Table of Content

    30 July 2017, Volume 8 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Evaluating Ecological Restoration Technology: A New Era for Ecosystem Protection in Vulnerable Ecological Regions in China
    LI Wenhua
    2017, 8 (4):  313-314.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.001
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    Overview of Ecological Restoration Technologies and Evaluation Systems
    ZHEN Lin, YAN Huimin, HU Yunfeng, XUE Zhichao, XIAO Yu, XIE Gaodi, MA Jianxia, WANG Jijun
    2017, 8 (4):  315-324.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.002
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    Ecological degradation is a global problem, and ecological restoration technologies have played and will continue to play an important role in its mitigation. However, the lack of systematic research and evaluations of ecological technologies has thus far affected their effective application in vulnerable ecological regions. This study therefore provides an overview of the main technologies for remediating soil and water erosion, desertification, and rock desertification in China and throughout the world. It addresses key issues and recommends approaches for evaluating ecological restoration technologies. Restoration technology emerged as early as 1800. Over the years such technology has changed from single objective applications to multi-purpose, multi-objective applications employing strategies that take into account ecosystem rehabilitation and integrated ecological and socioeconomic development. Along with this technological evolution, different countries have taken pertinent actions as part of their restoration initiatives. However, key issues remain, including the lack of location-specific restoration technologies and a methodological strategy to assess and prioritize existing technologies. This study proposes a four-level analytical hierarchical framework in conjunction with an indicator system that highlights the establishment and adaptation of associative indicators, while also recommending a three-phase evaluation method (TheMert), targeting TheMert to qualitative (quick and extensive) and quantitative (detailed) evaluations in order to select the most appropriate restoration technologies available. This study can also be used as a basis for understanding the evaluation and prioritization of restoration technologies, while increasing the awareness of decision makers and the public on the role of technology in restoring degraded ecosystems.
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    Framework Design of Eco-Technology Evaluation Platform and Integration System
    XIAO Yu, XIE Gaodi, ZHEN Lin
    2017, 8 (4):  325-331.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.003
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    Global ecological degradation is a matter of enormous concern. In the early 20st century, the United States, Europe and China began to apply eco-technology to ecosystem management and restoration in order to slow down or stop ecological degradation. To date, there has been neither a systematic summary and scientific evaluation, nor is there a unified platform to describe ecological degradation problems in different areas and existing eco-technologies. These shortcomings have hindered the popularization and application of technologies. This study intends to build an eco-technology evaluation platform and integration system that brings together heterogeneous data from multiple sources. The key technology of the eco-technology evaluation platform and integration system is information integration technology. We will establish a metadata engine based on metadata storage to achieve access to and integration of metadata and heterogeneous data sources. The information integration mode based on a metamodel addresses information heterogeneity at four levels: system, syntax, structure and semantics. We develop the framework for an eco-technology evaluation platform and integration system to integrate eco- technology databases, eco-technology evaluation model databases, eco-technology evaluation parameter databases and spatial databases of ecological degradation and eco-technology with metadata and metamodel integration mode. This system can support functions for the query and display of global and typical ecological degradation and the query, display, evaluation and prioritization of eco-technologies, which can realize the visualization of global and Chinese ecological degradation and eco-technology evaluation and prioritization. This system will help government decision makers and relevant departments to understand ecological degradation and the effects of eco- technology implementation.
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    Research Articles
    Study on Identification Methods for Ecological Technologies
    LIU Li, CHANG Qian, JIANG Zhide
    2017, 8 (4):  332-340.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.004
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    In this study, we first define ecological technologies and the need for identification technology, and we then examine all the present methods of identification technology: Delphi method, Technology Road Mapping Method, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Patentometric method and the text mining method. Among these methods, the combination of Delphi + Analytic Hierarchy Process incorporates ecological technologies into social and economic systems for a systematic identification, and is able to build an index system for an identification model of ecological technologies, identifying technical features, technical level and performance, and economic, social and ecological benefits. Patentometric method presents an objective perspective for identification, based on the characteristics and the internal development logic of ecological technologies. We find that the Delphi + Analytic Hierarchy Process and Patentometric method are the best choices for identification of ecological technologies, because both combine the advantages of qualitative and quantitative identification.
