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    Implications of Anthropogenic Disturbances for Species Diversity, Recruitment and Carbon Density in the Mid-hills Forests of Nepal
    Hari Prasad PANDEY
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.001
    Abstract192)   HTML30)    PDF (878KB)(167)      

    Almost three-fourths of forests are experiencing anthropogenic disturbances globally, and more than two-thirds of the forests in Nepal receive different types of disturbances. In community forests (CFs), local communities are dependent on the ecosystem services provided by the forests for various aspects of their livelihoods, which disturb the forests’ natural conditions and ecosystem functioning in a variety of ways. This study tested the major disturbance factors that had influential roles on plant species diversity, recruitment (seedlings and saplings), biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total carbon density in two community-managed forests in the Mid-hills of Nepal. The stump number, cut-off seedlings and saplings, lopping, dropping, and grazing/trampling were used as measures of the major anthropogenic disturbances. The necessary data were collected from 89 randomly selected sample plots, each with an area of 250 m2. The responses to anthropogenic disturbances were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GLM). The results showed that forest lopping was the most significant anthropogenic disturbance for biomass and total carbon density balance. A higher degree of lopping in the forests resulted in a lowering of the forests' carbon stock in the study area. SOC showed no significant response to any of the tested anthropogenic disturbances. Woody species richness and number of saplings increased with an increasing number of stumps, which signifies that intermediate disturbance was beneficial. However, a higher intensity of lopping reduced the sapling density. Grazing/trampling was the most significant disturbance for inhibiting seedling growth. Areas in the forests with a higher intensity of trampling showed lower numbers of seedlings and saplings. These results will be a guide for managing anthropogenic disturbances in multiple-use forests in Nepal, as well as those in similar socio-economic environments worldwide.

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    Economic Development Status of the Countries along the Belt and Road and Their Correlations with Population and Carbon Emissions
    ZHONG Yang, LIN Aiwen, ZHOU Zhigao, HE Lijie, YUAN Moxi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 539-548.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.001
    Abstract226)   HTML21)    PDF (452KB)(111)      

    The construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road are important measures for allowing China to expand its opening up to the outside world under the background of economic globalization. Based on this consideration, and from the perspective of geo-economics, this study uses a variety of mathematical statistical methods to analyze the economic development status and differences among the 30 countries along the Belt and Road. In addition, the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions in these countries are also analyzed. The results show that the current economic development levels of the countries along the Belt and Road are quite variable; the gaps between the indicators of the economic development of the countries along the Belt and Road are convergent; the GDP, population, and carbon emissions of the countries along the Belt and Road each showed an overall upward trend during the study period, and the changes in these three values showed significant correlations. Across all countries, the correlation coefficients between GDP and population (0.989), between GDP and carbon emissions (0.995), and between population and carbon emissions (0.993), all indicate that the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions are very high. Among them, GDP has the highest correlation with carbon emissions, reaching 0.995. Regression analysis shows that the value of R2 reached 0.995, indicating that the regression fitting effect is very good and the calculation result is highly reliable. Based on these results, this paper proposes the following two suggestions: (1) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should handle the relationship between developing and developed countries; and (2) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should also be linked to China's domestic regional development strategy.

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    Changes in China’s Grain Production Pattern and the Effects of Urbanization and Dietary Structure
    LU Chunxia, LIU Aimin, XIAO Yu, LIU Xiaojie, XIE Gaodi, CHENG Shengkui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 358-365.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.004
    Abstract409)   HTML6)    PDF (533KB)(107)      

    Grain production patterns are the basis of a nation’s food security. Since China’s reform and opening-up began in 1978, China’s urbanization process, driven by rapid social and economic development, has accelerated steadily. During this time, the dietary structure of urban and rural Chinese has also changed significantly. Accordingly, grain production patterns have undergone major changes. First, traditional grain production patterns in the north and the south have changed, and the food production center has shifted toward the north. In 1980, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 60% of China’s total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 40%. In 2015, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 56% of the total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 44%. Second, grain production by regions of the country is “shrinking in the east but expanding in the central regions,” meaning that grain production in eastern coastal provinces has decreased significantly, while that in the central region has expanded. The proportions of the nation’s total grain production from the eastern, central and western regions were 38%, 36% and 26%, respectively, in 1980. These had changed to 27%, 46%, and 27%, respectively, in 2015. Third, the spatial centralization of grain production has increased. The total grain yield of 13 major grain-producing provinces and regions in the country accounted for 69.27% of nation’s total in 1980, and it had reached 76.18% in 2015, showing that the impact of major grain-producing areas on national food security has increased. The influence of rapid urbanization on grain production areas shows remarkable regional differences. As the level of urbanization has increased, build-up land occupies a large number of high-quality farmland, especially in east coastal provinces and thus the grain planting area decreased obviously. The effect of dietary structure changes on grain production patterns was evident in two ways. On the one hand, as dietary diversity has increased, total grain consumption has decreased. The reduction in the proportion of planting area for grain crops to total crop planting area dropped from 82% in 1980 to 68% in 2015, making this change in total grain consumption evident. On the other hand, the ratio of grain for human consumption declined as the ratio of grain consumed by animals increased. The reduction in the proportion of rice and wheat grown and an increase in the proportion of feed grain production (mostly maize) from 20% in the 1980s to 36% in 2015 makes this change in grain production and consumption evident. In the future, with the establishment of national functional areas for grain production, the spatial pattern of grain production will return, while the demand for feed grains will continue to increase but with the space for expansion limited.

