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    Analysis of Water Resources Carrying Capacity of the “Belt and Road” Initiative Countries based on Virtual Water Theory
    ZHENG Xin, XU Zengrang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 574-583.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.002
    Abstract285)   HTML17)    PDF (520KB)(1072)      

    Most countries along the route of the “Belt and Road” initiative are faced with a shortage of water resources. However, successful implementation of the initiative depends on water availability to support economic and social development. We designed a water resources carrying capacity evaluation index system, assigned grades and weights to each evaluation index and calculated a water resources carrying index for the 65 countries along the route. We used virtual water theory to analyze China’s net virtual water import from key bulk agricultural products through international trade. For more than half of the countries along the route, their water resources will be unable to support the economic development that will be necessary for fulfilling the goals of the Initiative. As a country with insufficient water resources carrying capacity, China is a net virtual water importer in the virtual water trade. This virtual water trade can improve China’s water resources support capacity, and ensure China’s water and food security for the future.

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    Spatial and Temporal Variation of Cropland at the Global Level from 1992 to 2015
    TAN Minghong,LI Yuanyuan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (3): 235-245.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.03.001
    Abstract380)   HTML22)    PDF (2091KB)(327)      

    Correlated increases in population and demand for food over recent decades have caused remarkable changes in cropland area globally. Utilizing the latest data product provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), this paper analyzes annual trends and spatiotemporal variations in cropland area and discusses cropland conversion, losses, and increases globally between 1992 and 2015 at a 300 m resolution. The results show that the global area of cropland increased rapidly between 1992 and 2004, more slowly between 2004 and 2012, and began to decrease gradually since 2012. First, an increasing trend in cropland area has been maintained solely in Africa; all other regions are characterized by decreasing trends in later periods despite different transition points and change rates. A reduction in cropland area frequently emerged earlier in high-income countries. Second, increase rates in cropland area have largely decreased in recent years while the overall rate of loss has remained almost the same. Hotspot areas of global cropland increases are mainly concentrated around the edge of the Amazon forest, Eurasian Steppe, and Sahara Desert. These hotspot areas of global cropland loss shifted from Europe to Asia while built-up areas have expanded at the expense of cropland.

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    Characteristics of Agricultural and Livestock Products Trade Flows between China and the “Belt and Road” Initiative Region: From the Perspective of Biocapacity
    JIN Mingming, XU Zengrang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 584-597.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.003
    Abstract220)   HTML11)    PDF (2032KB)(290)      

    In the context of global ecological overload, international trade has become one of the most important ways to make up for the ecological deficit. This study takes the “Belt and Road” Initiative as the study area to analyze the biocapacity and ecological footprint characteristics between China and other countries along the “Belt and Road” Initiative. Trade flow characteristics were explored from the perspective of biocapacity. The import and export of virtual land was used to assess the effect of trade on compensating for the resource gaps in crop and grazing land. The main results show that: 1) In 2005-2014, the majority of “Belt and Road” countries were experiencing increasing degrees of overload. In China, cropland takes up the largest proportion of biocapacity, while the ecological footprint is dominated by the carbon footprint. 2) The trade flow of agricultural and livestock products in the mainland of China shows a trend of increasing imports and decreasing exports, which increases dependence on specific regions. 3) In 2005-2014, China’s trade in cereals and oil crops along the “Belt and Road” Initiative were generally net imports, and the share of cereals traded along the “Belt and Road” Initiative is increasing gradually, but that of oil crops decreased rapidly. 4) The import trade has alleviated ecological deficit, as the selected products compensated for 1.03 times of the cropland deficit and 0.65 times of the grazing land deficit in China. This study is helpful to understand the relationship between the land use and trade deeply, and provide decision-making references for reducing ecological deficits, optimizing land resource allocation, and promoting win-win cooperation among China and other countries in the “Belt and Road” Initiative.

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    Ecological Security Assessment of the Yancheng National Nature Reserve based on GIS
    LI Haiping, GAO Ge, LI Jing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (1): 38-49.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.01.004
    Abstract132)      PDF (2839KB)(260)      
    This study used remote sensing and GIS to analyze the landscape pattern changes in the Yancheng Nature Reserve from 1983 to 2018, established an evaluation index system based on the regional natu-ral-socio-economic complex ecosystem security pattern, and then analyzed the spatial characteristics of eco-logical security changes and discusses reasons for these changes. The results show that the landscape pattern changed dramatically from natural landscape to a mixture of natural landscape and artificial landscape from 1983 to 2018 due to the intensification of human activities. At present, the ecological security status of the protected areas is not optimistic. From the perspective of the survival status of red-crowned cranes, the protected areas are suitable. However, due to the increase of human activities and policy adjustments, the habitat of red-crowned cranes is fragmented. The red-crowned crane currently gathers in localized areas such as the core area and the buffer zone. We should pay more attention to management, policy development and the environmental awareness of local residents. At the same time, it is necessary to reduce the intensity of human activities within the reserve.
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    Sustainable Agriculture in the “Belt and Road” Region in Conjunction with the Sustainable Development Goals
    CHEN Shaofeng, LIU Yang, SU Liyang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 649-656.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.010
    Abstract308)   HTML8)    PDF (497KB)(224)      

    The countries along the “Belt and Road” (B&R) should devote their efforts to top-level planning in the field of agriculture, so as to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture in the region. This will require a precise assessment of the sustainability of agriculture along the B&R. With a view to understanding the concept of sustainable agriculture along the B&R, combined with the interpretation of the agricultural objectives contained in the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), this study uses statistical regression analysis and trend prediction to predict the social and economic development trends in terms of economic growth and urbanization in the countries along the B&R up until 2030, and the corresponding impacts on agricultural resources and the environment. The results show that the future prospects for agricultural resources and the environment along the B&R are not promising, and meeting the future food security needs of the region will be difficult. Only by adopting innovative policies and implementing strategic planning can the goals of sustainable agricultural development and food security by 2030 be achieved in this region. Therefore, countries along the B&R should formulate agricultural development strategies from three aspects: building an agricultural cooperation platform, setting up special funds, and innovating the agricultural cooperation mode, so as to achieve the sustainable development of agriculture in the region.