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    The Implementation Effects of a Nationwide Sloping Farmland Soil Erosion Control Project in China
    FENG Wei, YANG Yunfen, ZHAO Yongjun, DI Baofeng, MA Changchen
    2017, 8 (4):  341-351.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.005
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    To understand implementation of a nationwide sloping farmland soil erosion comprehensive control project during China’s 12th Five-Year Plan we used data collection and expert consultation. We selected 24 indexes across three aspects including project management, engineering construction and implementation benefit and used AHP-grey correlation analysis methods. We found that the scores for engineering construction were greater than 0.65 in most of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. These scores are high and scores for project management and implementation benefit are between 0.45-0.65; however, overall scores are low. The comprehensive evaluation results are normally distributed. The composite scores for Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou are 0.71, 0.68 and 0.68 respectively, indicating that the implementation effects are good. The scores for Jilin and Liaoning are 0.38 and 0.42 respectively, indicating that the implementation effects need improvement. Scores for other provinces are between 0.45-0.65 and the effects are medium. The evaluation results show certain zonal rules spatially and the implementation effect in karst regions of Southwest China is the highest, followed by the purple soil region in Southwest China, Loess Plateau region of Northwest China, earth-rock mountain region of North China and red soil hilly region of South China. The implementation effect in the black soil region of Northeast China suggests that improvement is needed in this region.

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    Extraction and Dynamic Spatial-Temporal Changes of Grassland Deterioration Research Hot Regions in China
    HU Yunfeng, HAN Yueqi, ZHANG Yunzhi, ZHUANG Yuan
    2017, 8 (4):  352-358.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.006
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    The authors use a web crawler to retrieve all periodical articles from CNKI between the 1950s and 2016 and then parse the abstracts of 293368 articles about grassland deterioration by word segmentation, location matching and other methods. The authors also construct a research hot regions extraction model of grassland deterioration in China based on a comprehensive research hot regions index of toponyms and then analyze the spatial pattern and dynamic change in research hot regions of grassland deterioration in China. The research shows the following: (1) The spatial heterogeneity of grassland deterioration in China can be effectively described by a model of grassland deterioration based on the comprehensive research hot regions index. (2) The research hot regions of grassland deterioration are mainly distributed in most regions of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Tibet, Gansu and other provinces. The northeastern region of Inner Mongolia (such as Hulunbeier) and the eastern region of Inner Mongolia (such as Xilin Gol, Chifeng and Wulanchabu) are significant hot regions in the study of grassland deterioration. (3) The number of high research hot regions increases from 81 in the 1950s to 99 in the 2000s; the area increases from 1.038 million km2 to 1.146 million km2. The degree of hot for grassland deterioration research in 197 counties showed an upward trend. This paper also discusses the relationship between the region of research hot regions and the region of grassland deterioration and then indicates the differences between them in time matching, space matching and concept matching.
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    Evaluation of the Effects of Implementing Degraded Grassland Ecosystem Restoration Technology: A Case Study on Technology for Returning Grazing Land to Grassland
    ZHOU Shengqiang, ZHAO Kai
    2017, 8 (4):  359-368.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.007
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    Restoring degraded grassland ecosystems is of great significance for the sustainable development of grassland ecological service functions and the sustainable and healthy development of regional economies and societies. Returning grazing land to grassland technology (RGLGT) is an important strategic technology for restoring degraded grassland ecosystems and achieving the sustainable development of the society and economy of pastoral areas in China. Researching the comprehensive evaluation system of the effects of RGLGT has an important significance for evaluating and adjusting national ecological policy. Based on collecting sample surveys from 221 farmers in 16 villages of 4 towns of Yanchi County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in 2017, a model for evaluating the effects of implementing RGLGT was developed. The model included the characteristics of the technology, the ecological and social benefits of the technology, and the sustainability and economic benefits of the technology, it was used to complete a comprehensive effects evaluation of implementing RGLGT in Yanchi County that was based on use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The results showed that the comprehensive effect of implementing RGLGT is good overall and had a score of 0.5946. In terms of specific effects ranked from high to low, these were the ecological and social benefits of the technology, the economic benefits, the sustainability and the characteristics themselves. The implementation of RGLGT has resulted in good ecological and social benefits and economic benefits, but sustainability and characteristics of the technology are weak.
