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    Implications of Anthropogenic Disturbances for Species Diversity, Recruitment and Carbon Density in the Mid-hills Forests of Nepal
    Hari Prasad PANDEY
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.001
    Abstract192)   HTML30)    PDF (878KB)(167)      

    Almost three-fourths of forests are experiencing anthropogenic disturbances globally, and more than two-thirds of the forests in Nepal receive different types of disturbances. In community forests (CFs), local communities are dependent on the ecosystem services provided by the forests for various aspects of their livelihoods, which disturb the forests’ natural conditions and ecosystem functioning in a variety of ways. This study tested the major disturbance factors that had influential roles on plant species diversity, recruitment (seedlings and saplings), biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total carbon density in two community-managed forests in the Mid-hills of Nepal. The stump number, cut-off seedlings and saplings, lopping, dropping, and grazing/trampling were used as measures of the major anthropogenic disturbances. The necessary data were collected from 89 randomly selected sample plots, each with an area of 250 m2. The responses to anthropogenic disturbances were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GLM). The results showed that forest lopping was the most significant anthropogenic disturbance for biomass and total carbon density balance. A higher degree of lopping in the forests resulted in a lowering of the forests' carbon stock in the study area. SOC showed no significant response to any of the tested anthropogenic disturbances. Woody species richness and number of saplings increased with an increasing number of stumps, which signifies that intermediate disturbance was beneficial. However, a higher intensity of lopping reduced the sapling density. Grazing/trampling was the most significant disturbance for inhibiting seedling growth. Areas in the forests with a higher intensity of trampling showed lower numbers of seedlings and saplings. These results will be a guide for managing anthropogenic disturbances in multiple-use forests in Nepal, as well as those in similar socio-economic environments worldwide.

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    Changes in China’s Grain Production Pattern and the Effects of Urbanization and Dietary Structure
    LU Chunxia, LIU Aimin, XIAO Yu, LIU Xiaojie, XIE Gaodi, CHENG Shengkui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 358-365.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.004
    Abstract409)   HTML6)    PDF (533KB)(107)      

    Grain production patterns are the basis of a nation’s food security. Since China’s reform and opening-up began in 1978, China’s urbanization process, driven by rapid social and economic development, has accelerated steadily. During this time, the dietary structure of urban and rural Chinese has also changed significantly. Accordingly, grain production patterns have undergone major changes. First, traditional grain production patterns in the north and the south have changed, and the food production center has shifted toward the north. In 1980, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 60% of China’s total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 40%. In 2015, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 56% of the total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 44%. Second, grain production by regions of the country is “shrinking in the east but expanding in the central regions,” meaning that grain production in eastern coastal provinces has decreased significantly, while that in the central region has expanded. The proportions of the nation’s total grain production from the eastern, central and western regions were 38%, 36% and 26%, respectively, in 1980. These had changed to 27%, 46%, and 27%, respectively, in 2015. Third, the spatial centralization of grain production has increased. The total grain yield of 13 major grain-producing provinces and regions in the country accounted for 69.27% of nation’s total in 1980, and it had reached 76.18% in 2015, showing that the impact of major grain-producing areas on national food security has increased. The influence of rapid urbanization on grain production areas shows remarkable regional differences. As the level of urbanization has increased, build-up land occupies a large number of high-quality farmland, especially in east coastal provinces and thus the grain planting area decreased obviously. The effect of dietary structure changes on grain production patterns was evident in two ways. On the one hand, as dietary diversity has increased, total grain consumption has decreased. The reduction in the proportion of planting area for grain crops to total crop planting area dropped from 82% in 1980 to 68% in 2015, making this change in total grain consumption evident. On the other hand, the ratio of grain for human consumption declined as the ratio of grain consumed by animals increased. The reduction in the proportion of rice and wheat grown and an increase in the proportion of feed grain production (mostly maize) from 20% in the 1980s to 36% in 2015 makes this change in grain production and consumption evident. In the future, with the establishment of national functional areas for grain production, the spatial pattern of grain production will return, while the demand for feed grains will continue to increase but with the space for expansion limited.

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    Measurement and Comparison of Urban Haze Governance Level and Efficiency based on the DPSIR Model: A Case Study of 31 Cities in North China
    XIAO Qinlin, TIAN Chao, WANG Yanjun, LI Xiuqing, XIAO Liming
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 549-561.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.002
    Abstract204)   HTML9)    PDF (650KB)(72)      

    In the decisive stage of developing of a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, hazy weather has become a major obstacle to the further advancement of China. Therefore, improving the level and efficiency of haze governance has become essential. Based on the DPSIR model, this paper builds a haze governance level and efficiency index system using the entropy method and the super-efficiency data envelope-analysis (DEA) model to analyze the data for 31 cities in North China from 2007 to 2016. From the aspects of spatial differences and influence factors influencing the comparative analysis, the results are as follows. (1) During the investigation period, the level and efficiency of city haze governance in North China showed a trend of fluctuation and decline, with obvious stages in their characteristics. Haze governance efficiency is much higher than its level, and its mean value reaches the DEA level which indicates that it is effective. (2) A significant regional gradient difference occurs between these two aspects. The haze governance level presents a convex distribution pattern of “east low-middle high-west low”, while the haze governance efficiency presents a concave distribution pattern of “east high-middle low-west high”. (3) The regression results show that economic growth has a negative effect on both haze governance level and efficiency. By contrast, the industrial structure has a positive effect on haze governance level and efficiency, but the significance of its effect on these two is different. On this basis, policy suggestions are proposed for improving the level and efficiency of haze governance in various cities in North China.