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    Farmland Abandonment Research Progress: Influencing Factors and Simulation Model
    SONG Wei,ZHANG Ying
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 345-352.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.001
    Abstract687)   HTML50)    PDF (331KB)(206)      

    Farmland abandonment is a global problem and considered one of the most important areas in land use change research. Farmland abandonment research currently focuses on understanding the factors that affect farmland abandonment and developing scientific models to simulate farmland abandonment. The study reviewed the natural and political factors driving farmland abandonment and summarized the main models for farmland abandonment simulation together with their advantages and disadvantages. We discuss the main ecological effects of farmland abandonment and propose farmland abandonment research directions. The study found that: (1) the influence of labor cost change and ageing labor force on farmland abandonment needs further investigation, (2) simulation models for farmland abandonment must include the decision-making mechanism of individual farmers and focus on macro large-scale abandonment prediction models, and (3) the influence of farmland abandonment on landscape culture must be investigated in detail.

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    Spatial Distribution and Dynamic Changes in Research Hotspots for Desertification in China based on Big Data from CNKI
    LIANG Yuting, HU Yunfeng, HAN Yueqi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 692-703.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.015
    Abstract293)   HTML12)    PDF (5291KB)(191)      

    Desertification research plays a key role in the survival and development of all mankind. The Normalized Comprehensive Hotspots Index (NCH) is a comprehensive index that reveals the spatial distribution of research hotspots in a given research field based on the number of relevant scientific papers. This study uses Web Crawler technology to retrieve the full text of all Chinese journal articles spanning the 1980s-2018 in the Chinese Academic Journal full-text database (CAJ) from CNKI. Based on the 253,055 articles on desertification that were retrieved, we have constructed a research hotspot extraction model for desertification in China by means of the NCH Index. This model can reveal the spatial distribution and dynamic changes of research hotspots for desertification in China. This analysis shows the following: 1) The spatial distribution of research hotspots on desertification in China can be effectively described by the NCH Index, although its application in other fields still needs to be verified and optimized. 2) According to the NCH Index, the research hotspots for desertification are mainly distributed in the Agro-Pastoral Ecotone and grassland in Inner Mongolia, the desertification areas of Qaidam Basin in the Western Alpine Zone and the Oasis-Desert Ecotone in Xinjiang (including the extension of the central Tarim Basin to the foothills of the Kunlun Mountains, the sporadic areas around the Tianshan Mountains and the former hilly belt of the southern foothills of the Altai Mountains). Among these three, the Agro-Pastoral Ecotone in the middle and eastern part of Inner Mongolia includes the most prominent hotspots in the study of desertification. 3) Since the 1980s, the research hotspots for desertification in China have shown a general downward trend, with a significant decline in 219 counties (10.37% of the study area). This trend is dominated by the projects carried out since 2002. The governance of desertification in the eastern part of the Inner Mongolia-Greater Khingan Range still needs to be strengthened. The distribution of desertification climate types reflects the distribution of desertification in a given region to some extent. The Normalized Comprehensive Hotspots Index provides a new approach for researchers in different fields to analyze research progress.

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    Development of Optimal City Size Theory: A Critical View
    ZHANG Yang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (1): 100-110.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.01.010
    Abstract153)      PDF (488KB)(179)      
    Nowadays more and more people reside in metropolitan areas, and the impact of this phenomenon is clearly creating challenges for the environment, the economy and the society at large. It is therefore useful and in-structive to consider the issue of optimal city size and review the literature over the past decades on optimal city size theory. Based on the progress in recent years of comparative analysis and inductive research, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, this paper outlines the original definitions proposed for optimal city size and discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various theories. The two prevailing models in the classical analysis of optimal city size, the Henry George Theorem (HGT) and the neoclassical approach, are examined later. This paper then introduces the supply oriented dynamic model (SOUDY model) and offers a plausible model for optimal city size based on the general equilibrium analysis, which is related to sustainable development. The results show that: (1) Simple optimal city size theories come from the cost-benefit analysis developed by main stream economics, and therefore cannot overcome the defect that the optimal size of cities is the same since the same production function; (2)The Henry George Theorem, which is one of the classical analysis paradigms of optimal city size, has been used more frequently in recent years to research the issues of optimal tax and public goods and has gradually lost its connection to the topic of optimal city size; (3) The neoclassical approach to optimal city size consists of externalities influencing optimal city size, the equilibrium and optimal models for city size, the optimal town, product variety and city size distribution. This kind of research is still in the mainstream of the study of optimal city size. Compared to single optimal city size, more attention is paid to the optimal distribution of city size; and (4) The supply-oriented dynamic model allows for the integration of a spatial dimension into the economic research of optimal city size, and the constraint between city level and city size is relaxed and this has more power to explain real-world problems. At the same time, the general equilibrium analysis, as a significant economic research method, provides a new perspective for the study of optimal city size. The supply-oriented dynamic model and general equilibrium analysis are two new research paradigms that deserve more attention in the analysis of optimal city size.
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    Climatic Changes Dominant Interannual Trend in Net Primary Productivity of Alpine Vulnerable Ecosystems
    YANG Yihan,WANG Junbang,LIU Peng,LU Guangxin,LI Yingnian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 379-388.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.005
    Abstract501)   HTML17)    PDF (1323KB)(173)      