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    Ecosystem Service Value Assessment for National Key Eco-function Zones for Water and Soil Conservation
    YU Fuqin, LU Chunxia, XIAO Yu, GU Shijie
    2017, 8 (4):  369-377.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.008
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    National key eco-function zones for water and soil conservation are exceptionally fragile areas in terms of their eco-environments and are also severely affected by water and soil loss. They have been a focus of attention from all sectors of society. This research assesses important ecosystem service functions and their values using such indexes as NPP, soil conservation quantity and water conservation quantity. The result indicates that the ecosystem services of China’s eco-function zones for water and soil conservation are worth 3268.90×108 CNY in total, of which organic matter production accounts for 530.96×108 CNY, nutrient substance circulation and storage 301.91×108 CNY, carbon fixation and oxygen release 1616.16×108 CNY, soil conservation 442.70×108 CNY and water source conservation 816.20×108 CNY. Of the four functional zones, the Guangxi-Guizhou-Yunnan Area registers the highest value of 1551.30×108 CNY, and the Three Gorges Reservoir Area the lowest value of 448.15×108 CNY. In terms of ecosystem service value per unit of area, the Guangxi-Guizhou-Yunnan Area takes the first place, followed by Three Gorges Reservoir Area and the Dabie Mountain Area, which are roughly equivalent, and finally the Loess Plateau Area is at the bottom.
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    Spatio-temporal Patterns of Vegetation Change in Kazakhstan from 1982 to 2015
    LUO Liang, DU Wenpeng, YAN Huimin, ZHEN Lin, DONG Yu
    2017, 8 (4):  378-384.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.009
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    The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), as a key indicator of vegetation growth, effectively provides information regarding vegetation growth status. Based on the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS) NDVI time series data for Kazakhstan from 1982 to 2015, we analyzed the spatial pattern and changes in the vegetation growth trend. Results indicated that the three main types of vegetation in Kazakhstan are cropland, grassland and shrubland, and these are distributed from north to south. While the regional distribution pattern is obvious, the vegetation index decreased from north to south. The average NDVI values of the three main vegetation types are in the order of cropland > grassland > shrubland. During the period from 1982 to 2015, the NDVI initially increased (1982-1992), then decreased (1993-2007), and then increased again (2008-2015). The areas where NDVI decreased significantly accounted for 24.0% of the total land area. These areas with vegetation degradation are mainly distributed in the northwest junction between cropland and grassland, and in the cropland along the southern border. The proportions of total grassland, cropland and shrubland areas that were degraded are 23.5%, 48.4% and 13.7%, respectively. Areas with improved vegetation, accounting for 11.8% of the total land area, were mainly distributed in the mid-east cropland area, and the junction between cropland and grassland in the mid-east region.
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    Influence of Ecological Technology Measures on the Annual Sediment Load of the Wuding River
    LI Min, ZHANG Changyin, WANG Haiyan, WANG Sen
    2017, 8 (4):  385-391.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.010
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    The influence of ecological technology measures on the annual sediment loads of rivers complies with the principles of statistics. In this paper, the annual sediment load of the Wuding River is taken as the dependent variable and the rainfall, rainstorms during the flood period of the Wuding River and areas of ecological technology measures are taken as the independent variables to analyze the influence of ecological technology measures on the annual sediment load of the Wuding River during the years 1956 to 2007. This research uses a stepwise regression method. The result shows that 1) the non-linear regression equation composed of three independent variables including 7-8 monthly rainfalls along the Wuding River, areas of ecological technology measures and maximum daily rainfall along the Wuding River has been calculated and set up; the correlation coefficient is R2=0.857 and the significance level is α=0.001. 2) R2=0.717 is adjusted and the regression equation reveals a change of annual sediment load exceeding 71.7% over 52 years; 3) The standardized regression coefficient for ecological technology measure area has the maximum absolute value of the three independent variables shows maximum influence on the change of annual sediment load; and 4) Because of implementing the ecological technology measures, until to year of 2007, when the 7-8 monthly rainfall and maximum daily rainfall are the maximum values in the research section, the annual sediment load is calculated as 149million ton, which is 36% of the maximum value in the history.
