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Table of Content

    18 December 2014, Volume 5 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    GIAHS
    Conservation of Biodiversity and Its Value in Agricultural Products
    YABE Mitsuyasu, HAYASHI Takashi, NISHIMURA Bunei, SUN Binhong
    2014, 5 (4):  291-300.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.002
    Abstract ( 72 )   PDF (533KB) ( 23 )   Save
    Biodiversity is one of the important aspects of Agricultural Heritage Systems and some consumers might be willing to pay a higher price for agricultural commodities that are produced in a way that conserves biodiversity. If so, whether can market-oriented policies to promote adding the value of biodiversity to agricultural products be used to conserve biodiversity? Our study focuses on consumer reactions to "life brand" product, which is labeled as "Stork-raising rice" in Toyooka City in Japan, produced environmentally-friendly agricultural practices for the revival of extinct stork. Using data of choice experiment and Latent Segment model, we analyzed whether these agricultural products can achieve higher market prices. The results showed that consumer, who had knowledge that stork populations had been revived because of changes in agricultural practice, are willing to buy expensive rice that improve biodiversity conservation for stork. However, consumers who bought this rice because of a preference for reduced-pesticide or organic food, without knowledge of revived stork history, were not willing to do so. The majority of agricultural product consumers in Japan are this type of consumer. Thus, the promotion of biodiversity conservation by only "life brand" agricultural products is not enough. Therefore, government support and public activities are indispensable for biodiversity conservation.
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    Village Woods and Agricultural Biodiversity in South Korea
    OH Choong Hyeon, JEONG Bo Kwang
    2014, 5 (4):  301-305.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.003
    Abstract ( 408 )   PDF (359KB) ( 74 )   Save
    In South Korea village woods are composed of an isolated tree or a number of trees, located near rural villages and which have an apparent fengshui shape. Village woods also function as wildlife habitat and promote agricultural biodiversity. Here village woods were classified in to four types (natural forest, semi-natural forest, halfnatural forest and artificial forest) and 23 main tree species(dominant or sub-dominant species) identified. Pinus densiflora is dominant at 50 sites, and Zelkova serrata is dominant at 45 sites. Across village woods, emerged plants comprise 125 families, 519 genus and 1081 species. In spite of the extremely small area of village wood, 100 000 km2 or 0.00278% Korea's territory, this ecosystem has an important biodiversity and habitat conservation function. Village woods are not only a base for conserving biodiversity, but also deliver ecosystem services in South Korea.
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    Traditional Agroforestry Systems: One Type of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems
    LIU Weiwei, LI Wenhua, LIU Moucheng, Anthony M. FULLER
    2014, 5 (4):  306-313.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.004
    Abstract ( 96 )   PDF (393KB) ( 50 )   Save
    As one kind of land use practice, traditional agroforestry systems already have a long history of hundreds of years in practice and still play a significant role in the world today, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. In this era of globalization and food in security, more and more governments and non-governmental organizations are paying attention to traditional agroforestry systems because of their economic, ecological and socio-culture benefits. These benefits are also in accord with the characteristics of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). So far, four typical traditional agroforestry systems from five countries have been designated as GIAHS. These traditional agroforestry systems have rich agricultural and associated biodiversity, multiple ecosystem services and precious socio-culture values at a regional and global level. Although traditional agroforestry systems are confronted with many threats and challenges, such as population growth, migration, market impact, climate change and so on, as long as governments and non-governmental organizations, local communities and smallholders can cooperate with each other, traditional agroforestry systems will be effectively protected and will remain in the future a sustainable global land use practice.
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    The Qingyuan Mushroom Culture System as Agricultural Heritage
    WANG Bin, XIU Zhenzhen, YU Chao, GERI Letu, ZHANG Long
    2014, 5 (4):  314-319.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.005
    Abstract ( 109 )   PDF (354KB) ( 49 )   Save
    Qingyuan County, Zhejiang, China is recognized as a source of mushrooms around the world and as Mushroom City in China. Because of a favorable ecological environment and abundant forest resources, mushroom farmers in Qingyuan have engaged in mushroom production for 800 years and continued to form unique mushroom production systems where people and nature live in a harmonious way, and a rich and colorful mushroom culture. The Qingyuan Mushroom Culture System was named the Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage systems of China in 2014. Based on analysis of the importance of agricultural heritage and the necessity and urgency of protection, here we examine the agricultural heritage of the Qingyuan mushroom culture system as a research case study and comprehensively describe its heritage values, including supply materials and production, ecosystem services, cultural inheritance and multi-function agricultural development. These results provide reference values for agricultural heritage protection and inheritance of edible fungi in China, agricultural sustainable development and extension of agricultural function.