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    Comparison of Methods for Evaluating the Forage-livestock Balance of Alpine Grasslands on the Northern Tibetan Plateau
    CAO Yanan, ZHANG Xianzhou, NIU Ben, HE Yongtao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 272-282.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.004
    Abstract131)   HTML3)    PDF (1564KB)(63)      

    Livestock grazing is one of primary way to use grasslands throughout the world, and the forage-livestock balance of grasslands is a core issue determining animal husbandry sustainability. However, there are few methods for assessing the forage-livestock balance and none of those consider the dynamics of external abiotic factors that influence forage yields. In this study, we combine long-term field observations with remote sensing data and meteorological records of temperature and precipitation to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on the forage-livestock balance of alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau for the years 2000 to 2016. We developed two methods: one is statical method based on equilibrium theory and the other is dynamic method based on non-equilibrium theory. We also examined the uncertainties and shortcomings of using these two methods as a basis for formulating policies for sustainable grassland management. Our results from the statical method showed severe overgrazing in the grasslands of all counties observed except Nyima (including Shuanghu) for the entire period from 2000 to 2016. In contrast, the results from the dynamic method showed overgrazing in only eight years of the study period 2000-2016, while in the other nine years alpine grasslands throughout the northern Tibetan Plateau were less grazed and had forage surpluses. Additionally, the dynamic method found that the alpine grasslands of counties in the northeastern and southwestern areas of the northern Tibetan Plateau were overgrazed, and that alpine grasslands in the central area of the plateau were less grazed with forage surpluses. The latter finding is consistent with field surveys. Therefore, we suggest that the dynamic method is more appropriate for assessment of forage-livestock management efforts in alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau. However, the statical method is still recommended for assessments of alpine grasslands profoundly disturbed by irrational human activities.

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    Variations in the Drought Severity Index in Response to Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau
    WANG Xiangtao, ZHANG Xianzhou, WANG Junhao, NIU Ben
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 304-314.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.008
    Abstract263)   HTML1)    PDF (1520KB)(58)      

    Quantifying the relationship between the drought severity index and climate factors is crucial for predicting drought risk in situations characterized by climate change. However, variations in drought risk are not readily discernible under conditions of climate change, and this is particularly the case on the Tibetan Plateau. This study examines the correlations between the annual drought severity index (DSI) and 14 climate factors (including temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, and hours of sunshine factors), on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2011. Spatial average DSI increased with precipitation and minimum relative humidity, while it decreased as the hours of sunshine increased. The correlation between DSI and climate factors varied with vegetation types. In alpine meadows, the correlation of the spatial DSI average with the percentage of sunshine and hours of sunshine (P<0.001) was higher compared to that in alpine steppes (P<0.05). Similarly, average vapor pressure and minimum relative humidity had significant positive effects on spatial DSI in alpine meadows, but had insignificant effects in alpine steppes. The magnitude of DSI change correlated negatively with temperature, precipitation, and vapor pressure, and positively with wind speed and sunshine. This demonstrates that the correlation between drought and climate change on the Tibetan Plateau is dependent on the type of ecosystem.

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    Calling for Nexus Approach: Introduction of the Flagship Programme on Climate, Ecosystems and Livelihoods
    ZHANG Linxiu, LIU Jian, FU Chao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 227-231.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.001
    Abstract310)   HTML4)    PDF (1587KB)(142)      
    The United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) launched at the end of 2016 a decade-long (2016 -2025) flagship programme on Climate, Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CEL), with the aim to assist developing countries in delivering the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and climate targets while protecting their ecosystems and improving the livelihoods of their people. The CEL programme is a major initiative supported by China and other developing countries to promote long-term South-South cooperation, led by the United Nations Environment Programme International Ecosystem Management Partnership (UNEP-IEMP). This article presents the conceptual framework and implementation strategy of the CEL programme, which were proposed through consultations between UN Environment, Chinese and international experts. Within the conceptual framework, the CEL programme will 1) focus its work on the nexus of climate change, ecosystem services and sustainable livelihoods as the primary priority; 2) encourage cross-sectoral and multi-stakeholder cooperation, enhance interdisciplinary research, and strive for breakthroughs that cross disciplinary boundaries; 3) provide four types of services and products—monitoring and assessment, capacity building, technology demonstration, and science for policy through mainly South-South cooperation; and 4) have far-reaching impacts on delivering SDGs and climate targets in vulnerable developing countries. The CEL programme is going to be implemented in a strategic way through a set of related projects and initiatives. More particularly, it will 1) focus on fragile ecosystems like drylands, mountains, river basins and coastal zones in Asia, Africa and other key regions along the Belt and Road, in the early stage and expand to include some other regions at a later stage; 2) take a three-phase approach, including Phase I, Kick -off (2016 -2018), Phase II, Development (2019 -2021), and Phase III, Scaling-up (2022 -2025); and 3) draw on the globally relevant knowledge, expertise and other resources of a substantial network of partners. So far, UNEP-IEMP has developed more than twenty projects and initiatives in the regions along the Belt and Road, especially in Africa and the Greater Mekong Subregion, which lay a solid foundation for the implementation of CEL programme in its first phase.
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    Economic Development Status of the Countries along the Belt and Road and Their Correlations with Population and Carbon Emissions
    ZHONG Yang, LIN Aiwen, ZHOU Zhigao, HE Lijie, YUAN Moxi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 539-548.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.001
    Abstract226)   HTML21)    PDF (452KB)(111)      