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    Measurement and Comparison of Urban Haze Governance Level and Efficiency based on the DPSIR Model: A Case Study of 31 Cities in North China
    XIAO Qinlin, TIAN Chao, WANG Yanjun, LI Xiuqing, XIAO Liming
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 549-561.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.002
    Abstract204)   HTML9)    PDF (650KB)(72)      

    In the decisive stage of developing of a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, hazy weather has become a major obstacle to the further advancement of China. Therefore, improving the level and efficiency of haze governance has become essential. Based on the DPSIR model, this paper builds a haze governance level and efficiency index system using the entropy method and the super-efficiency data envelope-analysis (DEA) model to analyze the data for 31 cities in North China from 2007 to 2016. From the aspects of spatial differences and influence factors influencing the comparative analysis, the results are as follows. (1) During the investigation period, the level and efficiency of city haze governance in North China showed a trend of fluctuation and decline, with obvious stages in their characteristics. Haze governance efficiency is much higher than its level, and its mean value reaches the DEA level which indicates that it is effective. (2) A significant regional gradient difference occurs between these two aspects. The haze governance level presents a convex distribution pattern of “east low-middle high-west low”, while the haze governance efficiency presents a concave distribution pattern of “east high-middle low-west high”. (3) The regression results show that economic growth has a negative effect on both haze governance level and efficiency. By contrast, the industrial structure has a positive effect on haze governance level and efficiency, but the significance of its effect on these two is different. On this basis, policy suggestions are proposed for improving the level and efficiency of haze governance in various cities in North China.

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    Multifunctionality and Thresholds of Alpine Grassland on the Tibetan Plateau
    SONG Minghua, LI Meng, HUO Jiajuan, WU Liang, ZHANG Xianzhou
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 263-271.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.003
    Abstract150)   HTML0)    PDF (2173KB)(71)      

    Ecosystems can simultaneously provide multiple functions and services. Knowledge on the combinations of such multi-dimensional functions is critical for accurately assessing the carrying capacity and implementing sustainable management. However, accurately quantify the multifunctionality of ecosystems remains challenging due to the dependence and close association among individual functions. Here, we quantified spatial patterns in the multifunctionality of alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau by integrating four important individual functions based on data collected from a field survey and remote sensing NDVI. After mapping the spatial pattern of multifunctionality, we extracted multifunctionality values across four types of grassland along the northern Tibet Plateau transect. Effects of climate and grazing intensity on the multifunctionality were differentiated. Our results showed that the highest values of multifunctionality occurred in the alpine meadow. Low values of multifunctionality were comparable in different types of grassland. Annual precipitation explained the large variation of multifunctionality across the different types of grassland in the transect, which showed a significantly positive effect on the multifunctionality. Grazing intensity further explained the rest of the variation in the multifunctionality (residuals), which showed a shift from neutral or positive to negative effects on multifunctionality across the different types of grassland. The consistently rapid declines of belowground biomass, SOC, and species richness resulted in the collapse of the multifunctionality as bare ground cover amounted to 75%, which corresponded to a multifunctionality value of 0.233. Our results are the first to show the spatial pattern of grassland multifunctionality. The rapid decline of the multifunctionality suggests that a collapse in the multifunctionality can occur after the vegetation cover decreases to 25%, which is also accompanied by rapid losses of species and other individual functions. Our results are expected to provide evidence and direction for the sustainable development of alpine grassland and restoration management.

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    Comparison of Methods for Evaluating the Forage-livestock Balance of Alpine Grasslands on the Northern Tibetan Plateau
    CAO Yanan, ZHANG Xianzhou, NIU Ben, HE Yongtao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 272-282.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.004
    Abstract131)   HTML3)    PDF (1564KB)(63)      

    Livestock grazing is one of primary way to use grasslands throughout the world, and the forage-livestock balance of grasslands is a core issue determining animal husbandry sustainability. However, there are few methods for assessing the forage-livestock balance and none of those consider the dynamics of external abiotic factors that influence forage yields. In this study, we combine long-term field observations with remote sensing data and meteorological records of temperature and precipitation to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on the forage-livestock balance of alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau for the years 2000 to 2016. We developed two methods: one is statical method based on equilibrium theory and the other is dynamic method based on non-equilibrium theory. We also examined the uncertainties and shortcomings of using these two methods as a basis for formulating policies for sustainable grassland management. Our results from the statical method showed severe overgrazing in the grasslands of all counties observed except Nyima (including Shuanghu) for the entire period from 2000 to 2016. In contrast, the results from the dynamic method showed overgrazing in only eight years of the study period 2000-2016, while in the other nine years alpine grasslands throughout the northern Tibetan Plateau were less grazed and had forage surpluses. Additionally, the dynamic method found that the alpine grasslands of counties in the northeastern and southwestern areas of the northern Tibetan Plateau were overgrazed, and that alpine grasslands in the central area of the plateau were less grazed with forage surpluses. The latter finding is consistent with field surveys. Therefore, we suggest that the dynamic method is more appropriate for assessment of forage-livestock management efforts in alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau. However, the statical method is still recommended for assessments of alpine grasslands profoundly disturbed by irrational human activities.

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    Variations in the Drought Severity Index in Response to Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau
    WANG Xiangtao, ZHANG Xianzhou, WANG Junhao, NIU Ben
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 304-314.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.008
    Abstract263)   HTML1)    PDF (1520KB)(58)      

    Quantifying the relationship between the drought severity index and climate factors is crucial for predicting drought risk in situations characterized by climate change. However, variations in drought risk are not readily discernible under conditions of climate change, and this is particularly the case on the Tibetan Plateau. This study examines the correlations between the annual drought severity index (DSI) and 14 climate factors (including temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, and hours of sunshine factors), on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2011. Spatial average DSI increased with precipitation and minimum relative humidity, while it decreased as the hours of sunshine increased. The correlation between DSI and climate factors varied with vegetation types. In alpine meadows, the correlation of the spatial DSI average with the percentage of sunshine and hours of sunshine (P<0.001) was higher compared to that in alpine steppes (P<0.05). Similarly, average vapor pressure and minimum relative humidity had significant positive effects on spatial DSI in alpine meadows, but had insignificant effects in alpine steppes. The magnitude of DSI change correlated negatively with temperature, precipitation, and vapor pressure, and positively with wind speed and sunshine. This demonstrates that the correlation between drought and climate change on the Tibetan Plateau is dependent on the type of ecosystem.