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    Typical Water-land Utilization GIAHS in Low-lying Areas: The Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem Example in China
    BAI Yanying, SUN Xueping, TIAN Mi, Anthony M. FULLER
    2014, 5 (4):  320-327.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.006
    Abstract ( 551 )   PDF (566KB) ( 118 )   Save
    Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem is a raised field agriculture system with typical water-land utilization. It was identified as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) site by FAO in April 2014. Based on a literature review and field investigations, we analyzed the history and development, structure and characteristics, functions and values of the Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem in this research. The system has a long history, rich biodiversity, important ecosystem services, traditional adapted agricultural technologies and a folk culture. Altogether, these features form an attractive landscape created by its special water-land utilization. It also has great importance for the livelihood maintenance of the local people. However, the inheritance and conservation effort of Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem is facing great threats from modern agriculture, urbanization and labor loss. This paper will provide insight into the Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem, and provide scientific support for the conservation and development of this special system. It will also provide a good example for similar areas in China and worldwide.
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    Analyzing Environmental Stress Counter-measures in Agricultural Heritage Sites in China
    SUN Xueping, MIN Qingwen, BAI Yanying, Anthony M. FULLER
    2014, 5 (4):  328-334.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.007
    Abstract ( 236 )   PDF (447KB) ( 39 )   Save
    In recent years, with climate change, many agricultural systems are facing severe environmental stress, which are seriously threatening the food security and sustainable development of agricultural system. Although mainstream agro-system can effectively reduce the adverse agro-production effect rapidly by using modern technology, but many of them bring serious ecological crisis at the same time. For the sustainable development of agro-systems, the stress mitigation options must give full consideration to ecological protection. The Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) sites, relying on its unique land use, water conservancy facilities, traditional crops, etc., form unique production system creating a better match with local natural conditions. Based on disaster mitigation system theory and practice, this paper analyzes environmental stress counter-measures of several GIAHS sites in China. The water requirement of millet, a drought-tolerant crop in Aohan Dryland Farming System (recognized as a GIAHS pilot site in 2012), has a better match with local water conditions. By reducing vulnerability of crops, agriculture survived healthily in semi-arid regions. Honghe Hani Rice Terraces System (recognized as a GIAHS pilot site in 2010), relying on the unique land and water use patterns, has successfully reshape disaster inducing environment, and effectively reduce the risk/effects of droughts. Besides, due to the high price, rich crop diversity and variety of income channel, the Agricultural Heritage sites can ensure the economic income and agro-system health when facing environmental stress. Stress counter-measures of traditional agricultural systems make full use of the regulation and spontaneity ability of the natural system, which is an important way to achieve sustainable development of ecological agriculture.
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    Conservation and Management of Agricultural and Fishery Heritage System in South Korea
    Beak Seung-Seok
    2014, 5 (4):  335-340.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.008
    Abstract ( 215 )   PDF (344KB) ( 32 )   Save
    An interest in the biodiversity and historical and cultural aspects of farming and fishing communities, in addition to the basic role of food production, is growing. Development of an Agricultural Heritage System and Korea Important Agricultural Heritage System has been a key objective of South Korea's central government. Given that restoration and technology transfer becomes impossible once heritage is damaged, a detailed study of management regarding conservation is required alongside the development of the Agricultural Heritage System. Here, I was able to analyze several applications submitted by local governments to the Korea Important Agricultural Heritage System. The main objective was to identify the uniqueness of each application with the nature of heritage, threats to this heritage, and current preservation efforts. I found that the most common threat is the decreasing population status for heritage maintenance due to changes in agricultural environments. In response, each site plans to boost local tourism activities as a solution but current tourism oriented management plans may result in further damage to heritage. In light of my analysis I discuss three pillars for future planning: the improvement of heritage understanding and awareness; sufficient space to maintain heritage features; and new industrialization plans that maintain production activities. These recommendations will ensure heritage protection, conservation of the natural environment, and invigoration of farming and fishing communities through biodiversity.