    The construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road are important measures for allowing China to expand its opening up to the outside world under the background of economic globalization. Based on this consideration, and from the perspective of geo-economics, this study uses a variety of mathematical statistical methods to analyze the economic development status and differences among the 30 countries along the Belt and Road. In addition, the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions in these countries are also analyzed. The results show that the current economic development levels of the countries along the Belt and Road are quite variable; the gaps between the indicators of the economic development of the countries along the Belt and Road are convergent; the GDP, population, and carbon emissions of the countries along the Belt and Road each showed an overall upward trend during the study period, and the changes in these three values showed significant correlations. Across all countries, the correlation coefficients between GDP and population (0.989), between GDP and carbon emissions (0.995), and between population and carbon emissions (0.993), all indicate that the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions are very high. Among them, GDP has the highest correlation with carbon emissions, reaching 0.995. Regression analysis shows that the value of R2 reached 0.995, indicating that the regression fitting effect is very good and the calculation result is highly reliable. Based on these results, this paper proposes the following two suggestions: (1) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should handle the relationship between developing and developed countries; and (2) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should also be linked to China's domestic regional development strategy.

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    Impact of Wheat Price Changes on Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Fallow
    CHENG Hao, XIE Hualin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 589-597.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.006
    Abstract104)   HTML3)    PDF (534KB)(37)      

    After operating for four years, the fallow project in the groundwater funnel area of the North China Plain has produced an initial water-saving effect. However, groundwater funnel remediation is a long-term process, and grain price changes over time may affect farmers’ willingness to participate in fallow. Based on the estimation by the Cobb-Douglas production function, the relationship between farmers’ satisfaction with fallow compensation and planting income is analyzed based on survey data collected from farming households in Hebei, a typical province located in the groundwater funnel area. Using this data, the impact of wheat price changes on farmers’ willingness to participate in fallow is simulated. The results indicate wheat price changes affect farmers' expected planting income and consequently their willingness to fallow; 88% of farmers would be unwilling to participate in fallow with a 0.1 yuan per 500 g increase in the wheat price, whereas 71.4% of farmers would be willing to participate in fallow with a 0.2 yuan per 500 g decrease in the price. Finally, some policy implications are proposed, such as the recommendation that the fallow compensation should be adjusted according to the wheat price multiplied by the average wheat yield of the three years before fallow in the North China Plain.

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    Spatio-temporal Changes in Wildlife Habitat Quality in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River from 1980 to 2100 based on the InVEST Model
    LI Qing, ZHOU Yong, Mary Ann CUNNINGHAM, XU Tao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 43-55.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.005
    Abstract133)   HTML8)    PDF (1126KB)(38)      

    The Yangtze River (YZR) regions have experienced rapid changes after opening up to economic reforms, and human activities have changed the land cover, ecology, and wildlife habitat quality. However, the specific ways in which those influencing factors changed the habitat quality during different periods remain unknown. This study assessed the wildlife habitat quality of the middle and lower YZR in the past (1980-2018) and in future scenarios (2050, 2100). We analyzed the relationships between habitat quality and various topological social-economic factors, and then mapped and evaluated the changes in habitat quality by using the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. The results show that the slope (R = 0.502, P < 0.01, in 2015), elevation (R = 0.003, P < 0.05, in 2015), population density (R = -0.299, P < 0.01, in 2015), and NDVI (R = 0.366, P < 0.01, in 2015) in the study area were significantly correlated with habitat quality from 2000 to 2015. During the period of 1980-2018, 61.93% of the study area experienced habitat degradation and 38.07% of the study area had improved habitat quality. In the future, the habitat quality of the study area will decline under either the A2 scenario (high level of population density, low environmental technology input, and high traditional energy cost) or the B2 scenario (medium level of population density, medium green technology and lack of cooperation of regional governments). The results also showed that habitat in the lower reaches or north of the YZR had degraded more than in the middle reaches or the south of YZR. Therefore, regional development should put more effort into environmental protection, curb population growth, and encourage green technology innovation. Inter-province cooperation is necessary when dealing with ecological problems. This study can serve as a scientific reference for regional wildlife protection and similar investigations in different areas.