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    Impact of Grazing Exclusion on the Surface Heat Balance in North Tibet
    FENG Yunfei, DI Yingwei, ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Xianzhou, SHI Peili, Niu Ben
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 283-289.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.005
    Abstract265)   HTML0)    PDF (786KB)(52)      

    The grazing exclusion program used by the Tibetan government to protect the ecological environment has changed the vegetation and impacted the surface heat balance in North Tibet. However, little information is available to describe the in?uences of the current grazing exclusion program on local surface heat balance. This study uses the records of fenced grassland patch locations to identify the impact of grazing exclusion on surface heat balance in North Tibet. The records of fenced grassland patch locations, including the longitude, latitude, and elevation of the vertices of each fenced patch (polygon shapes), were provided by the agriculture and animal husbandry bureaus of the counties where the patches were located. ArcGIS 10.2 was used to create polygon shapes based on patch location records. Based on satellite data and the surface heat balance system determined by the model, values for changes in land surface temperature (LST), albedo and evapotranspiration (ET) induced by grazing exclusion were obtained. All of these can influence surface heat balance and alter the fluctuation of LST in the northern Tibetan Plateau. The LST trends for day and night showed an asymmetric diurnal variation, with a larger magnitude of warming in the day than cooling at night. The maximum decrease in absorbed shortwave of LST (-0.5 - -0.4 ℃ per decade) occurred in the central region, while the minimum decrease (-0.2 - -0.1 ℃ per decade) occurred in the eastern region. The decreased latent heat lead to the LST increased maximum (>1 ℃ per decade) occurred in the central region, The eastern region increased at a rate of 0.2-0.5 ℃ per decade, while the minimum increase (0-0.1 ℃ per decade) occurred in the northwestern region.

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    Towards Regional Synergy: Reconciling Rangeland Ecological Functioning with Forage Production of Cultivated Pasture
    SHI Peili, ZHANG Xianzhou
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 247-252.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.001
    Abstract226)   HTML12)    PDF (383KB)(48)      

    Animal husbandry and crop farming are specialized for development in separate areas on the Tibetan Plateau. Such a pattern of isolation has led to current concerns of rangeland and farming system degradation due to intensive land use. The crop-livestock integration, however, has been proven to increase food and feed productivity thorough niche complementarity, and is thereby especially effective for promoting ecosystem resilience. Regional synergy has emerged as an integrated approach to reconcile rangeland livestock with forage crop production. It moves beyond the specialized sectors of animal husbandry and intensive agriculture to coordinate them through regional coupling. Therefore, crop-livestock integration (CLI) has been suggested as one of the effective solutions to forage deficit and livestock production in grazing systems. But it is imperative that CLI moves forward from the farm level to the regional scale, in order to secure regional synergism during agro-pastoral development. The national key R & D program, Technology and Demonstration of Recovery and Restoration of Degraded Alpine Ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau, aims to solve the problems of alpine grassland degradation by building up a grass-based animal husbandry technology system that includes synergizing forage production and ecological functioning, reconciling the relationship between ecology, forage production and animal husbandry, and achieving the win-win goals of curbing grassland degradation and changing the development mode of animal husbandry. It is imperative to call for regional synergy through integrating ecological functioning with ecosystem services, given the alarming threat of rangeland degradation on the Tibetan Plateau. The series of papers in this issue, together with those published previously, provide a collection of rangeland ecology and management studies in an effort to ensure the sustainable use and management of the alpine ecosystems.

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    Impacts of Land Fragmentation and Cropping System on the Productivity and Efficiency of Grain Producers in the North China Plain: Taking Cangxian County of Hebei Province as an Example
    WANG Xue, LI Xiubin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 580-588.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.005
    Abstract112)   HTML1)    PDF (547KB)(48)      

    Land fragmentation is widely known to have an impact on farm performance. However, previous studies investigating this impact mainly focused on a single crop, and only limited data from China are available. This study considers multiple crops to identify the impact of land fragmentation (LF), as well as cropping system (CS), on farm productivity and the efficiency of grain producers in the North China Plain (NCP), using Cangxian County of Hebei Province as an example. Detailed household- and plot-level survey data are applied and four stochastic frontier and inefficiency models are developed. These models include different sets of key variables in either the production function or the inefficiency models, in order to investigate all possibilities of their influences on farm productivity and efficiency. The results show that LF plays a significant and detrimental role, affecting both productivity and efficiency. A positive effect is evident with respect to the CS variable, i.e., multiple cropping index (MCI), and the wheat-maize double CS, rather than the maize single CS, is usually associated with higher farm productivity and efficiency. In addition to LF and CS, four basic production input variables (labor, seed, pesticide and irrigation), also significantly affect farmers’ productivity, while the age of the household head and the ratio of the off-farm labor to total labor are significantly relevant to technical inefficiency. Policies geared toward the promotion of land transfer and the rational adjustment of cropping systems are recommended for boosting farm productivity and efficiency, and thus maintaining the food supply while mitigating the overexploitation of groundwater in the NCP.

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    Supporting the Development of Homestay Tourism in the Yangtze River Delta: A Study based on Tourists’ Perceived Value
    LONG Fei, ZHU He
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 624-632.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.010
    Abstract113)   HTML2)    PDF (504KB)(47)      

    Homestay tourism has begun to flourish throughout the country, becoming a model of tourism innovation and upgrading, and attracting increasing amounts of capital. Through the collection and analysis of tourist questionnaire data for key cities in the Yangtze River Delta, and based on the theory of tourists' perceived value,18 factors related to the perception of homestay tourism are examined. Through exploratory factor analysis, three main factors of facilities and environment perception, cultural experience perception and service value perception are extracted. Then, from the perspectives of each of these perceptions, this study determines the degree of support for homestay tourism development in the Yangtze River Delta, obtains the key factors that affect the development of homestay tourism, and constructs a structural equation model of tourist perception and the degree of homestay tourism support. By calculating the regression path of the structural equation, the standardized path coefficients of the facilities and environment perception, cultural experience perception and service value perception are found to be 0.724, 0.813 and 0.692, respectively. These three factors have a significant impact on the development of homestay tourism agglomeration. Positive facilities and environmental perception can effectively support the development of homestay tourism, while the cultural experience perception provides its basic condition, and the service value perception constitutes an important factor of homestay tourism development. To better guide the development of homestay tourism, attention must be paid to developing the tourism facilities and environment, to cultivating tourism cultural experiences, and to improving of tourism service value.