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    Private Provision of Environmental Public Goods: A Pilot Program for Agricultural Heritage Conservation
    NOMURA Hisako, YABE Mitsuyasu
    2014, 5 (4):  341-347.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.009
    Abstract ( 205 )   PDF (460KB) ( 51 )   Save
    While the true value of environmental goods may be captured in a one-off payment, it may be easier to add a smaller amount to a private good by means of donation and collect the total environmental value over time. For that, however we need to ensure the smaller amount of a heritage conservation donation added to a private good is adequate so that we can find retailers to participate in such fund-raising activities. We test the contingent valuation method's criterion validity by comparing their stated purchasing behavior with their actual behavior. The price increase from the addition of the donation did not affect total sales of the commodity. Adding a donation to specialized private goods may be an effective way to collect landscape and agricultural heritage conservation donations. Furthermore, our findings suggest that funds can be collected without affecting commodity sales. This approach is effective in other environmental protection activities.
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    Spatial Variability Analysis of Soil Nutrients Based on GIS and Geostatistics: A Case Study of Yisa Township, Yunnan, China
    LI Jing, MIN Qingwen, LI Wenhua, BAI Yanying, Dhruba Bijaya G. C., YUAN Zheng
    2014, 5 (4):  348-355.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.010
    Abstract ( 258 )   PDF (614KB) ( 358 )   Save
    Hani rice terraces system is one of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) pilot sites selected by FAO. Soil nutrients are an important symbol of soil fertility, and play an important role in the sustainable utilization of land. Based on geo-statistics and GIS, the spatial variation of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium in the soil in Yisa (a town in Honghe County, Yunnan Province) was studied. The results show that the spatial variability of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium exhibited medium spatial variability, and the coefficients of variation are 12.54%, 40.14%, 40.00%, 34.89%, and 40.00% respectively. Available phosphorus exhibited strong spatial variability, and the coefficient of variation is 102.13%. The spatial variation of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium fit the index mode, however, the spatial variation of available phosphorus fits the spherical model. Total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were greatly affected by soil structural factors, while pH, organic matter and alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen were affected by both structural and random factors. The spatial distribution of soil nutrients in Yisa was intuitively characterized by Kriging interpolation. It is very important to understand the spatial distribution of soil nutrients, which will provide the guidance for adjusting agricultural management measures such as fertilization.
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    Soil Characteristics and Nutrients in Different Tea Garden Types in Fujian Province, China
    XU Ping, YANG Liyun, LIU Moucheng, PENG Fei
    2014, 5 (4):  356-363.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.011
    Abstract ( 268 )   PDF (577KB) ( 92 )   Save
    Anxi is the largest producing area of Tie Guanyin tea in China. "The cultural system of Tie Guanyin tea in Anxi" was selected as "Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems" (China-NIAHS) in 2014. Tea gardens in this region are organic, ecological or non-ecological. After sampling the soil in these three kinds of tea gardens, we compared soil properties and nutrient content at different soil depths using physical and chemical analyses. Our aim was to provide a scientific basis for the management of tea plantations. We measured and analyzed soil in two organic, three ecological and one non-ecological tea gardens at depths of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm in Anxi County. According to Duncan multiple comparisons and t tests, soil nutrients differed between organic and ecological or non-ecological tea gardens at 0-10 cm. Organic matter and total nitrogen differed between organic and nonecological tea garden soils at 10-20 cm. In organic tea gardens, soil bulk density, porosity, relative water content, soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were advantageous for tea tree growth. In ecological tea gardens, the indicators were appropriate and relatively advantageous for tea tree growth at a soil depth of 0-10 cm. For non-ecological tea garden, the nutrients were at a compact level and negatively affect tea growth. These results show that soil properties and nutrient content in organic and ecological tea gardens are superior to non-ecological tea garden. The development of organic tea gardens is the most suitable strategy for the growth of tea trees.
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    Noto Peninsula after GIAHS Designation: Conservation and Revitalization Efforts of Noto's Satoyama and Satoumi
    Evonne YIU
    2014, 5 (4):  364-369.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.012
    Abstract ( 315 )   PDF (365KB) ( 60 )   Save
    The "Noto's Satoyama and Satoumi " in Noto Peninsula of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan is a system of Socio-Ecological Production Landscapes and Seascapes (SEPLS) mosaics interconnected with highly productive coastal areas that have been formed and maintained through long-term human influence, which supports not only its diverse and traditional agriculture, forestry and fisheries, but also sustains local livelihoods and conserves its flourishing biodiversity. Since the designation of Noto as Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) in 2011, there have been active developments of conservation and revitalization efforts amongst the local governments, and communities, as well as pouring interest from the academia, international community and private sector. The paper will discuss the developments of Noto's GIAHS through examining several case studies of recent conservation and revitalization efforts of new initiatives and those building on existing schemes. The report will be based on literature reviews, interviews with and information provided by Ishikawa Prefectural Government and field surveys conducted. It is found that modest but steady steps are being taken in conservation of GIAHS and Noto is taking an active role contributing to the GIAHS initiative.