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    Institute of Ecological Civilization of Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 303-303.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-013-0000-0
    Abstract20)   HTML0)    PDF (681KB)(8)      
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    Instructions to Authors
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 304-304.  
    Abstract19)   HTML2)    PDF (504KB)(8)      
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    Assessment of Changes in the Value of Ecosystem Services in the Koshi River Basin, Central High Himalayas Based on Land Cover Changes and the CA-Markov Model
    ZHAO Zhilong, WU Xue, ZHANG Yili, GAO Jungang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (1): 67-76.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.01.009
    Abstract398)   HTML5)    PDF (739KB)(468)      
    Climate warming and economic developments have created pressures on the ecological systems that human populations rely on, and this process has contributed to the degradation of ecosystems and the loss of ecosystem services. In this study, Landsat satellite data were chosen as the data source and the Koshi River Basin (KB) in the central high Himalayas as the study area. Changes in land cover and changes in the value of ecosystem services between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed and the land cover pattern of the KB in 2030 and 2050 was modeled using the CA-Markov model. Changes in land cover and in the value of ecosystem services in the KB for the period 2010-2050 were then analyzed. The value of ecosystem services in the KB was found to decrease by 2.05×10 8 USD y -1 between 1990 and 2010. Among these results, the services value of forest, snow/glacier and barren area decreased, while that of cropland increased. From 1990 to 2050, forest showed the largest reduction in ecosystem services value, as much as 11.87×10 8 USD y -1, while cropland showed the greatest increase, by 3.05×10 8 USD y -1. Deforestation and reclamation in Nepal contributed to a reduction in the value of ecosystem services in the KB. Barren areas that were transformed into water bodies brought about an increase in ecosystem services value in the lower reaches of the Koshi River. In general, this process is likely to be related to increasing human activity in the KB.
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    Spatial and Temporal Variation of Cropland at the Global Level from 1992 to 2015
    TAN Minghong,LI Yuanyuan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (3): 235-245.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.03.001
    Abstract380)   HTML22)    PDF (2091KB)(327)      

    Correlated increases in population and demand for food over recent decades have caused remarkable changes in cropland area globally. Utilizing the latest data product provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), this paper analyzes annual trends and spatiotemporal variations in cropland area and discusses cropland conversion, losses, and increases globally between 1992 and 2015 at a 300 m resolution. The results show that the global area of cropland increased rapidly between 1992 and 2004, more slowly between 2004 and 2012, and began to decrease gradually since 2012. First, an increasing trend in cropland area has been maintained solely in Africa; all other regions are characterized by decreasing trends in later periods despite different transition points and change rates. A reduction in cropland area frequently emerged earlier in high-income countries. Second, increase rates in cropland area have largely decreased in recent years while the overall rate of loss has remained almost the same. Hotspot areas of global cropland increases are mainly concentrated around the edge of the Amazon forest, Eurasian Steppe, and Sahara Desert. These hotspot areas of global cropland loss shifted from Europe to Asia while built-up areas have expanded at the expense of cropland.

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    Analysis of Water Resources Carrying Capacity of the “Belt and Road” Initiative Countries based on Virtual Water Theory
    ZHENG Xin, XU Zengrang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 574-583.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.002
    Abstract285)   HTML17)    PDF (520KB)(1072)      

    Most countries along the route of the “Belt and Road” initiative are faced with a shortage of water resources. However, successful implementation of the initiative depends on water availability to support economic and social development. We designed a water resources carrying capacity evaluation index system, assigned grades and weights to each evaluation index and calculated a water resources carrying index for the 65 countries along the route. We used virtual water theory to analyze China’s net virtual water import from key bulk agricultural products through international trade. For more than half of the countries along the route, their water resources will be unable to support the economic development that will be necessary for fulfilling the goals of the Initiative. As a country with insufficient water resources carrying capacity, China is a net virtual water importer in the virtual water trade. This virtual water trade can improve China’s water resources support capacity, and ensure China’s water and food security for the future.

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    Impact of Climate Changes on the Caspian Sea Level
    Mammadov RAMIZ
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (2): 87-92.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.02.004
    Abstract415)      PDF (476KB)(141)      

    At present time two main problems for Caspian Sea are: level fluctuations and its ecological condition. Historically, the transgressions and regressions of the Caspian Sea influenced the regional living and production. Based on the geological, historical and archeological data, as well as the measured data, the geological and historical variability, yearly and seasonal changes, and short-term fluctuations are studied in this paper. In addition, this paper reviews two different methodologies that explain the reasons for the level fluctuations of the Caspian Sea. The results indicate that the Caspian Sea level changes should be considered as a multistage process, which is affected by geological factors, hydro-climatic factors and water balance, as well as anthropogenic factors, and the hydro-climatic changes are the dominant influence on the Caspian Sea level.