    The Three-River Headwaters (TRH), which is the source area of Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancang River, is vulnerable and sensitive, and its alpine ecosystem is considered an important barrier for China’s ecological security. Understanding the impact of climate changes is essential for determining suitable measures for ecological environmental protection and restoration against the background of global climatic changes. However, different explanations of the interannual trends in complex alpine ecosystems have been proposed due to limited availability of reliable data and the uncertainty of the model itself. In this study, the remote sensing-process coupled model (GLOPEM-CEVSA) was used to estimate the net primary productivity (NPP) of vegetation in the TRH region from 2000 to 2012. The estimated NPP significantly and linearly correlated with the above-ground biomass sampled in the field (the multiple correlative coefficient R2 = 0.45, significant level P < 0.01) and showed better performance than the MODIS productivity product, i.e. MOD17A3, (R2 = 0.21). The climate of TRH became warmer and wetter during 1990-2012, and the years 2000 to 2012 were warmer and wetter than the years1990-2000. Responding to the warmer and wetter climate, the NPP had an increasing trend of 13.7 g m-2 (10 yr)-1 with a statistical confidence of 86% (P = 0.14). Among the three basins, the NPP of the Yellow River basin increased at the fastest rate of 17.44 g m-2 (10 yr)-1 (P = 0.158), followed by the Yangtze River basin, and the Lancang River, which was the slowest with a rate of 12.2 g m-2 (10 yr)-1 and a statistical confidence level of only 67%. A multivariate linear regression with temperature and precipitation as the independent variables and NPP as the dependent variable at the pixel level was used to analyze the impacts of climatic changes on the trend of NPP. Both temperature and precipitation can explain the interannual variability of 83% in grassland NPP in the whole region, and can explain high, medium and low coverage of 78%, 84% and 83%, respectively, for grassland in the whole region. The results indicate that climate changes play a dominant role in the interannual trend of vegetation productivity in the alpine ecosystems on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This has important implications for the formulation of ecological protection and restoration policies for vulnerable ecosystems against the background of global climate changes.

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    Implications of Anthropogenic Disturbances for Species Diversity, Recruitment and Carbon Density in the Mid-hills Forests of Nepal
    Hari Prasad PANDEY
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.001
    Abstract192)   HTML30)    PDF (878KB)(167)      

    Almost three-fourths of forests are experiencing anthropogenic disturbances globally, and more than two-thirds of the forests in Nepal receive different types of disturbances. In community forests (CFs), local communities are dependent on the ecosystem services provided by the forests for various aspects of their livelihoods, which disturb the forests’ natural conditions and ecosystem functioning in a variety of ways. This study tested the major disturbance factors that had influential roles on plant species diversity, recruitment (seedlings and saplings), biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total carbon density in two community-managed forests in the Mid-hills of Nepal. The stump number, cut-off seedlings and saplings, lopping, dropping, and grazing/trampling were used as measures of the major anthropogenic disturbances. The necessary data were collected from 89 randomly selected sample plots, each with an area of 250 m2. The responses to anthropogenic disturbances were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GLM). The results showed that forest lopping was the most significant anthropogenic disturbance for biomass and total carbon density balance. A higher degree of lopping in the forests resulted in a lowering of the forests' carbon stock in the study area. SOC showed no significant response to any of the tested anthropogenic disturbances. Woody species richness and number of saplings increased with an increasing number of stumps, which signifies that intermediate disturbance was beneficial. However, a higher intensity of lopping reduced the sapling density. Grazing/trampling was the most significant disturbance for inhibiting seedling growth. Areas in the forests with a higher intensity of trampling showed lower numbers of seedlings and saplings. These results will be a guide for managing anthropogenic disturbances in multiple-use forests in Nepal, as well as those in similar socio-economic environments worldwide.

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    Analysis on the Spatio-temporal Patterns of Water Conservation Services in Beijing
    XU Jie,XIAO Yu,XIE Gaodi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 362-372.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.003
    Abstract316)   HTML10)    PDF (1651KB)(158)      

    The shortage of water resources is a key factor limiting the sustainable development of the economy and society in Beijing. This study analysed the spatiotemporal patterns of Beijing’s water conservation services (WCS) based on the water balance equation at multiple scales, including city, main functional areas and key districts and counties, determined the differences in the water conservation amount among different land cover types and investigated the reasons for the spatiotemporal differences in the water conservation amount. The results indicated that: (1) compared to 2005, water conservation amount increased substantially in 2010. However, the overall water conservation capacity was low. (2) Among the various land cover types in Beijing, the average water conservation capacity decreased in the following order: wetland, forest, grassland, cropland, bare land and artificial surface. (3) The average water conservation amount in the main functional areas of Beijing varied substantially and was positive only in the ecological conservation area (ECA). (4) The water conservation capacity of each district and county varied substantially within ECA, among which the contribution of the forest in Miyun District, Huairou District and Pinggu District was the highest. The changes in the spatiotemporal patterns of Beijing’s WCS were the synthetic effects of changes in the land covers and meteorological conditions. This study is helpful in achieving the sustainable utilization of water resources in Beijing.

