Table of Content

    25 May 2016, Volume 7 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Promoting Rural Revitalization through the Conservation of Agricultural Heritage Systems
    MIN Qingwen
    2016, 7 (3):  0-0. 
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    Symbiosis of Biodiversity and Tea Production Through Chagusaba
    KUSUMOTO Yoshinobu, INAGAKI Hidehiro
    2016, 7 (3):  151-154.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.001
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    Chagusaba, which is traditional tea-grass integrated system in Shizuoka, is one of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) sites in Japan. Chagusaba provide an important habitat for natural plant species. In this study, we investigated the flora in Chagusaba and environmental factors to affect the number of native species estimated their diversity. Fifty Chagusaba were classified in to five vegetation types by Two-way indicator species analysis. In addition, high number of native plant species Chagusaba had low soil pH, covered large areas, and were in places where the land had not been modified. Through statistical analysis (GLM), we found that land modification had an especially significant effect on the diversity of native plants, and that the diversity of native plants was reflected in the history of the use of the land.
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    Status, Potentials and Development Strategies of Agricultural Heritage Systems in Zhejiang Province
    WANG Bin, MIN Qingwen, JIAO Wenjun
    2016, 7 (3):  155-162.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.002
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    Zhejiang province is one of China’s smallest provinces in terms of land area, but one of the most active economically. It was also the first to conserve agricultural heritage systems and achieve great results in this area. An analysis and evaluation of the status and problems of agricultural heritage systems in Zhejiang province can serve as a useful example for other places to develop agricultural heritage systems protection. Based on nearly a decade of practice in conserving agricultural heritage systems in Zhejiang province, this thesis analyzes the significance, status and problems, evaluates the potential in terms of traditional agricultural products, special cash trees and fruit trees, tea cultures, marine resource utilization, water-land resources use and eco-agricultural models, and gives targeted development advice. Studies have shown that heritage conservation nurtures traditional agriculture and promotes its sustainable development, fosters the passing on of farming culture and cultural prosperity in rural areas, helps to develop the value of agricultural heritage systems and increase farmers’ income, has value in protecting the ecological environment of rural areas and promoting the construction of the countryside. Meanwhile, the development potential of agricultural heritage systems in Zhejiang province is great because of the excellent quality of traditional agricultural products, a variety of special cash trees and fruit trees, an extensive tea culture, unique utilization of maritime resources, rich experience in water-land resources utilization, and various forms of eco-agriculture. This research provides certain references to help Zhejiang province to protect and pass on its agricultural heritage systems, to promote agricultural sustainability and to expand agricultural functions.
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    Conservation of Korean Rural Heritage through the Use of Ecomuseums
    Lee Jeong-Hwan, Yoon Won-Keun, Choi Sik-In, Ku Jin-Hyuk
    2016, 7 (3):  163-169.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.003
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    Rural heritage that involves agricultural heritage could be critical to enhancing community identity through a conservational approach. The purpose of this research is to develop conservational methods for rural heritage that include agricultural heritage areas through the use of ecomuseums. To conduct the research, we first reviewed the concepts of ecomuseum and rural heritage. Secondly, we defined the concept of the Korean rural ecomuseum by taking into consideration the concept defined by Riviere, Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), the rural heritage policy of Europe, and the agricultural heritage systems of Korea. Thirdly, we also describe methods that are applicable to Korean rural ecomuseums, which include type classification and components. Finally, we applied the ecomuseum concept to two pilot models in the Cheongsando and Gurae areas, both Korea Important Agricultural Heritage System (KIAHS) sites. We conclude that it is desirable to expand the range of targets for conservation from agricultural heritage to rural heritage areas. From this point of view, the rural ecomuseum can be a highly valuable tool that can help preserve agricultural heritage sites and neighboring areas. Furthermore, the ecomuseum can enhance community identities, and strengthen local economies.
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    Comparative Study on Conservation of Agricultural Heritage Systems in China, Japan and Korea
    YIU Evonne, NAGATA Akira, TAKEUCHI Kazuhiko
    2016, 7 (3):  170-179.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.004
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    The paper compares the agricultural heritage conservation schemes of China, Japan and Korea and, in particular, the national programs and their implementation under Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)’s Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). This comparison allows an understanding of the background of developments, designation criteria, application procedures and implementation structures of GIAHS and of the respective domestic programs in terms of the differences in national circumstances of Japan, China and South Korea. The sequence of implementation of GIAHS and the national program differs in each of the three countries. China introduced a national program after GIAHS designation, Japan has GIAHS but no national program, and Korea implemented a national program before its GIAHS designation. Thus GIAHS candidate sites in China and Korea are now selected from among their respective pools of national agricultural heritage sites. On the other hand, commonalities can be seen in the perspectives of the three countries with regards to agricultural heritage conservation through the common emphasis placed on the designation criteria: historical significance, cultural value, fostering partnerships, rural revitalization and biodiversity conservation associated with the agricultural heritage systems etc. Thus, the cooperation between China, Japan and Korea and the perspectives they have will contribute to proposals for improvements to the FAO designation criteria for GIAHS. These will be comprehensively applicable to both developing and developed countries.