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    Community Structure and Diversity Distribution Pattern of Sandy Plants in the Middle and Upper Reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River
    LI Chao, XU Wenli, LI Qingkang, WANG Jingsheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 11-21.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.002
    Abstract157)   HTML20)    PDF (3587KB)(45)      

    The Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is an important populated area in Tibet, and its plant community structure and diversity pattern have attracted the attention of many scholars. In this paper, the distribution pattern of plant diversity and the environmental factors impacting it in the middle and upper reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River are revealed and discussed through sample surveys and climate and habitat data. The results show that the plant communities in the study area can be divided into seven types according to the dominant species: Artemisia minor + Stipa purpurea, Artemisia wellbyi + Festuca ovina, Potentilla fruticosa + Orinus thoroldii, Trikeraia hookeri + Artemisia frigida, Kobresia pygmaea, Sophora moorcroftiana + Artemisia hedinii, and Sophora moorcroftiana + Pennisetum centrasiaticum. Plant diversity decreases with decreasing longitude, increasing latitude, and increasing altitude; and the diversity distribution pattern in the study area has distinct zonal characteristics. Water and heat are the main factors which affect the distribution of vegetation types. The explanation rates of water and heat for the plant diversity distribution pattern were 19.3% and 5.7%, respectively, while the spatial variation explained by these two factors together was 60.8%. Therefore, the coupling effect is obvious.

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    Temporal and Spatial Characteristics and Optimization of the Intensive Use of Cultivated Land in Maoming City
    CHEN Shiyin, MA Zhiyu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 598-605.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.007
    Abstract105)   HTML4)    PDF (609KB)(44)      

    Improving the level of intensive cultivated land use is an important measure to ensure food security and promote the sustainable development of the regional society and economy. Based on data from the statistical yearbook of Maoming City and its counties and districts from 2005 to 2018 and the land use change database of Maoming City for 2018, this study constructed an evaluation index system for four aspects: cultivated land use intensity, cultivated land use degree, cultivated land output benefit and cultivated land sustainable use status. The level of intensive use of cultivated land in Maoming City from 2004 to 2017 was evaluated by AHP, the range method and the comprehensive evaluation model, and its temporal and spatial characteristics were evaluated. The results revealed three major points. (1) The intensive use of cultivated land in Maoming City in the past 14 years was good, and its level showed an overall upward trend, with the intensive use degree of cultivated land rising from 0.4045 in 2004 to 1.3148 in 2017. (2) The levels of intensive use of cultivated land in each county and district of Maoming City were generally on the rise, with no significant differences between them. However, according to the regional distribution, the intensive use level of cultivated land was highest in Maonan District, while it was relatively low in Dianbai County. The largest increase in the level of cultivated land intensive use was in Gaozhou, and the smallest was in Dianbai County. (3) According to the existing problems of cultivated land utilization in Maoming City, combined with the current international and domestic measures to effectively improve the level of intensive use of cultivated land, four suggestions are put forward: to improve the efficiency of cultivated land utilization and effectively protect basic farmland; to improve the overall urban planning and rationally adjust the layout of construction land; to raise farmers’ awareness of the intensive use of cultivated land; and to increase agricultural investment and improve agricultural infrastructure.

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    A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Soil Microbial Community
    WANG Jiangwei, ZHANG Guangyu, YU Chengqun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 298-303.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.007
    Abstract216)   HTML0)    PDF (463KB)(44)      

    In order to investigate the general tendency of soil microbial community responses to fertilizers, a meta-analysis approach was used to synthesise observations on the effects of inorganic and organic fertilizer addition (N: nitrogen; P: phosphorus; NP: nitrogen and phosphorus; PK: phosphorus and potassium; NPK: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; OF: organic fertilizer; OF+NPK: organic fertilizer plus NPK) on soil microbial communities. Among the various studies, PK, NPK, OF and OF+NPK addition increased total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) by 52.0%, 19.5%, 334.3% and 58.3%, respectively; while NP, OF and OF+NPK addition increased fungi by 5.6%, 21.0% and 8.2%, respectively. NP, NPK and OF addition increased bacteria by 6.4%, 9.8% and 13.3%, respectively; while NP and NPK addition increased actinomycetes by 7.0% and 14.8%, respectively. Addition of ammonium nitrate rather than urea decreased gram-negative bacteria (G -). N addition increased total PLFA、bacteria and actinomycetes in croplands, but decreased fungi and bacteria in forests, and the F/B ratio in grasslands. NPK addition increased total PLFA in forests but not in croplands. The N addition rate was positively correlated with the effects of N addition on gram-positive bacteria (G +) and G -. Therefore, different fertilizers appear to have different effects on the soil microbial community. Organic fertilizers can have a greater positive effect on the soil microbial community than inorganic fertilizers. The effects of fertilizers on the soil microbial community varied with ecosystem types. The effect of N addition on the soil microbial community was related to both the forms of nitrogen that were added and the nitrogen addition rate.

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    Effect of Land Use and Land Cover Change on the Changes in Net Primary Productivity in Karst Areas of Southwest China: A Case Study of Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County
    ZHANG Mengyu, ZHANG Li, REN Xiaoli, HE Honglin, LV Yan, WANG Junbang, YAN Huimin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 606-616.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.008
    Abstract140)   HTML11)    PDF (1086KB)(42)      

    Karst areas in southwest China have experienced significant land cover and land use change (LUCC) due to utilization for human activity and a comprehensive rocky desertification control project (RDCP) since 2008. It is important to quantify the effect of LUCC on ecosystem productivity in this region for assessing the overall benefit of this ecological restoration project. In this study, we used using MODIS land cover and NPP products to investigate the relative contribution of LUCC to the change in net primary productivity (NPP) during 2008-2013 in Huanjiang County, one of first one hundred pilot counties to implement RDCP. Our results show that NPP increased in 95.53% of the county, and the average growth of NPP in non-rocky desertification area was higher than in rocky desertification or potential rocky desertification areas. LUCC has an important contribution (25.23%) to the NPP increase in the county, especially in the LUCC area (70.97%), which increased the average NPP by 3.9% and 10.5%, respectively. Across the six RDCP regions in the county, the average increase in NPP for the vegetation restoration measure of governed karst area is significantly greater than in the ungoverned karst area, and the positive change in NPP increased with the increasing implementation area of the vegetation restoration measure.