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    Ecological Carrying Capacity and Green Development in the “Belt and Road” Initiative Region
    ZHEN Lin, XU Zengrang, ZHAO Yuan, WANG Jijun, HU Yunfeng, WANG Juanle
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 569-573.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.001
    Abstract350)   HTML35)    PDF (359KB)(143)      

    Since the 1970s, resource crisis, environmental pollution and ecological degradation have become prominent globally, and the limits to growth have always been an important theoretical and policy issue. The technological system of early warning and regulation based on carrying capacity evaluation has great potential in natural resource utilization, environmental management and ecosystem conservation. In this paper, the evolution of carrying capacity research and the concept of ecological carrying capacity are summarized, and the existing evaluation methods of ecological carrying capacity are classified into ecological footprint method, comprehensive index system method, ecosystem service analysis method and human appropriation of net primary productivity method. The current problems in ecological carrying capacity study were analyzed and the trend was outlooked. Combined with the special issue, the recent proceeding of ecological carrying capacity study in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) region was narrated, from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity evaluation method and application, the supply and consumption of ecosystem services, and the resources use and environment change. Some suggestions have been proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability of ecological carrying capacity evaluation: 1) the spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamic change of ecological carrying capacity should be explored furtherly; 2) the interaction between ecological process and human activities should be simulated; 3) factors such as climate change, human activities and ecological products and ecological service flows should be integrated into the evaluation system of ecological carrying capacity.

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    Changes of Soil Erosion and Possible Impacts from Ecosystem Recovery in the Three-River Headwaters Region, Qinghai, China from 2000 to 2015
    WANG Zhao, WANG Junbang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 461-471.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.001
    Abstract250)   HTML41)    PDF (1342KB)(141)      

    Soil erosion poses a great threat to the sustainability of the ecological environment and the harmonious development of human well-being. The revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) was used to quantify soil erosion in the Three-River Headwaters region (TRH), Qinghai, China from 2000 to 2015. The possible effects of an ecosystem restoration project on soil erosion were explored against the background of climatic changes in the study area. The model was validated with on-ground observations and showed a satisfactory performance, with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.62 from the linear regression between the estimations and observations. The soil erosion modulus in 2010-2015 increased 6.2%, but decreased 1.2% compared with those in the periods of 2000-2005 and 2005-2010, respectively. Based on the method of overlay analysis, the interannual change of the estimated soil erosion was dominated by climate (about 64%), specifically by precipitation, rather than by vegetation coverage (about 34%). Despite some uncertainties in the model and data, this study quantified the relative contribution of ecological restoration under global climatic change; meanwhile the complexity, labor-intensiveness and long-range character of ecological restoration projects have to be recognized. On-ground observations over the long-term, further parameterization, and data inputs with higher quality are necessary and essential for decreasing the uncertainties in the estimations.

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    The Situation with College Express Packaging Waste and Recycling Recommendations—Taking the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences as an Example
    ZHANG Wenjing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 530-536.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.009
    Abstract344)   HTML5)    PDF (367KB)(137)      

    Questionnaires and interviews are employed in this paper to investigate and analyze the situation with respect to express packaging waste at the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (GCASS). The survey results show that: (1) the campus receives a large number of express packages and there is, in turn, a considerable amount of packaging waste; (2) there are four main types of express packaging materials: paper packaging, plastic bags, wrapping tapes and package fillers; (3) neither the students nor the school perform well in the recycling of express packaging waste; (4) the samples investigated in this paper can be divided into four categories by cluster analysis, and the author infers from this that the colleges and universities with a large proportion of female students should pay more attention to the issue of recycling of express packaging waste. Several suggestions are presented based on the research results: (1) establishing a campus waste recycling system is the most efficient way to solve the problem of express packaging waste at GCASS; (2) we should advocate for green packaging and manage it from the source of waste generation because most of the express packaging material does not easily degrade naturally, and this represents a huge hidden danger to human health and the environment; (3) the school should cultivate student awareness of environmental protection. If education and penalties are implemented together, the recovery system will run better.

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    A Functional Land Use Classification for Ecological, Production and Living Spaces in the Taihang Mountains
    GENG Shoubao,ZHU Wanrui,SHI Peili
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (3): 246-255.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.03.002
    Abstract393)   HTML7)    PDF (1026KB)(135)      

    A combination of rapid industrialization, economic development and urbanization has caused a series of issues such as resource shortages, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and tension between human needs and land conservation. In order to promote balanced development of human, resources, ecosystems, the environment, and the economy and society, it is vital to conceptualize ecological spaces, production spaces and living spaces. Previous studies of ecological-production-living spaces focused mainly on urban and rural areas; few studies have examined mountainous areas. The Taihang Mountains, a key area between the North China Plain and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area providing ecological shelter and the safeguarding of crucial water sources, suffer from increasing problems of fragile environment, inappropriate land use and tensions in the human-land relationship. However, studies of the ecological, production, and living spaces in the Taihang Mountains are still lacking. Therefore, this study, based on the concept of ecological-production-living spaces and using data from multiple sources, took the Taihang Mountains as the study area to build a functional land classification system for ecological-production-living spaces. After the classification system was in place, spatial distribution maps for ecological, production and living spaces were delineated. This space mapping not only characterized the present land use situation, but also established a foundation for future land use optimization. Results showed that the area of ecological space was 78,440 km2, production space 51,861 km2 and living space 6,646 km2, accounting for 57.28%, 37.87% and 4.85% of the total area, respectively. Ecological space takes up the most area and is composed mainly of forests and grasslands. Additionally, most of the ecological space is located in higher elevation mountainous areas, and plays an important role in regulating and maintaining ecological security. Production space, mostly farmlands sustaining livelihoods inside and outside the region, is largely situated in lower elevation plains and hilly areas, as well as in low-lying mountainous basins. Living space has the smallest area and is concentrated mainly in regions with relatively flat terrain and convenient transportation for human settlements.