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    A Study of the Improvement of Planning Systems for Land Use Control in Agricultural Heritage Sites
    Park Yoon-Ho, Yoon Won-Keun, Gordon Dabinett
    2016, 7 (3):  180-186.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.005
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    The number of GIAHS sites is increasing these days and will continue to do so gradually in East Asian countries including Korea, China and Japan. As a result, conservation of heritage sites is more and more important, especially in Korea. Dealing with issues surrounding land use conflicts are important for conservation of heritages in order to harmonize between conservation and development to prevent reckless development. This study aims to identify measures for land use management and control to allow for sustainable development around agricultural heritage system sites. The results point to the importance of public-private partnerships and local ordinance systems or comprehensive planning of land use controls for agricultural heritage system sites.
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    Agricultural Heritage Systems: A Bridge between Urban and Rural Development
    SHI Yuanyuan, MIN Qingwen, HE Lu, FULLER Anthony M.
    2016, 7 (3):  187-196.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.006
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    In the early 1990s, China stepped into the stage of rapid urbanization with a flourishing economy and new technological development. Surplus labor from rural areas flooded into cities and became the main force of urban development. However some severe threats to human survival emerged from urbanization, such as over- extensive urban development, excessive resource consumption, ecological degradation, food security and safety risks and social crises. It has become an imperative to balance urban and rural development to achieve greater harmony between nature and society. This paper firstly tried to focus on public dietary change, agricultural industry development, institutional guarantee, ecological restoration, as well as cultural tourism in urban and peri-urban agricultural heritage sites. Then, it established a development model, balanced the urbanization and urban-supported agriculture. This paper proposed “Agricultural heritage systems” as an entry point for balancing the development of urban areas and rural areas. Agricultural heritage systems can inherit local traditional culture, keep the green and organic agriculture cultivation systems, exploit the distinct landscape tourism, and the like for diversified development; In addition, agricultural heritage systems can take full advantage of abundant funds, firm the institutional guarantee and advanced technologies from the nearby urban complex for regurgitation-feeding of rural enterprises. With the help of these strategies, we can achieve the harmony of “Ecological Urban” and “Garden Countryside”.
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    Values and Conservation of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces System as a GIAHS Site
    ZHANG Yongxun, MIN Qingwen, JIAO Wenjun, LIU Moucheng
    2016, 7 (3):  197-204.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.007
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    Agri-cultural Heritage Systems (AHS) have not only various values but also important enlightening roles for modern agriculture. With agro-scientific and technological progress, the traditional agriculture that has lasted for thousands of years is declining gradually, thus is attached the importance of exploring and protecting our AHS. As a traditional agricultural system for 1300 years, the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces System (HHRTS) has many significant characteristics such as beautiful landscapes, distinctive rice varieties, ecologically clean agricultural production systems, systematic methods of managing water and soil and special ethnic culture. It was designated successively as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) in 2010 and as a World Heritage (WH) in 2013. In this paper, taking HHRTS as an example, we analyzed the economic, ecological, aesthetic, cultural, and social values, as well as the research values, of the GIAHS. We conclude that the restrictions on increasing peasant earnings and improving their living standards are difficult with the low efficiency of traditional planting patterns and the single-industry structure of farming in rugged terrain. However, these restrictive factors are beneficial for developing some industries like green agriculture, organic agriculture or ecological food production because of the clean farmland environment. In the end, we propose the basic approaches to protect the Hani terraces agriculture system should include the local governments to encourage the development of ecotourism, organic agriculture and featuring agriculture by multi-mode economic compensation. It is very important for protecting terraces to coordinate benefits among corporations, governments and villagers by making reasonable policies of compensation.
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    Customary Management System of Irrigation Ponds in Japan-a Case Study in a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) Site of Noto Island, Ishikawa Prefecture
    QIU Zhenmian, CHEN Bixia, NAKAMURA Koji
    2016, 7 (3):  205-210.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.008
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    Recent research has showed increasing interest at the vital role of irrigation ponds that plays at biodiversity conservation, and provides ecological functions at a wide range. However, many irrigation ponds were abolished due to the economic and societal transformation in the rural. In particular, small-scale ponds were abolished and rebuilt to other public uses based on the consensus building process among the community. At the same time, civil organizations also launched initiatives to conserve irrigation ponds for its ecological significance or landscape scenery. However, study pertinent to the small scale ponds in the rural setting is largely neglected. This research aims at revealing the current situation of the utilization and management of small irrigation ponds using a case study of Noto Island in Ishikawa Prefecture. It was found that irrigation ponds are still under the traditional co-management of rural community. The most important finding in this study is that the traditional management of pond water use largely contributes to mitigate the harvest loss from natural disasters such as drought in the face of extreme climate. However, irrigation ponds are facing the threat of degradation due to the sharp decrease of farm population and the existing large number of part time farmers. Therefore, the small scale irrigation ponds and pertinent management and water use allotment should be revalued for its functions at a wide range from the biological and ecological functions and human knowledge system to mitigate disaster threats.