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    Soil and Water Conservation Ecological Technology in China
    LI Qi, WANG Haiyan, CONG Peijuan, ZHAO Hui
    2017, 8 (4):  392-397.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.011
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    Analysis of the development of research and technical application is a critical basis for the identification and evaluation for suitable soil and water conservation ecological technology (SWCET) in China. Among instruments for analyzing the development of research and technical application, bibliometric statistics and visualization tools such as CiteSpace have been widely applied. To analyze the domestic development of SWCET, we applied CiteSpace to the CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) database on Chinese research literature (from Jan 1985 to Mar 2017) and patents (Jan 2002 to Feb 2017). The circulation of research after 2002 and quantity of patents after 2010 increased rapidly. Research institutions, people and interests were dispersed, a strong center of research has not been formed and cooperation among research institutions is weak. The number of patented inventions in western regions of China suffering serious soil erosion is far lower than that in eastern regions such as Jiangsu, Beijing, Shandong and Guangdong. Vegetation restoration, ecological slope protection and protective cultivation are relative hotspots according to technical measures: the Loess Plateau, stony desertification (area) and dry-hot valley according to research area, and expressway, side slope and sloping cropland according to application area. Research hotspots mainly appeared several years after the number of published papers increased in 2002. In the past five years, only stony desertification has emerged as a focus. We argue that further studies on the identification and evaluation of SWCET should be focused on certain technical measures, regions and areas.
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    Evolution Characteristics and Development Trends of Sand Barriers
    NING Baoying, MA Jianxia, JIANG Zhide, CHEN Chun, ZHANG Xinli, LU Jingliang
    2017, 8 (4):  398-404.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.012
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    Sand barriers are one of the main measures used to prevent desertification and have been widely used in desertification control. Here, we use bibliometric methods and content analysis to summarize sand barrier type, applications and research. Existing problems in research are pointed out and revolution characteristics and development trends of sand barriers are discussed. We conclude that three main driving factors have stimulated sand barrier study: demand, technology and development concept. Developing environmentally friendly technology and promoting industrialization of sand area economies are future directions for sand barrier research.

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    Ecological Rehabilitation Measures in Civil Airport Construction Projects in Different Ecologically Vulnerable Regions in China
    LI Yue, QI Shi
    2017, 8 (4):  405-412.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.013
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    Numerous airports have been constructed based on the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for Civil Aviation Development of China. We collected relevant data on the number and distribution of civil airports, the construction of which had started or that had been assessed and approved. Based on a comparative analysis of the limits of ecological restoration in different ecologically vulnerable areas from the perspective of space, as well as an examination of ecological sensitivity factors in the ecosystems surrounding airport construction projects, suggestions concerning key ecological control techniques to be employed in airport construction projects in different ecologically vulnerable areas are put forward. The results showed that the airport construction projects recently approved by the Ministry of Water Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency are mainly distributed in the ecologically vulnerable areas of the Red Soil Hilly Area in southern China, the Karst Rocky Desertification Area in southwest China, the Agro-pastoral Ecotone in the southwestern mountain region, and the Desert-Oasis Connecting Belt in northwest China. The airport construction projects in the southwest mountain area, the hilly areas of southern China, and in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are mainly based on the ecological technologies of slope protection, interception and drainage management, and vegetation restoration, respectively. In the arid and semi-arid areas, the ecological control technology employed in airport construction is mainly the rational utilization of water resources and reduction or mitigation of the effects of sandstorms. This study aims to serve as basis for soil and water conservation plans in airport construction projects and accelerate ecosystem restoration within the vicinity of airport construction sites.