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    An Evaluation of the Effect of Termites on Rangeland Degradation: The Case of Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
    Yeneayehu FENETAHUN, XU Xinwen, WANG Yongdong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 525-529.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.008
    Abstract238)   HTML4)    PDF (949KB)(128)      

    The infestation rate of termites in the Yabello rangeland, caused by both climatic and human factors, is of interest at certain times. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the impact of termites and determine appropriate management measures in the study area. Data was collected from three kebeles of the Yabello district (Dida Tuyura, Danbal-Waccu and Arero), the selection of which was dependent on the extent to which the termites had spread. A field survey method and semi-structured questionnaires were used for 40 community representatives from each of the selected kebeles. A total of 120 community representatives were interviewed and the interviews were supported by direct observations and informal discussions to understand the impact of termites on rangeland degradation, and to explain the trends. Historical background data of termite infestation rates in the study area was collected and evaluated .In addition to the direct impact caused by termites on forage products, buildings and crops, the linkages of termites with the environment and management mechanisms were identified. Yabello rangeland has often been under termite infestation stress and problems are increasing at an alarming rate. So in order to minimize the impact of termites on rangeland degradation identification of exact termite species and take appropriate management together with the community knowledge and scientific management system was recommended.

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    Characterizing the Spatio-temporal Dynamics and Variability in Climate Extremes over the Tibetan Plateau during 1960-2012
    ZHOU Yuke
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 397-414.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.007
    Abstract242)   HTML3)    PDF (14851KB)(124)      

    Extreme climate events play an important role in studies of long-term climate change. As the Earth’s Third Pole, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is sensitive to climate change and variation. In this study on the TP, the spatiotemporal changes in climate extreme indices (CEIs) are analyzed based on daily maximum and minimum surface air temperatures and precipitation at 98 meteorological stations, most with elevations of at least 4000 m above sea level, during 1960-2012. Fifteen temperature extreme indices (TEIs) and eight precipitation extreme indices (PEIs) were calculated. Then, their long-term change patterns, from spatial and temporal perspectives, were determined at regional, eco-regional and station levels. The entire TP region exhibits a significant warming trend, as reflected by the TEIs. The regional cold days and nights show decreasing trends at rates of -8.9 d (10 yr)-1 (days per decade) and -17.3 d (10 yr)-1, respectively. The corresponding warm days and nights have increased by 7.6 d (10 yr)-1 and 12.5 d (10 yr)-1, respectively. At the station level, the majority of stations indicate statistically significant trends for all TEIs, but they show spatial heterogeneity. The eco-regional TEIs show patterns that are consistent with the entire TP. The growing season has become longer at a rate of 5.3 d (10 yr)-1. The abrupt change points for CEIs were examined, and they were mainly distributed during the 1980s and 1990s. The PEIs on the TP exhibit clear fluctuations and increasing trends with small magnitudes. The annual total precipitation has increased by 2.8 mm (10 yr)-1 (not statistically significant). Most of the CEIs will maintain a persistent trend, as indicated by their Hurst exponents. The developing trends of the CEIs do not show a corresponding change with increasing altitude. In general, the warming trends demonstrate an asymmetric pattern reflected by the rapid increase in the warming trends of the cold TEIs, which are of greater magnitudes than those of the warm TEIs. This finding indicates a positive shift in the distribution of the daily minimum temperatures throughout the TP. Most of the PEIs show weak increasing trends, which are not statistically significant. This work aims to delineate a comprehensive picture of the extreme climate conditions over the TP that can enhance our understanding of its changing climate.

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    The Evaluation System and Application of the Homestay Agglomeration Location Selection
    LONG Fei,LIU Jiaming,YU Hu,ZHU He,ZHANG Shuying
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (3): 324-334.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.03.011
    Abstract273)   HTML3)    PDF (381KB)(120)      

    The location of the homestay agglomeration is closely related to its proximity to the resources environment and the humanities and social environments. From the macroscopic and microscopic aspects, this study uses the analytic hierarchy process and the expert consultation method to construct a relatively comprehensive evaluation system including economic and environmental factors, tourism development factors, geographical environment factors, supporting facilities and operating conditions. The evaluation index system consists of 20 evaluation indexes and 35 evaluation factors. Taking the Baileqiao in Hangzhou and Qianjiadian Town in Beijing as examples, the evaluation indexes are verified and applied. The results show that the main factors affecting the location of the homestay agglomeration are the economic and environmental factors. The evaluation index system is composed of a target layer, a comprehensive evaluation layer, a factor evaluation layer and an index layer. The target layer takes reasonable location of the homestay agglomeration as the overall objective; the comprehensive evaluation layer includes economic and environmental factors (0.4396), tourism development (0.3039), geographic and environmental factors (0.1405), and supporting facilities (0.0545). The comprehensive evaluation scores of Baileqiao and Qianjiadian homestay agglomerations are 92.644 and 88.734, respectively, indicating that both are reasonable homestay sites. This study is helpful for promoting the understanding of the homestay agglomeration location selection and the development and construction of homestay agglomeration sites.