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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Customary Management System of Irrigation Ponds in Japan-a Case Study in a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) Site of Noto Island, Ishikawa Prefecture
    QIU Zhenmian, CHEN Bixia, NAKAMURA Koji
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (3): 205-210.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.008
    Abstract444)   HTML0)    PDF (1677KB)(296)      
    Recent research has showed increasing interest at the vital role of irrigation ponds that plays at biodiversity conservation, and provides ecological functions at a wide range. However, many irrigation ponds were abolished due to the economic and societal transformation in the rural. In particular, small-scale ponds were abolished and rebuilt to other public uses based on the consensus building process among the community. At the same time, civil organizations also launched initiatives to conserve irrigation ponds for its ecological significance or landscape scenery. However, study pertinent to the small scale ponds in the rural setting is largely neglected. This research aims at revealing the current situation of the utilization and management of small irrigation ponds using a case study of Noto Island in Ishikawa Prefecture. It was found that irrigation ponds are still under the traditional co-management of rural community. The most important finding in this study is that the traditional management of pond water use largely contributes to mitigate the harvest loss from natural disasters such as drought in the face of extreme climate. However, irrigation ponds are facing the threat of degradation due to the sharp decrease of farm population and the existing large number of part time farmers. Therefore, the small scale irrigation ponds and pertinent management and water use allotment should be revalued for its functions at a wide range from the biological and ecological functions and human knowledge system to mitigate disaster threats.
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    Effects of Traditional Ecological Knowledge on the Drought- resistant Mechanisms of the Hani Rice Terraces System
    LI Jing, JIAO Wenjun, MIN Qingwen, LI Wenhua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (3): 211-217.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.009
    Abstract548)   HTML2)    PDF (2417KB)(350)      
    The Hani Rice Terraces System is one of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) sites which can successfully resist extreme droughts. The reason is not only that the forests and terraces have the important function of water conservation, which provide and conserve adequate water resources for this complex ecosystem, but also that Hani traditional ecological knowledge plays an important role in the drought-resistance process. In this paper, drought-resistant mechanisms of the Hani Rice Terraces System have been analyzed first, then Hani traditional ecological knowledge has been analyzed based on a comprehensive literature review, a questionnaire survey and key informant interviews. The results show that the Hani nationality has developed knowledge of water management techniques, including water conserving construction, water allocation and ditch management. The Hani people are also highly conscious of water resources protection. There is a good deal of forest resource management knowledge and worship of forests, which have effectively helped in protecting the forest ecological system. In the reclamation and maintenance of Hani terraced fields, the Hani people have developed a series of farming systems, which have effectively protected the terrace ecosystem. Through analyzing this knowledge of water management, forest resource management and Hani terraced fields management, our paper confirms the important role that traditional ecological knowledge plays in maintaining stability of the system and realizing the efficient use of water resource. This is not only helpful for preserving cultural heritage, but is vital for protecting the Hani Rice Terraces System as a whole.
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    Spatiotemporal Patterns and Drivers of Forest Change from 1985-2000 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China
    XIE Xue, XIE Hualin, Fan Yuanhua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (4): 301-308.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.04.009
    Abstract424)   HTML0)    PDF (961KB)(357)      
    Forests are fundamental to maintaining ecological security and achieving regional sustainable development in China. Forest land change can result in many ecological problems including soil erosion, water shortages, drought and biodiversity loss. Based on landscape ecology and logistic regression we explored the spatiotemporal patterns and factors affecting forest land changes from 1985 to 2000 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China. The results show decreased local fragmentation of woodland landscapes and that the shapes of forest patches have become more regular. For forest land cover change, soil organic matter content, slope type I (<5°), distance to the nearest village and per capita GDP were the most important independent variables from 1985 to 2000. This study indicates that spatial heterogeneity can affect the predictability of logistic regression models for forest land change.
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    Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System in China
    ZHANG Hongqi, XU Erqi, ZHU Huiyi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 121-128.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.002
    Abstract985)   HTML0)    PDF (830KB)(340)      
    Rapid economic development, industrialization, and urbanization aggravates the tense relationship between human beings and the land. With multiple demands for food security, ecological protection and economic development, frequent conflicts and competition occur between multiple different functional land types. The current land use classification system focuses on the productive and living functions of land, but gives little consideration to ecological functions. This study builds a national Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System based on land functions emphasizing the concept and position of ecological land. So-called ecological land uses are types of land use regulating, maintaining and protecting ecological security. The new land classification is more flexible for overall planning purposes and for making arrangements for ecological, living and productive land spaces. The Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System includes three levels. The first level has four major types: ecological land, ecological-productive land, productive-ecological land, and living-productive land. The second level subdivides the major types into 15 functional land categories, including major ecological regulation land, common ecological regulation land, and ecological conservation land for ecological lands; pasture land, timber land and aquaculture land for ecological-productive lands; arable land and orchard for productive-ecological lands; and urban built-up area, rural living land, and industrial land for living-productive lands. The third level is based on land cover types. Based on multiple data sources, and using a strategy of zoning and re-classification, we extracted the spatial distribution of ecological-living-productive lands on a national scale. The areas of ecological land, ecological-productive land, productive land, and living-productive land area are 6,037,000 km 2, 1,353,800 km 2, 2,001,900 km 2 and 207,300 km 2, respectively; accounting for 62.89%, 14.10%, 20.85% and 2.16% of total area, respectively. For the second-level classification, the area of ecological conservation land is the largest, accounting for 20.17% of the total area. Ecological land is located mainly in central and western China. Ecological-productive land is distributed in various areas throughout the country, and productive-ecological land and living-productive land are concentrated in eastern China.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Relationships between Genetic Diversity of Vascular Plant Species and Climate Factors
    TAN Jingfang, WAN Jizhong, LUO Fangli, YU Feihai
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (6): 663-672.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.06.009
    Abstract181)   HTML0)    PDF (572KB)(93)      
    Genetic diversity is crucial for plants to respond to global climate change, and exploring relationships between genetic diversity and climatic factors may help predict how global climate change will shape the genetic diversity of plants in the future. So far, however, the extent and magnitude of the impact of climatic factors on the genetic diversity of plants has not been clarified. We collected data from 68 published papers on two widely used measures of genetic diversity of populations (average expected heterozygosity ( He) and average observed heterozygosity ( Ho)) and on localities of populations of 79 vascular plants, and extracted data on 19 climatic factors from WorldClim. We then explored the relationships between measures of genetic diversity and climatic factors using linear regressions. He of plant populations was significantly correlated with climatic factors in 58.7% (44) of the 75 species that used He as a measure of genetic diversity, and Ho was correlated with climatic factors in 65.1% (41) of the 63 species that used this genetic diversity measure. In general, Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter, Precipitation Seasonality, Precipitation of Driest Quarter and Temperature Seasonality played a vital role in shaping He, and Ho was mostly correlated with Precipitation of Warmest Quarter, Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter, Precipitation of Driest Quarter and Precipitation of Driest Month. Also, the proportion of the significant correlations between genetic diversity of populations and climatic factors was higher for woody than for herbaceous species, and different climatic factors played different roles in shaping genetic diversity of these two growth forms. Our results suggest that climate may play an important role in shaping genetic diversity of plant populations, that climatic change in the future may alter genetic diversity of plants, and that genetic diversity of different plant forms may respond to climatic change differently.
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    Research Framework for Ecosystem Vulnerability: Measurement, Prediction, and Risk Assessment
    WANG Yajun, ZHONG Lifang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 499-507.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.007
    Abstract125)   HTML2)    PDF (408KB)(25)      

