu and Arero), the selection of which was dependent on the extent to which the termites had spread. A field survey method and semi-structured questionnaires were used for 40 community representatives from each of the selected kebeles. A total of 120 community representatives were interviewed and the interviews were supported by direct observations and informal discussions to understand the impact of termites on rangeland degradation, and to explain the trends. Historical background data of termite infestation rates in the study area was collected and evaluated .In addition to the direct impact caused by termites on forage products, buildings and crops, the linkages of termites with the environment and management mechanisms were identified. Yabello rangeland has often been under termite infestation stress and problems are increasing at an alarming rate. So in order to minimize the impact of termites on rangeland degradation identification of exact termite species and take appropriate management together with the community knowledge and scientific management system was recommended.

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    The Situation with College Express Packaging Waste and Recycling Recommendations—Taking the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences as an Example
    ZHANG Wenjing
    2019, 10 (5):  530-536.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.009
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    Questionnaires and interviews are employed in this paper to investigate and analyze the situation with respect to express packaging waste at the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (GCASS). The survey results show that: (1) the campus receives a large number of express packages and there is, in turn, a considerable amount of packaging waste; (2) there are four main types of express packaging materials: paper packaging, plastic bags, wrapping tapes and package fillers; (3) neither the students nor the school perform well in the recycling of express packaging waste; (4) the samples investigated in this paper can be divided into four categories by cluster analysis, and the author infers from this that the colleges and universities with a large proportion of female students should pay more attention to the issue of recycling of express packaging waste. Several suggestions are presented based on the research results: (1) establishing a campus waste recycling system is the most efficient way to solve the problem of express packaging waste at GCASS; (2) we should advocate for green packaging and manage it from the source of waste generation because most of the express packaging material does not easily degrade naturally, and this represents a huge hidden danger to human health and the environment; (3) the school should cultivate student awareness of environmental protection. If education and penalties are implemented together, the recovery system will run better.

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    Resource Economy
    Analysis of CO2 Emissions and the Mechanism of the Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size (IEDS) in Resource-based Cities by Application of Geographical Detector Technology
    ZHANG Wang
    2019, 10 (5):  537-545.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.010
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    Resource-based cities are the most important players in responding to climate change and achieving low carbon development in China. An analysis of relevant data (such as the energy consumption) showed an inter-city differentiation of CO2 emissions from energy consumption, and suggested an influence of the Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size (IEDS) in resource-based industrial cities at the prefecture level and above in different regions. Then by geographical detector technology, the sizes of each influencing mechanism on CO2 emissions from energy consumption of the IEDS were probed. This analysis showed that significant spatial differences exist for CO2 emissions from energy consumption and revealed several factors which influence the IEDS in resource-based cities. (1) In terms of unit employment, Eastern and Western resource-based cities are above the overall level of all resource-based cities; and only Coal resource-based cities far exceeded the overall level among all of the cities in the analysis. (2) In terms of unit gross industrial output value, the Eastern, Central and Western resources-based cities are all above the overall level for all the cities. Here also, only Coal resource-based cities far exceeded the overall level of all resources-based cities. Economic scale and energy structure are the main factors influencing CO2 emissions from energy consumption of the IEDS in resource-based cities. The factors influencing CO2 emissions in different regions and types of resource-based cities show significant spatial variations, and the degree of influence that any given factor exerts varies among different regions and types of resource-based cities. Therefore, individualized recommendations should be directed to different regions and types of resource-based cities, so that the strategies and measures of industrial low carbon and transformation should vary greatly according to the specific conditions that exist in each city.

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    Forecasting Gas Consumption Based on a Residual Auto-Regression Model and Kalman Filtering Algorithm
    ZHU Meifeng, WU Qinglong, WANG Yongqin
    2019, 10 (5):  546-552.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.011
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    Consumption of clean energy has been increasing in China. Forecasting gas consumption is important to adjusting the energy consumption structure in the future. Based on historical data of gas consumption from 1980 to 2017, this paper presents a weight method of the inverse deviation of fitted value, and a combined forecast based on a residual auto-regression model and Kalman filtering algorithm is used to forecast gas consumption. Our results show that: (1) The combination forecast is of higher precision: the relative errors of the residual auto-regressive model, the Kalman filtering algorithm and the combination model are within the range (-0.08, 0.09), (-0.09, 0.32) and (-0.03, 0.11), respectively. (2) The combination forecast is of greater stability: the variance of relative error of the residual auto-regressive model, the Kalman filtering algorithm and the combination model are 0.002, 0.007 and 0.001, respectively. (3) Provided that other conditions are invariant, the predicted value of gas consumption in 2018 is 241.81×10 9 m 3. Compared to other time-series forecasting methods, this combined model is less restrictive, performs well and the result is more credible.

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    Eco-tourism
    Evaluation System for Yunnan Cultural Tourism Routes Based on a Five Component Model: Case Study of the Ancient Tea-horse Road in the South of Yunnan
    WANG Yan, XIE Hongzhong, ZHU Tao
    2019, 10 (5):  553-558.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.012
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    Cultural tourism routes can reveal and protect cultural tourism heritage by means of cultural tourism in the “time category” and the “space category”. The construction of an evaluation system for cultural tourism routes and the evaluation, scoring and grading of existing and potential cultural tourism routes are the key to the protection of heritage, history and culture along these routes, and the key to encouraging the standardization, branding and sustainable development of various formats on the routes. Yunnan cultural tourism routes are diverse and rich in resources, and their developmental foundation is good. However, the tourism development and cultural development activities occur along separate lines and there is a lack of unified management. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on information collection, information analysis, problem diagnosis and improvement of status in the local practices of Yunnan cultural tourism routes, and to guide the sustainable development of Yunnan cultural tourism routes. Based on the advanced experience of COE (Council of Europe), UNESCO WHC (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Heritage Committee) and ICOMOS(International Council on Monuments and Sites), this paper comprehensively analyzes the decisive criteria for line evaluation by interpreting and summarizing the connotations of cultural tourism routes, and determines that the evaluation of cultural tourism routes should include lines. Five aspects―the theme, the participating subject, the object itself, related activities and multi-party value―are used to construct a five-component model. At the same time, based on the consumer utility function, a complete route evaluation and hierarchical system is constructed. Then, taking the Ancient Tea-horse Road cultural tourism route as an example and using the expert scoring method and the analytic hierarchy process, the actual scores and grades of the Ancient Tea-horse Road cultural tourism route are determined, and countermeasures and suggestions for its sustainable development are proposed. The paper also verifies the applicability and practicability of the evaluation system, and promotes and improves the feedback evaluation system. The aim is to at promote and widely apply the evaluation system of cultural tourism routes, realizing the transformation from individual cases to joint cases, and promoting the standardization and sustainable development of cultural tourism routes.

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    Comprehensive Assessment of Sustainable Tourism-oriented Revitalization in a Historic District: A Case Study of Qianmen Area, Beijing, China
    ZHU He, WANG Jingru, ZHANG Xiyue
    2019, 10 (5):  559-568.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.013
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    Tourism-oriented revitalization of historic districts has been identified as a form of sustainability which is believed to contribute to both conservation and development. Comprehensive assessments of the effects of such tourism-oriented revitalizations in historic districts are thus a great challenge, and are needed to support sustainable development and management efforts. In this study criteria and indicators were identified by using the AHP method with experts scoring four aspects on two levels. We assess a case in China using this system and outputs indicated infrastructure and environment performed best, while the score for residents’ living condition and participation was the lowest. Finally, we offer some suggestions to improve the relatively poor status in order to assist historic districts in achieving sustained revitalization.

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