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    Evaluation of Water Yield and Soil Erosion in the Three-River-Source Region under Different Land-Climate Sce-narios
    GAO Min, XIAO Yan, HU Yunfeng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (1): 13-26.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.01.002
    Abstract170)      PDF (2546KB)(117)      
    Exploring the water yield and soil conservation in the Three-River-Source region is of great significance for evaluating both the ecological stability of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Yellow River basin, Yangtze River basin and Lancang River basin and the sustainable development of human society. The data sources for this study were land use/cover data from four phases (2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015), daily precipitation and temperature datasets, and the 1:1000000 Chinese soil database. These data were combined with vector data, such as data on settlements, roads, and rivers, along with population, economic raster datasets and CCSM4 common climate model prediction results. The Three-River-Source region was taken as the study area, and four land use/cover development scenarios and two climate change scenarios were designed based on the FLUS model and the downscaling correction method. The InVEST model was used to quantitatively simulate the water yield and soil erosion under different scenarios in the study area in 2030. The results showed the following: (1) Under different land use/cover development scenarios, grassland remained the dominant land use/cover type in the Three-River-Source region, and the area ratio was always greater than 67%. (2) Under the RCP4.5 climate scenario, the annual water yield and soil erosion increased by more than 7% and 3.9%, respectively. Under the RCP8.5 climate scenario, the annual water yield and soil erosion decreased by more than 3.3% and 1.3%, respectively. (3) Climate change played a leading role in the changes in water yield and soil erosion. Climate change contributed as much as 89.97%–98.00% to the change in water yield and 60.49%–95.64% to the change in the soil erosion modulus. However, the contribution of land use/cover changes to the change in regional water yield was only 2.00%–10.03%, and the contribution of the soil erosion modulus change was 4.36%–39.91%. Therefore, the land use development strategy in the Three-River-Source region should comprehensively consider issues such as regional development, the input of returning farmland to forest and grassland, and the resulting ecological benefits.
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    Progress in Research on the Influences of Climatic Changes on the Industrial Economy in China
    LIU Yuanzhe, SONG Wei, ZHAO Dongsheng, GAO Jiangbo
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.01.001
    Abstract187)      PDF (528KB)(114)      
    Global climate changes have led to ocean acidification, ice and snow melting, a continuous rise in temperature, and an increasing frequency of extreme weather events, with profound impacts on the social economic system. With the aggravation from climate changes, even the industrial fields with a relatively strong resistance to climatic changes have also suffered serious losses. At present, the vulnerability of the industrial field is growing, and the absolute economic losses are increasing. The quantitative evaluation of these industrial economic losses is therefore an important basis for formulating policies to tackle global climate change, and analyzing the current research progress can provide ideas and methods for the effective evaluation of the industrial economy. Therefore, in this paper, we summarized both the positive and negative effects of climate changes on the industrial fields and found that the influences of climatic changes on different industrial sectors are slightly variable. For example, while the mining industry, so far, has positively responded to the changing climate, severe weather events such as storms, drought, and rain could severely impede the normal production and business operation activities of the mining industry in the future. The manufacturing industry mostly involves indoor jobs, which are relatively resistant to extreme weather events, and some industries have complex response mechanisms. In terms of the construction industry, its losses are mainly indirect through increased electricity costs. The production and supply industries for electricity, heat, and water would suffer transmission supply losses in extreme weather events; and as the largest carbon emission industries, the costs of emission reduction would affect the economic growth of this sector in the short term. Overall, the industrial sectors pay relatively high costs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and therefore, the quantitative evaluation of industrial economic losses through models is crucial for both the development of reasonable policies and ensuring a smooth and consistent growth of the industrial economy.
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    Economic Development Status of the Countries along the Belt and Road and Their Correlations with Population and Carbon Emissions
    ZHONG Yang, LIN Aiwen, ZHOU Zhigao, HE Lijie, YUAN Moxi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 539-548.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.001
    Abstract226)   HTML21)    PDF (452KB)(111)      

    The construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road are important measures for allowing China to expand its opening up to the outside world under the background of economic globalization. Based on this consideration, and from the perspective of geo-economics, this study uses a variety of mathematical statistical methods to analyze the economic development status and differences among the 30 countries along the Belt and Road. In addition, the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions in these countries are also analyzed. The results show that the current economic development levels of the countries along the Belt and Road are quite variable; the gaps between the indicators of the economic development of the countries along the Belt and Road are convergent; the GDP, population, and carbon emissions of the countries along the Belt and Road each showed an overall upward trend during the study period, and the changes in these three values showed significant correlations. Across all countries, the correlation coefficients between GDP and population (0.989), between GDP and carbon emissions (0.995), and between population and carbon emissions (0.993), all indicate that the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions are very high. Among them, GDP has the highest correlation with carbon emissions, reaching 0.995. Regression analysis shows that the value of R2 reached 0.995, indicating that the regression fitting effect is very good and the calculation result is highly reliable. Based on these results, this paper proposes the following two suggestions: (1) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should handle the relationship between developing and developed countries; and (2) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should also be linked to China's domestic regional development strategy.

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    Report on the Diatoms and Dinoflagellates Distribution along the Algerian Coasts: Inter-Region Comparison
    Zakia MOKRANE,Mustapha BOUDJENAH,Yasmina BELKACEM,EL Hadi MORSLI,Ahmed INAL,Fahima BOUARAB
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 432-440.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.010
    Abstract204)   HTML0)    PDF (1196KB)(109)      

    The phytoplankton group’s composition is an excellent indicator of the state of coastal waters. The aim of this study is to explore spatial variability of phytoplankton in shallow coastal areas from different regions (East, Center and West) of the Algerian coast. The quantitative and qualitative study of the phytoplankton population was conducted on samples taken during the 2012-2013 period by the research vessel GRINE BELKACEM. The qualitative results show a significant diversity of diatoms and dinoflagellates, which rank first and second in the total flora (Fr > 50%). This finding is also confirmed quantitatively by the abundance values in both 2013 and 2012 samples which largely exceeds the average value in most other areas of the western region (56%) and slightly exceeding 52% in all central areas which represent an equi-distribution between diatoms and dinoflagellates. The Dinoflagellates contribute significantly to the quantitative richness in the eastern region (>60%). The minimum value of Dia/Dino index, recorded in the eastern region confirms the dominance of the dinoflagellates especially in Skikda (0.31) (Skikda).However, our results reveal the presence, in smaller proportion, of other groups such as the cocolithophoridae and euglenophyceae.

