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Table of Content

    22 May 2015, Volume 6 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Articles
    Effects of Simulated NH4+ Deposition on CO2 Fluxes in the Hulun Buir Meadow Steppe of Inner Mongolia, China
    LIU Xingren, ZHANG Leiming, ZHANG Caihong, REN Jianqiang, LI Shenggong
    2015, 6 (3):  129-138.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.001
    Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (644KB) ( 29 )   Save

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition may affect carbon (C) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystem. The main objective of this paper was to test the hypothesis that N addition would increase CO2 emission in the N limited meadow steppe in Inner Mongolia, China. Response of CO2 fluxes to simulated N deposition was studied in the growing season of 2008 and 2009 by static chamber and gas chromatograph techniques. Parallel to the flux measurements, soil temperature, soil moisture, TOC, DOC, soil NH4+ and NO3- were measured at the same time. The results indicated that two-year N additions had no significant effect on NH4+, but slightly increased NO3- in the later period. The HN treatment tended to increase CO2 fluxes in the two years, and LN treatment tended to decrease CO2 fluxes in 2008, and shifted to increase CO2 fluxes in later growing season of 2009. N addition significantly increased the aboveground biomass and root biomass. The correlation between CO2 fluxes and moisture or temperature factors did not significantly change due to N addition, but N addition enhanced the moisture sensitivity of CO2 fluxes as well as the temperature sensitivity of CO2 fluxes. These results suggest that the increasing ammonium N deposition would be likely to stimulate CO2 fluxes in the meadow steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

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    Ecological Restoration Strategies in Fragile Subtropical Mountain Ecosystems in China Based on Long-term Research in Changting County
    ZHU Hejian
    2015, 6 (3):  139-145.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.002
    Abstract ( 111 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (387KB) ( 29 )   Save

    Changting County is located in western Fujian province. Natural, social and economic aspects of ecological restoration were studied in this area from 2000 to 2011, and the results are widely representative of subtropical mountain ecosystem fragility across China. Great attention should be paid to the application of system theory and the harmony of human-nature relationships. This paper aims to provide the scientific theory to support strategies known as ‘harmony of man with nature’, which means exerting natural regenesis potential by following natural law, transferring runoff from harm to benefit by operating on the ground and making material and economic virtuous circles in land utilization by arousing human initiatives. It is necessary to transform ideas, tactics and technology and break technological bottlenecks, space limitations and systemic obstacles.

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    The Net Flow of Carbon Emissions Embodied in Trade of China
    LIU Junling, WANG Ke, ZOU Ji
    2015, 6 (3):  146-154.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.003
    Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (412KB) ( 38 )   Save

    Based on the most current GTAP8 database, we analyzed flow, structure and change in tradeembodied carbon emissions between China and the developed world and the developing world from 2004 to 2007 using input-output model. We found that China was always a net embodied emissions exporting country over this period. Based on the LMDI decomposition method, we found that factors influencing net embodied emissions exported from China to developed countries and developing countries differ. Trade surpluses and differences in emissions factors were vital in determining net embodied emissions exported from China to the developed world. Differences in export structures and emissions factors were key factors influencing net emissions between China and developing countries. These were closely related to respective divisions amongst developed countries, China and other developing countries in the global industrial chain. From 2004 to 2007, the export structure of China was transformed to high-end manufacturing with domestic producing technology gradually approaching the level of developed countries. With further technological improvement, industrial upgrades and export structure optimization in China, the net export of embodied carbon emissions will decrease and the driving forces of trade for China's domestic carbon emissions will decline.

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    Rural Collective Construction Land Transfer Based on Stakeholder Analysis
    SHI Minjun, WANG Hongjuan, XIE Junqi, SHANG Zhiyuan, ZHOU Dingyang
    2015, 6 (3):  155-163.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.004
    Abstract ( 75 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (406KB) ( 44 )   Save

    In order to establish a unified construction land market, it is necessary to choose a rational pathway for the market transfer of Rural Collective Construction Land (RCCL) in China. This paper focuses on different methods of RCCL transfer based on stakeholder analysis and three case studies including models from Guangdong, Wuhu and Chongqing. The main finding is that all three models improved resource allocation efficiency and intensive utilization of RCCL through land and capital transfer. Each model built different interest coordination mechanisms among stakeholders, suited to different regions and cases. The Guangdong model is suitable for an economically developed region. The Wuhu model is suitable for developing regions in central China while western underdeveloped regions in China can adopt the Chongqing model. The policy implication is that better policy making for the promotion of RCCL transfer in China should consider regional characteristics as well as the economic development context.