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    Satellite-based Estimates of Canopy Photosynthetic Parameters for an Alpine Meadow in Northern
    NIU Ben, HE Yongtao, ZHANG Xianzhou, SHI Peili, DU Mingyuan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 253-262.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.002
    Abstract126)   HTML2)    PDF (950KB)(41)      

    Plant photosynthesis is the fundamental driver of all the biospheric functions. Alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau is sensitive to rapid climate change, and thus can be considered an indicator for the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. However, seasonal variations in photosynthetic parameters, including the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation by canopy (FPAR), the light extinction coefficient (k) through canopy, and the leaf area index (LAI) of plant communities, are not known for alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we used field measurements of radiation components and canopy structure from 2009 to 2011 at a typical alpine meadow on the northern Tibetan Plateau to calculate these three photosynthetic parameters. We developed a satellite-based (NDVI and EVI) method derived from the Beer-Lambert law to estimate the seasonal dynamics of FPAR, k ,and LAI, and we compared these estimates with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) FPAR (FPAR_MOD) and LAI product (LAI_MOD). The results showed that the average daily FPAR was 0.33, 0.37 and 0.35, respectively, from 2009 to 2011, and that the temporal variations could be explained by all four satellite-based FPAR estimations, including FPAR_MOD, an FPAR estimation derived from the Beer-Lambert law with a constant k (FPAR_LAI), and two FPAR estimations from the nonlinear functions between the ground measurements of FPAR (FAPRg) and NDVI/EVI (FPAR_NDVI and FPAR_EVI). We found that FPAR_MOD seriously undervalued FPARg by over 40%. Tower-based FPAR_LAI also significantly underestimated FPARg by approximately 20% due to the constant k (0.5) throughout the whole growing seasons. This indicated that using FPAR_LAI to validate the FPAR_MOD was not an appropriate method in this alpine meadow because the seasonal variation of k ranged from 0.19 to 2.95 in this alpine meadow. Thus, if the seasonal variation of k was taken into consideration, both FPAR_NDVI and FPAR_EVI provided better descriptions, with negligible overestimates of less than 5% of FAPRg (RMSE=0.05), in FPARg estimations than FPAR_MOD and FPAR_LAI. Combining the satellite-based (NDVI and EVI) estimations of seasonal FPAR and k, LAI_NDVI and LAI_EVI derived from the Beer-Lambert law also provided better LAIg estimations than LAI_MOD (less than 30% of LAIg). Therefore, this study concluded that satellite-based models derived from the Beer-Lambert law were a simple and efficient method for estimating the seasonal dynamics of FPAR, k and LAI in this alpine meadow.

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    Spatio-temporal Changes in Wildlife Habitat Quality in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River from 1980 to 2100 based on the InVEST Model
    LI Qing, ZHOU Yong, Mary Ann CUNNINGHAM, XU Tao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 43-55.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.005
    Abstract133)   HTML8)    PDF (1126KB)(38)      

    The Yangtze River (YZR) regions have experienced rapid changes after opening up to economic reforms, and human activities have changed the land cover, ecology, and wildlife habitat quality. However, the specific ways in which those influencing factors changed the habitat quality during different periods remain unknown. This study assessed the wildlife habitat quality of the middle and lower YZR in the past (1980-2018) and in future scenarios (2050, 2100). We analyzed the relationships between habitat quality and various topological social-economic factors, and then mapped and evaluated the changes in habitat quality by using the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. The results show that the slope (R = 0.502, P < 0.01, in 2015), elevation (R = 0.003, P < 0.05, in 2015), population density (R = -0.299, P < 0.01, in 2015), and NDVI (R = 0.366, P < 0.01, in 2015) in the study area were significantly correlated with habitat quality from 2000 to 2015. During the period of 1980-2018, 61.93% of the study area experienced habitat degradation and 38.07% of the study area had improved habitat quality. In the future, the habitat quality of the study area will decline under either the A2 scenario (high level of population density, low environmental technology input, and high traditional energy cost) or the B2 scenario (medium level of population density, medium green technology and lack of cooperation of regional governments). The results also showed that habitat in the lower reaches or north of the YZR had degraded more than in the middle reaches or the south of YZR. Therefore, regional development should put more effort into environmental protection, curb population growth, and encourage green technology innovation. Inter-province cooperation is necessary when dealing with ecological problems. This study can serve as a scientific reference for regional wildlife protection and similar investigations in different areas.

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    Impact of Wheat Price Changes on Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Fallow
    CHENG Hao, XIE Hualin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 589-597.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.006
    Abstract104)   HTML3)    PDF (534KB)(37)      

    After operating for four years, the fallow project in the groundwater funnel area of the North China Plain has produced an initial water-saving effect. However, groundwater funnel remediation is a long-term process, and grain price changes over time may affect farmers’ willingness to participate in fallow. Based on the estimation by the Cobb-Douglas production function, the relationship between farmers’ satisfaction with fallow compensation and planting income is analyzed based on survey data collected from farming households in Hebei, a typical province located in the groundwater funnel area. Using this data, the impact of wheat price changes on farmers’ willingness to participate in fallow is simulated. The results indicate wheat price changes affect farmers' expected planting income and consequently their willingness to fallow; 88% of farmers would be unwilling to participate in fallow with a 0.1 yuan per 500 g increase in the wheat price, whereas 71.4% of farmers would be willing to participate in fallow with a 0.2 yuan per 500 g decrease in the price. Finally, some policy implications are proposed, such as the recommendation that the fallow compensation should be adjusted according to the wheat price multiplied by the average wheat yield of the three years before fallow in the North China Plain.