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    Greenness Index from Phenocams Performs Well in Linking Climatic Factors and Monitoring Grass Phenology in a Temperate Prairie Ecosystem
    ZHOU Yuke
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 481-493.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.003
    Abstract467)   HTML9)    PDF (6775KB)(108)      

    Near-surface remote sensing (e.g., digital cameras) has played an important role in capturing plant phenological metrics at either a focal or landscape scale. Exploring the relationship of the digital image-based greenness index (e.g., Gcc, green chromatic coordinate) with that derived from satellites is critical for land surface process research. Moreover, our understanding of how well Gcc time series associate with environmental variables at field stations in North American prairies remains limited. This paper investigated the response of grass Gcc to daily environmental factors in 2018, such as soil moisture (temperature), air temperature, and solar radiation. Thereafter, using a derivative-based phenology extraction method, we evaluated the correspondence between key phenological events (mainly including start, end and length of growing season, and date with maximum greenness value) derived from Gcc, MODIS and VIIRS NDVI (EVI) for the period 2015-2018. The results showed that daily Gcc was in good agreement with ground-level environmental variables. Additionally, multivariate regression analysis identified that the grass growth in the study area was mainly affected by soil temperature and solar radiation, but not by air temperature. High frequency Gcc time series can respond immediately to precipitation events. In the same year, the phenological metrics retrieved from digital cameras and multiple satellites are similar, with spring phenology having a larger relative difference. There are distinct divergences between changing rates in the greenup and senescence stages. Gcc also shows a close relationship with growing degree days (GDD) derived from air temperature. This study evaluated the performance of a digital camera for monitoring vegetation phenological metrics and related climatic factors. This research will enable multiscale modeling of plant phenology and grassland resource management of temperate prairie ecosystems.

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    Changes in China’s Grain Production Pattern and the Effects of Urbanization and Dietary Structure
    LU Chunxia, LIU Aimin, XIAO Yu, LIU Xiaojie, XIE Gaodi, CHENG Shengkui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 358-365.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.004
    Abstract409)   HTML6)    PDF (533KB)(107)      

    Grain production patterns are the basis of a nation’s food security. Since China’s reform and opening-up began in 1978, China’s urbanization process, driven by rapid social and economic development, has accelerated steadily. During this time, the dietary structure of urban and rural Chinese has also changed significantly. Accordingly, grain production patterns have undergone major changes. First, traditional grain production patterns in the north and the south have changed, and the food production center has shifted toward the north. In 1980, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 60% of China’s total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 40%. In 2015, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 56% of the total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 44%. Second, grain production by regions of the country is “shrinking in the east but expanding in the central regions,” meaning that grain production in eastern coastal provinces has decreased significantly, while that in the central region has expanded. The proportions of the nation’s total grain production from the eastern, central and western regions were 38%, 36% and 26%, respectively, in 1980. These had changed to 27%, 46%, and 27%, respectively, in 2015. Third, the spatial centralization of grain production has increased. The total grain yield of 13 major grain-producing provinces and regions in the country accounted for 69.27% of nation’s total in 1980, and it had reached 76.18% in 2015, showing that the impact of major grain-producing areas on national food security has increased. The influence of rapid urbanization on grain production areas shows remarkable regional differences. As the level of urbanization has increased, build-up land occupies a large number of high-quality farmland, especially in east coastal provinces and thus the grain planting area decreased obviously. The effect of dietary structure changes on grain production patterns was evident in two ways. On the one hand, as dietary diversity has increased, total grain consumption has decreased. The reduction in the proportion of planting area for grain crops to total crop planting area dropped from 82% in 1980 to 68% in 2015, making this change in total grain consumption evident. On the other hand, the ratio of grain for human consumption declined as the ratio of grain consumed by animals increased. The reduction in the proportion of rice and wheat grown and an increase in the proportion of feed grain production (mostly maize) from 20% in the 1980s to 36% in 2015 makes this change in grain production and consumption evident. In the future, with the establishment of national functional areas for grain production, the spatial pattern of grain production will return, while the demand for feed grains will continue to increase but with the space for expansion limited.

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    Analysis on Environmental Pollution in China’s Coastal Ecosystem
    DOU Qun,ZHANG Zhenya
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 424-431.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.009
    Abstract384)   HTML6)    PDF (583KB)(105)      

    In recent years, with the rapid development of China’s economy, the coastal environment is facing large pressure. However, the coastal environment pollution has not attracted much attention as air pollution and land water pollution. Based on the data on economic development and marine ecosystem environmental pollution which collected from the National Bureau of Statistics and China’s coastal marine environmental monitoring, the paper analyzes the overall coastal ecosystem environment pollution in China as well as the four sea areas the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and South China Sea. The paper finds that the coastal marine environment pollution differ in different sea areas, taking the seawater quality, over-standard pollutants, water quality of rivers entering seas and coastal marine environmental disasters, such as red tide as index. Couple of policy suggestions provided based on research findings.

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    The Current Status, Problems and Prospects of Researches on the Carrying Capacities of Ecological Environment in China
    LI Jianlong, LU Xiaofei, ZHANG Jingjing, MOU Linyun, ZHEN Lin, XU Zengrang, ZHOU Weihong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 605-613.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.005
    Abstract322)   HTML10)    PDF (441KB)(103)      

    Determining the carrying capacity of ecological resources is the key to finding contradictions between human activities and the environment, as well as the links between economic growth, environmental protection and social development. In recent years, the carrying capacity of the ecological environment has been extensively studied at home and abroad. Through extensive literature research and analysis, this paper discusses the current status and main problems of recent research on the carrying capacity of the ecological environment in China. For example, two of the main problems are that: 1) the concepts and connotations are not clear enough, and 2) the research content is not systematic enough. This is followed by a summary of the evaluation index system and main calculation methods. Finally, according to the research status and development trends at home and abroad, the possible direction for the development of this research field in the future is proposed.