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    Effects of Traditional Ecological Knowledge on the Drought- resistant Mechanisms of the Hani Rice Terraces System
    LI Jing, JIAO Wenjun, MIN Qingwen, LI Wenhua
    2016, 7 (3):  211-217.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.009
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    The Hani Rice Terraces System is one of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) sites which can successfully resist extreme droughts. The reason is not only that the forests and terraces have the important function of water conservation, which provide and conserve adequate water resources for this complex ecosystem, but also that Hani traditional ecological knowledge plays an important role in the drought-resistance process. In this paper, drought-resistant mechanisms of the Hani Rice Terraces System have been analyzed first, then Hani traditional ecological knowledge has been analyzed based on a comprehensive literature review, a questionnaire survey and key informant interviews. The results show that the Hani nationality has developed knowledge of water management techniques, including water conserving construction, water allocation and ditch management. The Hani people are also highly conscious of water resources protection. There is a good deal of forest resource management knowledge and worship of forests, which have effectively helped in protecting the forest ecological system. In the reclamation and maintenance of Hani terraced fields, the Hani people have developed a series of farming systems, which have effectively protected the terrace ecosystem. Through analyzing this knowledge of water management, forest resource management and Hani terraced fields management, our paper confirms the important role that traditional ecological knowledge plays in maintaining stability of the system and realizing the efficient use of water resource. This is not only helpful for preserving cultural heritage, but is vital for protecting the Hani Rice Terraces System as a whole.
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    The Effect of the Irrigated Gudeuljang Paddy System on Biodiversity on Cheongsan-do (“island”)
    PARK Eunha, OH Choong-Hyeon
    2016, 7 (3):  218-222.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.010
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    This study has been conducted to identify the characteristics of the biodiversity promoted and maintained by gudeuljang paddy field. For this purpose, a literature review was used to identify the distribution of gudeuljang paddy field on Cheongsan-do. Based on the results of the review, a target area was selected to conduct an investigation of the flora of the vascular plants and a phytosociological examination, which included general farmlands and neighboring areas, was made for comparison. As a result of the study, we were able to identify the differences between the type of gudeuljang paddy field that uses continuous irrigation and other types of land use. We found that the unique physical structure for water passage found in gudeuljang paddy fields with continuous irrigation is more effective in promoting biodiversity than the other types of land use in this area. In conclusion, the presence of gudeuljang paddy fields on Cheongsan-do contributes more to the creation of an appropriate biohabitat than it detracts from such a creation. Also, the presence of gudeuljang paddy fields is significant in that it exercises positive influence on the promotion of biodiversity, such as propagation of species, and the connection of habitats in adjacent forest, village, and farm lands. Our result shows that the maintenance and preservation of gudeuljang paddy fields on Cheongsan-do plays a crucial part in the preservation and maintenance of the biodiversity for vegetation that grows among rocks and in adjacent forest areas.
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    The Ecosystem Service Function of Shandong Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees System and Its Effect on Regional Ecosystem
    SUN Xueping, WANG Bin, LIU Moucheng, LIU Weiwei
    2016, 7 (3):  223-230.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.011
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    The Shandong Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees System is a model of desertification control in the floor area in the Luxibei Plain, and of sustainable development. The current study about ancient mulberry trees in Xiajin county is mainly qualitative representation, lack of quantitative research. In addition, the relevant important ecological functional assessment should not only confine to quantitative assessment which illustrate the current condition, but also analyze the eco-service changes, derived from ecosystem structure develop, from the time dimension. Based on quantitative eco-service assessment of the ancient mulberry tree group, this paper intend to conduct a comprehensive analysis of ecological functions of ancient mulberry group focuses on the perspective of system structure and function evolution. Quantitative evaluation results show that the system has significant eco-efficiency in water conservation, reducing sediment loss, adjust atmosphere, etc. On timescale, thanks to mulberry cultivation, ecosystem structure and services have also undergone a corresponding change. In ecosystem structure: Planting pioneer trees such as mulberries and other species which can tolerate hostile site conditions, improves the micro-environment. This makes it possible for other crops to grow. The mixed forests and the combination of forestry and agriculture protect biodiversity. What’s more, they make the structure of the ecosystems more robust, giving full play to their functions. In terms of ecosystem services: ecosystem services of Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees have shown diversified development. And its main function has transferred from supply products to leisure and entertainment functions.
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    Conservation of Traditional Agriculture as Living Knowledge Systems, Not Cultural Relics
    NILES Daniel, ROTH Robin
    2016, 7 (3):  231-236.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.012
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    Agricultural heritage has potential significance far beyond its common representation as the “traditional” system of “traditional peoples”. The U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization’s Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) program is an important designation that treats heritage agro-ecosystems as living systems, rather than cultural relics. In order for the GIAHS designation to achieve its full potential, however, the role of human knowledge within the continuous cultural and ecological evolution of GIAHS requires much closer examination and appreciation. This paper explores the limits of contemporary nature and cultural conservation, and draws on a coevolutionary theoretical framework in order to better conceptualize the dynamism of such complex agro-ecological systems. In such a view, GIAHS can be seen as evolving systems of sustainable agriculture of great potentail relevance to contemporary society-environment challenges, rather than as relics of the past.
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