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    Functional Zoning Mode and Management Measures of Qianjiangyuan National Park based on Ecological Sensitivity Evaluation
    LIU Qingqing, YU Hu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 617-623.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.009
    Abstract122)   HTML1)    PDF (2594KB)(34)      

    Functional zoning is an important guarantee for regulating the land use intensity of national parks and maintaining the integrity and stability of natural ecosystem. In this paper, we tease out of the functional zoning models and methods based on the empirical analysis of the world national parks, and then take the Qianjiangyuan National Park (QNP) as an example, study the functional zoning method based on ecological sensitivity. Results show that, the goal of national park construction in the world is changing from enhancing national cohesion to displaying the national image, from the pure natural protection and recreation use to protection of the comprehensive function of natural ecosystem integrity protection, recreation, environmental education, etc. The establishment of QNP is to protect the natural ecosystem of sub-tropical lowland broad-leaved evergreen forest, also to meet the community development and recreational consume of large population in Eastern China. So this paper establishes an evaluation index system based on ecological sensitivity, combining ecosystem services, potential habitats of important species, and development opportunities. Based on the analysis result, the functional zoning of QNP can be divided into strict protection area, ecological conservation area, traditional using area and recreational area. In this way, it can make the functional partition reflect system controls thought in area difference and space layout, and take the corresponding management measures in different functional areas, to promote the sustainable evolution of the natural ecological system in national park.

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    Nest-site Choice and Breeding Success among Four Sympatric Species of Passerine Birds in a Reedbed-dominated Wetland
    MA Laikun, YANG Canchao, LIANG Wei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 22-29.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.003
    Abstract152)   HTML11)    PDF (4798KB)(33)      

    The efficacy of nest-site choice ultimately determines the breeding success of birds. Comparisons of the reproductive strategies of various bird species which inhabit the same habitat may provide insights on the evolution of the diverse life-history strategies in birds. In this study, nest-site choice and breeding success of four species of passerine birds that rely on reeds for reproduction were investigated in a wetland in Hebei, China. The four species were the Oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) (ORW), the blunt-winged warbler (Acrocephalus concinens) (BW), the reed parrotbill (Paradoxornis heudei) (RP), and the vinous-throated parrotbill (Sinosuthora webbiana) (VP). Our results showed that breeding nests of the four species were distributed in a mosaic pattern within the same habitat, with similar nest shapes/structures and nest-sites in the reeds. The only characteristics which differed significantly among the species were nest height above the water surface, height of reeds where nests were placed, and density of reeds around the nest site. In addition, the starting time of reproduction clearly differed for the four species. The breeding success rates of the four species were 34.5% (86/249) for ORW, 35.3% (6/17) for BW, 38.5% (15/39) for RP, and 40.9% (9/22) for VP in the two study years. The main factors affecting the breeding success were nest predation and poor weather conditions, like heavy rainstorms and wind, while nest parasitism by the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) represented an important factor for breeding failure only in the Oriental reed warbler. Our study demonstrated that these four sympatric species of passerine birds inhabiting the same wetland exhibit differences in terms of nest-site choice and breeding phenology.

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    Effects of Enclosure on Plant and Soil Nutrients in Different Types of Alpine Grassland
    WANG Fang, HE Yongtao, FU Gang, NIU Ben, ZHANG Haorui, LI Meng, WANG Zhipeng, WANG Xiangtao, ZHANG Xianzhou
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 290-297.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.006
    Abstract236)   HTML0)    PDF (802KB)(33)      

    Enclosure is one of the most widely used management tools for degraded alpine grassland on the northern Tibetan Plateau, but the responses of different types of grassland to enclosure may vary, and research on these responses can provide a scientific basis for improving ecological conservation. This study took one site for each of three grassland types (alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert) on the northern Tibetan Plateau as examples, and explored the effects of enclosure on plant and soil nutrients by comparing differences in plant community biomass, leaf-soil nutrient content and their stoichiometry between samples from inside and outside the fence. The results showed that enclosure can significantly increase all aboveground biomass in these three grassland types, but it only increased the 10-20 cm underground biomass in the alpine desert. Enclosure also significantly increased the leaf nutrient content of the dominant plants and contents of total nitrogen (N), total potassium (K), and organic carbon (C) in 10-20 cm soil in alpine desert, thus changing the stoichiometry between C, N and P (phosphorus). However, enclosure significantly increased only the N content of dominant plant leaves in alpine steppe, while other nutrients and stoichiometries of both plant leaves and soil did not show significant differences in alpine meadow and alpine steppe. These results suggested that enclosure has differential effects on these three types of alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau, and the alpine desert showed the most active ecological conservation in the responses of its soil and plant nutrients.

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    Are There Differences in the Response of Natural Stand and Plantation Biomass to Changes in Temperature and Precipitation? A Case for Two-needled Pines in Eurasia
    USOLTSEV Vladimir Andreevich, SHOBAIRI Seyed Omid Reza, TSEPORDEY Ivan Stepanovich, AHRARI Amirhossein, ZHANG Meng, SHOAIB Ahmad Anees, CHASOVSKIKH Viktor Petrovich
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 331-341.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.001
    Abstract195)   HTML4)    PDF (1562KB)(33)      

    A comparative discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of natural stands and plantations, including in terms of their productivity and stability, began from the moment of the first forest plantings and continues to this day. In the context of the progressive replacement of natural forests by plantations due to deforestation, the question of how will change the carbon storage capacity of forest cover when replacing natural forests with artificial ones in a changing climate becomes extremely relevant. This article presents the first attempt to answer this question at the transcontinental level on a special case for two-needled pine trees (subgenus Pinus L.). The research was carried out using the database compiled by the authors on the single-tree biomass structure of forest-forming species of Eurasia, in particular, data of 1880 and 1967 of natural and plantation trees, respectively. Multi-factor regression models are calculated after combining the matrix of initial data on the structure of tree biomass with the mean January temperature and mean annual precipitation, and their adequacy indices allow us to consider them reproducible. It is found that the aboveground and stem biomass of equal-sized and equal-aged natural and plantation trees increases as the January temperature and precipitation rise. This pattern is only partially valid for the branches biomass, and it has a specific character for the foliage one. The biomass of all components of plantation trees is higher than that of natural trees, but the percent of this excess varies among different components and depends on the level of January temperatures, but does not depend at all on the level of annual precipitation. A number of uncertainties that arose during the modeling process, as well as the preliminary nature of the obtained regularities, are noted.