    The fragility of ecosystem health has become a key factor hindering the sustainable development of the ecological environment. Through a review of published research from domestic and foreign scholars, starting from the endogenous logic of studies in the field of ecosystem vulnerability (EV), this paper sorts out the literature on the aspects of measurement models, prediction methods and risk assessment, comprehensively defines the research category and scientific framework of EV, and analyzes the research ideas and development trends. We arrived at the following conclusions: 1) The connotation of ecosystem vulnerability not only embodies the change in the vulnerability of the natural environment, but it also reflects the irreversible damage to the ecosystem caused by excessive development and industrial production activities. 2) The setting of ecosystem vulnerability indices should aim to fully reflect the essential features of that vulnerability, which should include the index systems of natural, social, economic and other related factors. 3) There are many types of ecosystem vulnerability measurement methods, prediction models and risk evaluation models, which have different focuses and advantages. The most appropriate method should be adopted for conducting comprehensive and systematic evaluation, prediction and estimation according to the different representation and evolution mechanisms of the chosen research object and regional ecosystem vulnerability. 4) Based on the regional system characteristics, corresponding risk management measures should be proposed, and pertinent policy suggestions should be put forward to improve the ecological safety and sustainable development of an ecologically vulnerable area.

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    Effect of Long-term Experimental Warming on the Nutritional Quality of Alpine Meadows in the Northern Tibet
    SUN Wei, LI Shaowei, ZHANG Yangjian, FU Gang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 516-524.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.009
    Abstract99)   HTML0)    PDF (1789KB)(19)      

    The nutritional quality of grasslands is closely related to recruitment of young and population dynamics of livestock and wild herbivores. However, the response of nutritional quality to climate warming has not been fully understood in the alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, especially in the Northern Tibet. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental warming ( beginning in 2008) on nutritional quality in three alpine meadows (site A: 4313 m, B: 4513 m and C: 4693 m) in the Northern Tibet. Crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude ash (Ash), ether extract (EE) and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) were examined in 2018-2019. Experimental warming only increased the content of CP by 27.25%, ADF by 89.93% and NDF by 41.20%, but it decreased the content of Ash by 57.76% in 2019 at site B. The contents of CP and WSC both increased with soil moisture (SM). The content of CP decreased with vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The combined effect of SM and VPD was greater than air temperature (Ta) in controlling the variations of the CP content, ADF content and nutritional quality. Compared to Ta, VPD explained more of the variation in NDF and Ash content. All of these findings suggest that warming effects on nutritional quality may vary with site and year, and water availability may have a stronger effect on the nutritional quality than temperature in the alpine meadow of the Northern Tibet.