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    Traditional Tea-grass Integrated System in Shizuoka as a GIAHS Site: Values and Conservation—Background of Application and Efforts after Registration
    Hidehiro INAGAKI, Yoshinobu KUSUMOTO
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 511-517.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.006
    Abstract396)   HTML4)    PDF (2236KB)(95)      

    The traditional tea-grass integrated system in Shizuoka is the first example of a Globally Important Agriculture Heritage Systems (GIAHS) site in Japan that was proposed by a local government. In this paper, we report the background and circumstances leading to the recognition of this system, its registration as a GIAHS, and its current use after registration. Although semi-natural grasslands have decreased considerably in Japan, we found unique semi-natural grasslands with no pest insects and a rich biodiversity around the tea fields. These grasslands and the farming method employed are known as “Chagusaba”, which was registered as a GIAHS in 2013. However, the registration process for GIAHS was not easy, as many local farmers do not understand the value of their traditional farming methods or the GIAHS honor. After registering Chagusaba as a GIAHS, our main agenda was branding. Traditional farming, with time and effort, produces high-quality tea. As labor saving technologies in agriculture have progressed in Japan, the price of high-quality tea has declined, and consequently, the numbers of farmers performing the inefficient traditional farming methods are decreasing. It is necessary to correctly brand the Chagusaba-grown tea and reflect the value of the traditional farming method in the price. The local government of the Shizuoka Prefecture is currently working on implementing a certification system, which includes scientific evaluation using GPS, and the introduction of biodiversity indicators.

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    Ecological Carrying Capacity of Grasslands and Animal Husbandry Sustainability in Central Asia
    ZOU Xiuping, SONG Dunjiang, CHEN Shaofeng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 598-604.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.004
    Abstract273)   HTML5)    PDF (513KB)(93)      

    Grassland ecosystems are one of the most important terrestrial ecosystems on the earth. Central Asia has the largest contiguous grazing area in the world and good conditions for the development of animal husbandry. However, in the past 30 years, the grassland ecosystem in Central Asia has experienced significant degradation, and the livestock industry has also experienced an overall decline to the point that livestock products are now dependent on imports. The ecological footprint method was used to analyze the change trend and characteristics of grassland ecological carrying capacity and ecological occupation in Central Asia. The grassland ecological capacity in Central Asia was found to be much higher than the global level, and great potential still remains for further development and utilization. The international trade of livestock products in Central Asian countries showed a deficit, and the net import of livestock products increased year by year. Net imports reached 9.5% in 1992-2016, and the dependence on foreign countries increased significantly, which is not conducive to the sustainable development of animal husbandry in Central Asia. In the future, the counties of Central Asia should optimize the aspects of policy, management and technology to improve the productivity of grassland animal husbandry, strengthen grassland ecological protection, and realize the coordinated and sustainable development of their grassland ecological economic systems.

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    Self-thinning Rules at Chinese Fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata) Plantations—Based on a Permanent Density Trial in Southern China
    DUAN Aiguo,FU Lihua,ZHANG Jianguo
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (3): 315-323.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.03.010
    Abstract227)   HTML0)    PDF (449KB)(92)      

    Data selection and methods for fitting coefficients were considered to test the self-thinning law. The Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in even-aged pure stands with 26 years of observation data were applied to fit Reineke’s (1933) empirically derived stand density rule (N $propto$ d¯ -1.605, N = numbers of stems, d¯ = mean diameter), Yoda’s (1963) self-thinning law based on Euclidian geometry ($propto$ N -3/2, v¯ = tree volume), and West, Brown and Enquist’s (1997, 1999) (WBE) fractal geometry ( $propto$ d¯ -8/3). OLS, RMA and SFF algorithms provided observed self-thinning exponents with the seven mortality rate intervals (2%-80%, 5%-80%, 10%-80%, 15%-80%, 20%-80%, 25%-80% and 30%-80%), which were tested against the exponents, and expected by the rules considered. Hope for a consistent allometry law that ignores species-specific morphologic allometric and scale differences faded. Exponents α of N $propto$ d¯α, were significantly different from -1.605 and -2, not expected by Euclidian fractal geometry; exponents β of $propto$ Nβ varied around Yoda’s self-thinning slope -3/2, but was significantly different from -4/3; exponent γ of $propto$ d¯γ tended to neither 8/3 nor 3.

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    Pricing Weather Derivatives Index based on Temperature: The Case of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
    Tesfahun BERHANE,Aemiro SHIBABAW,Gurju AWGICHEW
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 415-423.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.008
    Abstract489)   HTML1)    PDF (863KB)(91)      

    In this paper we present a stochastic model for daily average temperature to calculate the temperature indices upon which temperature-based derivatives are written. We propose a seasonal mean and volatility model that describes the daily average temperature behavior using the mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We also use higher order continuous-time autoregressive process with lag 3 for modeling the time evolution of the temperatures after removing trend and seasonality. Our model is fitted to 11 years of data recorded, in the period 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, obtained from Ethiopia National Meteorological Services Agency. The analytical approximation formulas are used to price heating degree days (HDD) and cooling degree days (CDD) futures. The suggested model is analytically tractable for derivation of explicit prices for CDD and HDD futures and option. The price of the CDD future is calculated, using analytical approximation formulas. Numerical examples are presented to indicate the accuracy of the method. The results show that our model performs better to predict CDD indices.

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