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    A Study of Food Waste in the Catering Industry in Beijing
    CAO Xiaochang, LIU Xiaojie, CHENG Shengkui, LIU Yao, ZHANG Panpan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 562-569.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.003
    Abstract207)   HTML5)    PDF (710KB)(33)      

    Currently, the topic of food waste and its environmental impacts is attracting increasing attention among academic researchers. Based on an investigation of restaurants in Beijing, this study analyzes the quantities, structures, characteristics and costs of the agricultural resources related to food waste in the catering industry in Beijing. The results show that: (1) The average food waste per capita per meal is about 75.02 g (raw) for food away from home among Beijing urban residents, which means that about 10.52% of the food is wasted. (2) According to the quantitative ranking of different categories of food waste, vegetable is the most wasted, followed by meat, aquatic products, and grains. The foods in the other categories are wasted much less. (3) Food waste is affected by the restaurant type, as well as the number, gender, age, education level, and consumption motivation of the consumers. (4) Based on the estimated food waste per capita, about 417.92 thousand tons of food is wasted annually at the consumption stage in the catering industry in Beijing. This food waste amount is equivalent to approximately 765.53 tons of cereals which are wasted, and this represents 79.66% of cereals production and 13.15% of cereals consumption in Beijing. Estimated by the required land use, this amount of food waste means that the total production of approximately 166.12 thousand ha of arable land is being wasted in Beijing.

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    Comparison and Analysis of Estimation Methods for Heavy Metal Pollution of Farmland Soils
    Mamattursun EZIZ, Adila HAYRAT, YANG Xiuyun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 435-442.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.001
    Abstract172)   HTML5)    PDF (492KB)(31)      

    Heavy metal pollution of farmland soils is a serious environmental problem. The accurate estimation of heavy metal pollution levels of farmland soils is very crucial for sustainable agriculture. Concentrations of heavy metal elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in farmland soils at 186 sampling sites in the Baghrash Lake Basin, NW China, were determined and analyzed based on the pollution index (Pi), the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), the enrichment factor (EF), the ecological risk index (ER), and the environmental risk index (Ier). The results of these five different estimation methods were compared and discussed. The obtained results indicated that the average concentrations of all the heavy metals in the farmland soils of the study area were lower than the Soil Environmental Quality of China (GB 15168-2018) levels, but the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn exceed the corresponding background values. Significant differences in estimation results existed between the five estimation methods. Based on the identified concentrations, the average Pi, Igeo, and EF values of the heavy metals in farmland soils decreased in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cd > Cr > Ni > Cu > As, whereas the average ER values decreased in the order of: Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn, and the average Ier values decreased in the order of: Cd > Cu > Zn > As = Pb > Cr > Ni. The pollution class values with different estimation methods were ranked as: Pi > Igeo = EF > ER = Ier. The obtained results suggest that the most appropriate estimation method and soil background values of farmlands should be used for better understanding the environmental quality of farmland soils. Overall, the EF and ER methods are recommended for assessing heavy metal pollution risks of farmland soils.

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    Evaluation and Driving Force Analysis of Marine Sustainable Development based on the Grey Relational Model and Path Analysis
    GAO Sheng, ZHAO Lin, SUN Huihui, CAO Guangxi, LIU Wei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 570-579.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.004
    Abstract116)   HTML3)    PDF (836KB)(28)      

    With the rapid development of the marine economy, the demand for marine resources development and the pressure on marine environmental protection are gradually increasing. It is critical to evaluate and analyze the driving forces of marine sustainable development in order to promote the coordinated development of the marine economy, resources and environment. Taking Jiangsu Province of China as an example, this paper constructs an evaluation index system for marine sustainable development from the three aspects of marine economy, resources and environment, and calculates the weight of the variation coefficient for each indicator. Based on the grey relational model, the average value of the relational degree, calculated by the average value method of correlation coefficients and the weighting method, is then used to evaluate the status of marine sustainable development in this province. The comprehensive index model is used to analyze the dynamic trend of the evolution of marine sustainable development. The driving forces of marine sustainable development are analyzed by the path analysis method combined with the average values of the grey relational degree for each indicator. This analysis found that the marine sustainable development in 2016 and 2012 was good, the situation in 2007 was bad, and the remaining years were intermediate. Compared with the previous years, the optimal conditions of 2008 and 2012 were obvious. The main driving factors of marine sustainable development are cargo throughput of coastal ports, economic losses caused by storm surges in coastal areas, the area of marine nature reserves in coastal areas, coastal wind power generation capacity, and marine biodiversity.

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    Space Changes in the Rural Tourism Area of Mufu Town, Hubei Province, China
    TAO Hui, GAO Jing, CHEN Kaiqiang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 633-644.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.011
    Abstract106)   HTML1)    PDF (2718KB)(27)      

    In a society dominated by tourism consumption, space changes occurring in rural areas can generally reflect their social changes. On the theoretical basis of flow, regeneration and adaptation of rural tourism space, this paper originally and creatively proposes that the spatial elements in a rural tourist area can be classified into three categories: Attractions (A), Towns (T) and Villages (V). By analyzing the spatial transformation characteristics of A, T and V, five types of rural spatial transition modes are found, the types of heritage, theme park, those serving as scenic spots, leisure industrial clusters and ecotourism areas. These different classes emerge due to their geographical differentiation. They show the same spatial evolution trend: The Attractions are distributed throughout the whole area and characterized by diversification; supporting services facilities gather in the Towns; and the Villages are landscape images. In this area the traditional rural benefit trends toward that of compound development. Mufu Town, Hubei province, is taken as a study case, and the changing characteristics of A, T and V from 2006 to 2016 are described. Problems in the process of establishing the new spatial order are considered. In order to realize the synergy between production space, living space and ecological space, the interactive development between Attractions, Towns and Villages is recommended. The perspective of Attraction-Town-Village (ATV) can lead to a better understanding of the situation of tourism space in rural areas and provide directions for thinking about the reconstruction path for the modernization of traditional societies.