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    Huge Carbon Sequestration Potential in Global Forests
    LIU Yingchun, YU Guirui, WANG Qiufeng, ZHANG Yangjian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (3): 193-201.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.03.001
    Abstract280)      PDF (1117KB)(40)      
    Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change by absorbing carbon from atmosphere.The global forests sequestrated 2.4±0.4 PgCy -1 from 1990 to 2007, while the quantitative assessment on the carbon sequestration potential (CSP) of global forests has much uncertainty.We collected and compiled a database of site above-ground biomass (AGB) of global mature forests, and obtained AGB carbon carrying capacity (CCC) of global forests by interpolating global mature forest site data.The results show that:(i) at a global scale, the AGB of mature forests decline mainly from tropical forests to boreal forests, and the maximum AGB occurs in middle latitude regions; (ii) temperature and precipitation are main factors influencing the AGB of mature forests; and (iii) the above-ground biomass CCC of global forests is about 586.2±49.3 Pg C, and with CSP of 313.4 Pg C.Therefore, achieving CCC of the existing forests by reducing human disturbance is an option for mitigating greenhouse gas emission.
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    Tibetan Attitudes Towards Community Participation and Ecotourism
    TANG Chengcai, ZHONG Linsheng, CHENG Shengkui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (1): 8-15.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.01.002
    Abstract202)      PDF (1058KB)(58)      
    Some Tibetan villages in Shenzha county, Tibet were chosen as typical Tibetan communities in China. Attitudes and perceptions towards Tibetan community participation in ecotourism were analyzed using face to face interviews. Most residents supported the development of ecotourism. They are willing to engage in ecotourism projects and accept ecotourism education and training, and expect that the government provides opportunities for them to participate in making ecotourism decisions. Most residents believed that ecotourism promotes local economies and social development, and enhances the ability and quality of local residents while improving their environmental consciousness. However, some residents were concerned that ecotourism may destroy local natural environments and Tibetan folk customs and culture. The level of community participation in ecotourism development is only in its infancy in Shenzha, but there is strong potential. The chief participatory approaches of ecotourism development for most residents were providing labor and catering services and commodities for tourism, and Tibetan performance singing and dancing. Limiting factors include language, a shortage of knowledge and skills, and poor ecotourism infrastructure. Most residents had little confidence that the government was willing to support them to participate in ecotourism. We put forward some mechanisms to enhance the level of community participation in ecotourism in this important region.
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    Cited: Baidu(19)
    Typical Ecotones in China
    GAO Jixi, LV Shihai, ZHENG Zhirong, LIU Junhui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (4): 297-307.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.04.002
    Abstract393)      PDF (2192KB)(68)      
    An ecotone is a transition area between two biomes or two different ecosystems and are often fragile, sensitive and variable. Since the 1970s, the study of the ecotone has increasingly gained notoriety as an important facet of ecological research. China, with a vast complex geology, climate and vegetation, is home to a variety of ecotones. This variety is witnessed in breeds, scales and sizes. This vast array has not only laid a solid foundation for scientific research but also enhanced China’s economic development, social development and cultural diversity conservation. According to the geographical distribution and ecological features of China’s large scale ecotone, “The trinity index system” has been established including land use types, natural climate characteristics and agricultural economic development to classify and define the spatial distribution of typical ecotones in China. Based on this classification, the natural environmental characteristics, environmental fragility and the existing problems of five kinds of typical ecotones have been studied. This study will lead to a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary patterns of ecotones.
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    An Overview of the Resources and Environmental Issues from Wasted Food in Urban Catering across China
    GAO Liwei, CHENG Shengkui, CAO Xiaochang, ZHANG Dan, LIU Xiaojie, QIN Qi, LIU Yao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2013, 4 (4): 337-343.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2013.04.006
    Abstract171)      PDF (1435KB)(57)      
    There is growing global concern over food waste and its impacts on resources, environmental issues and food security, especially in developing countries. However, knowledge of food waste, in particular, the food wasted by consumers in restaurants, is entirely inadequate in China. Here, based on media reports and documents about food waste we provide an overview of food wasted by consumers in restaurants in China. We roughly estimated total food waste in order to uncover the seriousness of this large issue. We collected international literature referring to food waste and provided a detailed explanation of the resources and environmental costs associated with food waste. Ultimately we propose a conceptual diagram on research into catering food waste by consumers to evaluate resources and environmental costs based on life cycle assessment in China. This work will stimulate interdisciplinary research in this field.
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    Spatio-temporal Differences and Driving Forces of Air Quality in Chinese Cities
    WANG Dai, LIU Yi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (2): 77-84.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.02.001
    Abstract482)      PDF (541KB)(244)      

    Deterioration of city air quality is the serious problem in the process of rapid urbanization and economic development in China. Taking 74 cities that have implemented the new Ambient Air Quality Standards ( GB3095- 2012) since 2013 as examples, using statistical and ArcGIS spatial analysis method, the multi-scale temporal and spatial variations characteristics and the impact of social and economic factors on urban air quality variations, are analyzed in this paper. The main research conclusions are as follows:(1) Air quality in Chinese cities shows very significant seasonal variations, with higher air quality in summer and autumn, and lower air quality in spring and winter; (2) Seen from a daily pollution perspective, air pollution is very serious and will tend to be more serious in the future; (3) Seen from an hourly variation perspective, urban air quality is time coupled with social production and urban living; (4) The overall spatial pattern of urban air quality is high in the east and north and low in the west and south, but with an obvious trend towards regional integration. (5) Cities in different regions have different factors that cause air quality variations. In general, urbanization level and energy consumption per GDP are the common factors.