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    Exploring Factors Affecting Farmers' Implementation of Wildlife-friendly Farming on Sado Island, Japan
    NAKAMURA Satoshi, TSUGE Takahiro, OKUBO Satoru, TAKEUCHI Kazuhiko, USIO Nisikawa
    2014, 5 (4):  370-380.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.013
    Abstract ( 329 )   PDF (476KB) ( 52 )   Save
    Implementing wildlife-friendly farming (WFF) practices is a sound approach to sustain ecological restoration of farmland. The aims of the study were to explore factors affecting farmers' implementation of WFF practices on Sado Island, Japan and to consider the policy implications of disseminating such practices. All 5010 farming households on Sado Island, who are distributing rice to Japan Agricultural Cooperatives (JA), were surveyed. In total, 2231 households responded to the questionnaire (response 44.5%). By comparing the attitudes, beliefs, and attributes of non-certified versus certified farmers, we identified key factors affecting farmers' implementation of WFF practices. Compared with non-certified farmers, certified farmers: (i) showed a greater interest in biodiversity and the financial benefits of WFF; (ii) had a larger number of certified farmer friends; (iii) felt many more pressures and expectations from consumers, in particular; and (iv) were not hampered by bad labor or farmland conditions when implementing WFF practices. To further disseminate WFF practices in Sado, we suggest that the information on the effectiveness of WFF on paddy field biodiversity is used in public education, and opportunities for interchanging opinions are set up between non-certified and certified farmers, as well as between farmers and consumers.
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    Progress and Prospects in Tourism Research on Agricultural Heritage Sites
    TIAN Mi, MIN Qingwen, TAO Hui, YUAN Zheng, HE Lu, LUN Fei
    2014, 5 (4):  381-389.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.014
    Abstract ( 242 )   PDF (436KB) ( 35 )   Save
    Agricultural heritage is an important type of world heritage. The special features of this kind of heritage are that they are "living" or "real life" systems, in both the ecosystem and in the cultural sense. So, agricultural heritage needs to be conserved in a special way. In a well-reasoned approach to dynamic conservation of agricultural heritage, careful development of heritage sites can realize greater sustainability of the traditional agriculture by considering both conservation and development though tourism. This paper examines the Global Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) as designated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and listed by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as agricultural heritages sites. Currently, the research in China focuses on tourism resources evaluation and development, production design and marketing, tourism perception and the impacts of tourism development and so forth. There is less emphasis on research about benefit sharing of heritage tourism evolution mechanisms, environmental impacts of agricultural heritage tourism and study methods which should be analyzed in-depth, so as to illuminate the theories and practices of development in a living landscape.
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    Challenges and Countermeasures for the Sustainable Development of Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems in China
    ZHANG Canqiang, LIU Moucheng
    2014, 5 (4):  390-394.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.015
    Abstract ( 234 )   PDF (351KB) ( 111 )   Save
    In 2012 the Ministry of Agriculture of China launched a project exploring Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (China-NIAHS). Through two rounds of applications and selection in 2012 and 2013, 39 traditional agricultural systems were selected and designated as China-NIAHS, including 19 forestry systems, 14 planting systems, four agricultural complex systems and two other systems. From a system origin perspective there were 24 agricultural systems, some dating back 1000 years. Twenty heritage systems are located in areas inhabited by ethnic minorities. Agricultural heritage systems face general challenges, such as ecosystem degradation and destruction, loss and abandonment of traditional agricultural technologies and landscapes, lagging agriculture scale and industrialization, and limited farmer benefit-sharing and incentives. Compared to other types of heritage, the conservation and development of agricultural heritage systems is more complex and difficult. In order to achieve sustainable development of agricultural heritage systems, the government should play a leading role and improve financial support functions. Local people should also explore market-oriented approaches and adaptive management methods on protection and development of NIAHS. Multi-participation and benefit-sharing mechanisms should be established and basic research needs to be strengthened.
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    Assessment of GIAHS in Shizuoka: The Traditional Tea-grass Integrated System
    INAGAKI Hidehiro, KUSUMOTO Yoshinobu
    2014, 5 (4):  398-401.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.017
    Abstract ( 198 )   PDF (332KB) ( 54 )   Save
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