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    Ungulate Mortality due to Fencing and Perceptions of Pasture Fences in Part of the Future Qilianshan National Park
    Sydney M. GREENFIELD, Aliana C. NORRIS, Joseph P. LAMBERT, Wu liji, Se yongjun, ZHAN Jinqi, MA Bing, LI Deng, SHI Kun, Philip RIORDAN
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 99-109.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.010
    Abstract84)   HTML5)    PDF (780KB)(27)      

    Fencing is an important part of husbandry for pastoral communities; however, these same fences can have unintended consequences for wildlife populations by restricting movement, reducing connectivity, and causing direct mortality. This paper assesses the current status and effects of fencing present in Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve, soon to be part of the recently proposed Qilianshan National Park. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 70 households to gauge local herders’ perceptions of fences, threats of fencing to native ungulates, and the number of wildlife found entangled in fencing. We found that local communities rely on fencing for livestock management and individuals who had encountered wildlife entangled in fences were more likely to perceive fences as having negative effects. Furthermore, those who perceived fencing as harmful to wildlife were more likely to support the dismantling of fences. On the other hand, families who needed to hire others to tend to their livestock were less likely to support dismantling efforts. However, the best model was only able to account for some of the data variability, suggesting that while perceptions of fences are important, other factors could be influencing support for fence dismantling. Hence, increasing awareness of threats alone may not be enough to generate community support of a fence dismantling program. Therefore, outreach and community collaboration to reduce the impacts of fence alterations upon livestock management will be necessary for a successful fence dismantling program within the new national park. Finally, those surveyed reported finding kiang, argali, and Tibetan gazelle dead in fences, with kiang found more often than the other two. This suggests that these three species may be more vulnerable to fence entanglement and that they are good targets for future studies and dismantling efforts.

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    Temporal and Spatial Characteristics and Evolution of China’s Inbound Tourism Carbon Footprint
    HAN Zhiyong, LI Tao, LIU Ximei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 56-67.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.006
    Abstract91)   HTML3)    PDF (1171KB)(26)      

    Reducing carbon emissions and transitioning to a low-carbon economy are important propositions for human sustainability. Since it is closely related with high carbon emissions, international travel makes a substantial contribution to the global carbon emissions. To comprehensively explore the influence of international travel on carbon emissions and develop a sustainable development plan, this paper studies the temporal and spatial distribution and evolution of the carbon footprint of inbound tourism in China’s 30 provinces between 2007 and 2017. In this study, comprehensive calculations and spatial models are adopted to reveal the temporal and spatial characteristics. The results show that the carbon footprint of inbound tourism in China has been increasing continuously from 2007 to 2017. While the carbon footprint increased by 1.94-fold, from 5.623 million tons to 10.8809 million tons, it presented obvious fluctuations by initially increasing rapidly and then dropping slightly. From the perspective of the contributions of various tourism components on the carbon footprint, transportation and post and telecommunications account for the largest proportions. In the past ten years, the variations in the carbon footprint of inbound tourism in most provinces and cities in China were not very extreme, but maintained a relatively stable state. In the spatial dimension, the carbon footprint of China’s inbound tourism tends to decrease from the southeast to the northwest. The highest coefficient of variation is in Ningxia and the lowest is in Liaoning. Based on these results, recommendations are put forward for sustainable development plans in some major cities and provinces for the future.

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    Study of Vulture Habitat Suitability and Impact of Climate Change in Central India Using MaxEnt
    Kaushalendra K. JHA, Radhika JHA
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 30-42.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.004
    Abstract116)   HTML12)    PDF (2943KB)(25)      

    Vultures provide invaluable ecosystem services and play an important role in ecosystem balancing. The number of native vultures in India has declined in the past. Acquiring present knowledge of their habitat spread is essential to manage and prevent such a decline. It is envisaged that ongoing climate crisis may further cause change in habitat suitability and impact the existing population. Therefore, this study in Central India—a vulture stronghold, is aimed at predicting habitat changes in the short and long term and present the data statistically and graphically by using Species Distribution Model. MaxEnt software was chosen for its advantages over other models, like using presence-only data and performing well with incomplete data, small sample sizes and gaps, etc. Global Climate Model ensemble (CCSM4, HadGEM2AO and MIROC5), was used to get better prediction. Fourteen robust models (AUC 0.864-0.892) were developed using data from over 1000 locations of seven vulture species over two seasons together. Selected climatic and other environmental variables were used to predict the current habitat. Future prediction was based on climatic variables only. The most important variables influencing the distribution were precipitation (bio 15, bio 18, bio 19) and temperature (bio 3, bio 5). Forest and water bodies were the major influencers within land use-landcover in the current prediction. At finer scale, while extremely suitable habitat area decreased and highly suitable area increased over time, the total suitable area marginally increased in 2050 but decreased in 2070. For broader consideration, net loss in suitable area was 5% in 2050 and 7.17% in 2070 (RCP4.5). Similarly, in the RCP8.5 this was 6% in 2050 and 7.3% in 2070. The data generated can be used in conservation planning and management and thus protecting the vultures from any future threat.

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    Research Framework for Ecosystem Vulnerability: Measurement, Prediction, and Risk Assessment
    WANG Yajun, ZHONG Lifang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 499-507.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.007
    Abstract125)   HTML2)    PDF (408KB)(25)      

    The fragility of ecosystem health has become a key factor hindering the sustainable development of the ecological environment. Through a review of published research from domestic and foreign scholars, starting from the endogenous logic of studies in the field of ecosystem vulnerability (EV), this paper sorts out the literature on the aspects of measurement models, prediction methods and risk assessment, comprehensively defines the research category and scientific framework of EV, and analyzes the research ideas and development trends. We arrived at the following conclusions: 1) The connotation of ecosystem vulnerability not only embodies the change in the vulnerability of the natural environment, but it also reflects the irreversible damage to the ecosystem caused by excessive development and industrial production activities. 2) The setting of ecosystem vulnerability indices should aim to fully reflect the essential features of that vulnerability, which should include the index systems of natural, social, economic and other related factors. 3) There are many types of ecosystem vulnerability measurement methods, prediction models and risk evaluation models, which have different focuses and advantages. The most appropriate method should be adopted for conducting comprehensive and systematic evaluation, prediction and estimation according to the different representation and evolution mechanisms of the chosen research object and regional ecosystem vulnerability. 4) Based on the regional system characteristics, corresponding risk management measures should be proposed, and pertinent policy suggestions should be put forward to improve the ecological safety and sustainable development of an ecologically vulnerable area.

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