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    Construction of the Comprehensive Energy Consumption Assessment Model for Star-rated Hotels and the Difference Analysis
    HUANG Qi, KANG Jiancheng, HUANG Chenhao
    2015, 6 (3):  164-171.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.005
    Abstract ( 94 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (444KB) ( 44 )   Save

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of star-rated hotels in China, especially highend star-rated hotels. Consequently, there are now approximately12 000 hotels in China. One bottleneck within the industry is its huge energy consumption and carbon emissions, but the development of a comprehensive energy consumption assessment has lagged. Here, a comprehensive energy consumption and carbon emission model suitable for hospitality is established, using comprehensive data collected for hotels over six years and with reference to general international methods, decomposition analysis methods as recommended by the IPCC, and related standards in China. Our study shows that the maximum comparable unit energy consumption per building area among four-and five-star hotels is 73.26 kg ce m-2 y-1. Through energy-saving reconstruction, the comprehensive energy consumption of five-star hotels has declined by 4.1% in six years and is smaller than the advanced comparable value of 55 kg ce m-2 y-1. The comparable unit energy consumption per area building of most two-and three-star hotels (53 kg ce m-2 y-1) is higher than the reasonable value. There are large numbers of hotels of this type in China and the potential energy savings are huge. Analyzing factors of energy consumption, we found that indirect carbon emissions from electricity usage are the most significant. From an energy consumption structural perspective, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) System accounts for most energy consumption. This research provides a foundation for further examination of energy-savings, emission reduction plans and Monitoring Reporting Verification (MRV) in the hospitality sector.

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    Quantitative Measurement of Urban Expansion and Its Driving Factors in Qingdao: An Empirical Analysis Based on County Unit Data
    LI Qiuying, FANG Chuanglin, LI Guangdong, REN Zhoupeng
    2015, 6 (3):  172-179.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.006
    Abstract ( 91 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (615KB) ( 51 )   Save

    Qingdao is one of the essential growth poles in the process of new-type urbanization in Shandong Province. The study on the relationship between urban expansion and driving factors in this area is representative. This paper examined urban expansion from the perspective of non-urban to urban conversion, detailing an empirical investigation into the spatiotemporal variations and impact factors of urban expansion in Qingdao. By using the Urban Expansion Intensity Index (UEII) and Urban Expansion Differentiation Index (UEII), the spatial and temporal difference of urban expansion in the Municipal District, Jiaozhou County, Jimo County, Pingdu County, Jiaonan County and Laixi County were calculated on a county unit data set for the period 1990 to 2008. A GIS and logistical regression models were applied for discussing the results of various factors in land use change. Results indicated that the elevation and slope factors showed negative effects to urban expansion. Distance to the city center and to road both also conferred negative effects. The population density and GDP were vital and positive factors of urban conversion. Neighborhood factors showed consistently positive effects. The magnitude of factors was various in different counties. A better understanding of the factors influencing land use change could support land use management and planning decisions.

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    Reports
    Catch Crop Known to Decrease N-leaching also Counteracts Soil CO2 Emissions
    Marie MATTSSON, Marie MAGNHEDEN, Siegfried FLEISCHER
    2015, 6 (3):  180-185.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.007
    Abstract ( 75 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (419KB) ( 110 )   Save

    CO2 emissions to the atmosphere were studied in a fertilized sandy agricultural soil with and without a catch crop sown into the main crop. The catch crop was grown primarily with the purpose to decrease N-leaching but this study also wanted to find out if the catch crop could have an effect in a climate change perspective. Plots with catch crop showed decreased CO2 emissions from the soil. Since previous results have shown that catch crops effectively decrease N-leaching we recommend growing catch crops as an effective measure for helping both the climate and the eutrophication issue. Seasonal variations in CO2 emissions were pronounced with maximum emissions from the fertilized agricultural soil in June and from an adjacent unmanaged grassland in August. From the plot with catch crop emissions decreased in July and August but somewhat increased later in the autumn. Fertilized agricultural soil showed a within-soil CO2 sink after harvest, i.e. within-soil CO2 uptake. Availability of NH4+ or NO3- in the soil seems to influence the within-soil CO2 sink, with NH4+ enforcing the sink while the same amount of NO3- instead increased CO2 emissions.

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    A Comprehensive Evaluation of Industrial Land Intensive Use in Hubei Province Based on Typical Industrial Enterprises
    CHEN Yu
    2015, 6 (3):  186-191.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.008
    Abstract ( 102 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (372KB) ( 49 )   Save

    Here, we used Bayes methods to evaluate land use intensity in 365 typical industrial enterprises across nine manufacturing industries in Hubei, China and calculated the potentiality of enterprises with moderate and low intensive land use. We did this by constructing an evaluation index system of intensive land use for industrial enterprises comprised of four sub-objective layers including land use structure, land use intensity, land input and land output, and nine element layers. We found that among 365 enterprises, 82 enterprises use land intensively, accounting for 22.47% of our sample; 215 enterprises use land moderately or have low use, accounting for 58.90% of our samples. Enterprises with intensive use tended to be metal smelting and rolling processing industries and communication equipment, computer and other electronic equipment manufacturing industries. Enterprises with moderate and low use tended to be from the special equipment manufacturing industry, pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and chemical raw materials and chemical industry. The potential area for enterprises with moderate and low land use is approximately 865.70 ha and accounts for 42.38% of total current land approved, indicating that their potentiality for intensive use is large.

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    Synopsis
    A Brief Introduction to Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN)
    LI Shenggong, YU Guirui, YU Xiubo, HE Honglin, GUO Xuebing
    2015, 6 (3):  192-196.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.009
    Abstract ( 85 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (278KB) ( 45 )   Save
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