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    Net Primary Productivity Increased on the Loess Plateau Following Implementation of the Grain to Green Program
    LIU Fang, YAN Huimin, GU Fengxue, NIU Zhongen, HUANG Mei
    2017, 8 (4):  413-421.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.014
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    The spatio-temporal characteristics of net primary productivity (NPP) since implementation of the Grain to Green Program (GTGP) are important for understanding ecological restoration of the Loess Plateau in China. Here, we conduct spatio-temporal analysis of NPP using MODIS datasets (500 m, 8-day intervals) and VPM (Vegetation Photosynthesis Model) from 2000-2015. We found that NPP on the Loess Plateau increased significantly from 2000 to 2015 (p<0.05). Significant increases in NPP were observed in core areas of the GTGP, including northern Shaanxi and Lüliang Mountain in Shanxi. NPP in alluvial plains decreased due to urban expansion into cropland. Significant increases in NPP from 2006-2010 were located north of the area of change in 2000-2005. NPP increased across three vegetation types and four slope gradients. In hilly-gully regions prone to soil erosion, such as central and southeastern parts of the Loess Plateau, obvious vegetation restoration was detected.
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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Rocky Desertification in Qiandongnan Prefecture of Guizhou Province
    DOU Hongtao, ZHEN Lin, LI Haiping
    2017, 8 (4):  422-432.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.015
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    Rocky desertification is a serious threat to socioeconomic development and the ecological security of karst areas. The control of rocky desertification has therefore become a major concern of both the Chinese government and local populations living in karst areas. In this paper, we used the national evaluation system for monitoring rocky desertification, and adjusted relevant indices. For example, we improved the system’s base rock exposure index with Normalized Difference Rock index (NDRI), substituted a soil erosion index for soil depth, and from these obtained the categories and spatial distribution of rocky desertification. We also studied the main factors and functional mechanisms of rocky desertification with consideration given to natural geographic conditions such as soil, physiognomy, elevation, slope and river network density, and, also human interference factors such as population density, GDP, population distribution, and from these got spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of rocky desertification in Qiandongnan prefecture. Results indicate that the primary soil types of rocky desertification in the research areas include yellow, limestone and paddy soils. These rocky desertification areas are more likely to contain limestone soil than purple soil, and least likely to contain paddy soil. The distribution of moderate or severe rocky desertification in areas with moderate to steep slope is 40%, where sloping agricultural land comprises a large proportion of the total. Rocky desertification is widely distributed in regions with precipitation between 1000-1200 mm, and this precipitation is the main factor causing greater soil erosion in limestone soil base and sloping agricultural areas. Moreover, desertification is closely related to the distribution of residential areas, population density, poverty and sloping agricultural land
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    Soil and Water Conservation Technology in the Zhifanggou Watershed
    QIAO Mei, WANG Jijun, LI Yue, CHENG Simin, LI Maosen
    2017, 8 (4):  433-440.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.016
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    Soil and water conservation technology plays an important role in soil and water loss control and the construction of the ecological civilization in vulnerable areas. Here, soil and water conservation technology use over 70 years for the Zhifanggou watershed is summarized and ecological, economic and social backgrounds are determined through consultation with experts and reference to published literature. We found that soil and water conservation technology use includes soil and water conservation engineering technology, soil and water conservation cultivation technology and soil and water conservation biotechnology. Soil and water conservation technology utilization varied with people’s demands and core problems at different developmental stages of the agricultural eco-economic system. The coupling process of the agricultural eco-economic system at Zhifanggou went through three stages. In stages I and II, soil and water conservation cultivation technology was applied to meet farmers’ basic life demands. In stage III, all three technologies were applied comprehensively to solve eco-environmental problems and adjust industrial structure. To facilitate regional ecological civilization construction and sustainable development of the ecological economy and society, more emphasis should be given to research and development, implementation of soil and water conservation technology, stand structure improvement, forest grass quality enhancement, biodiversity, ecosystem functional improvement, development of soil and water conservation ecological resources, the coupling of soil and water conservation, and agricultural industry-resource optimization.

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