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    The Ecosystem Service Function of Shandong Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees System and Its Effect on Regional Ecosystem
    SUN Xueping, WANG Bin, LIU Moucheng, LIU Weiwei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (3): 223-230.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.011
    Abstract484)   HTML1)    PDF (788KB)(351)      
    The Shandong Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees System is a model of desertification control in the floor area in the Luxibei Plain, and of sustainable development. The current study about ancient mulberry trees in Xiajin county is mainly qualitative representation, lack of quantitative research. In addition, the relevant important ecological functional assessment should not only confine to quantitative assessment which illustrate the current condition, but also analyze the eco-service changes, derived from ecosystem structure develop, from the time dimension. Based on quantitative eco-service assessment of the ancient mulberry tree group, this paper intend to conduct a comprehensive analysis of ecological functions of ancient mulberry group focuses on the perspective of system structure and function evolution. Quantitative evaluation results show that the system has significant eco-efficiency in water conservation, reducing sediment loss, adjust atmosphere, etc. On timescale, thanks to mulberry cultivation, ecosystem structure and services have also undergone a corresponding change. In ecosystem structure: Planting pioneer trees such as mulberries and other species which can tolerate hostile site conditions, improves the micro-environment. This makes it possible for other crops to grow. The mixed forests and the combination of forestry and agriculture protect biodiversity. What’s more, they make the structure of the ecosystems more robust, giving full play to their functions. In terms of ecosystem services: ecosystem services of Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees have shown diversified development. And its main function has transferred from supply products to leisure and entertainment functions.
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    Farmland Abandonment Research Progress: Influencing Factors and Simulation Model
    SONG Wei,ZHANG Ying
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 345-352.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.001
    Abstract687)   HTML50)    PDF (331KB)(206)      

    Farmland abandonment is a global problem and considered one of the most important areas in land use change research. Farmland abandonment research currently focuses on understanding the factors that affect farmland abandonment and developing scientific models to simulate farmland abandonment. The study reviewed the natural and political factors driving farmland abandonment and summarized the main models for farmland abandonment simulation together with their advantages and disadvantages. We discuss the main ecological effects of farmland abandonment and propose farmland abandonment research directions. The study found that: (1) the influence of labor cost change and ageing labor force on farmland abandonment needs further investigation, (2) simulation models for farmland abandonment must include the decision-making mechanism of individual farmers and focus on macro large-scale abandonment prediction models, and (3) the influence of farmland abandonment on landscape culture must be investigated in detail.

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    Multifunctionality and Thresholds of Alpine Grassland on the Tibetan Plateau
    SONG Minghua, LI Meng, HUO Jiajuan, WU Liang, ZHANG Xianzhou
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 263-271.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.003
    Abstract150)   HTML0)    PDF (2173KB)(71)      

    Ecosystems can simultaneously provide multiple functions and services. Knowledge on the combinations of such multi-dimensional functions is critical for accurately assessing the carrying capacity and implementing sustainable management. However, accurately quantify the multifunctionality of ecosystems remains challenging due to the dependence and close association among individual functions. Here, we quantified spatial patterns in the multifunctionality of alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau by integrating four important individual functions based on data collected from a field survey and remote sensing NDVI. After mapping the spatial pattern of multifunctionality, we extracted multifunctionality values across four types of grassland along the northern Tibet Plateau transect. Effects of climate and grazing intensity on the multifunctionality were differentiated. Our results showed that the highest values of multifunctionality occurred in the alpine meadow. Low values of multifunctionality were comparable in different types of grassland. Annual precipitation explained the large variation of multifunctionality across the different types of grassland in the transect, which showed a significantly positive effect on the multifunctionality. Grazing intensity further explained the rest of the variation in the multifunctionality (residuals), which showed a shift from neutral or positive to negative effects on multifunctionality across the different types of grassland. The consistently rapid declines of belowground biomass, SOC, and species richness resulted in the collapse of the multifunctionality as bare ground cover amounted to 75%, which corresponded to a multifunctionality value of 0.233. Our results are the first to show the spatial pattern of grassland multifunctionality. The rapid decline of the multifunctionality suggests that a collapse in the multifunctionality can occur after the vegetation cover decreases to 25%, which is also accompanied by rapid losses of species and other individual functions. Our results are expected to provide evidence and direction for the sustainable development of alpine grassland and restoration management.

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