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    Analysis of Water Resources Carrying Capacity of the “Belt and Road” Initiative Countries based on Virtual Water Theory
    ZHENG Xin, XU Zengrang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 574-583.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.002
    Abstract137)   HTML9)    PDF (520KB)(1029)      

    Most countries along the route of the “Belt and Road” initiative are faced with a shortage of water resources. However, successful implementation of the initiative depends on water availability to support economic and social development. We designed a water resources carrying capacity evaluation index system, assigned grades and weights to each evaluation index and calculated a water resources carrying index for the 65 countries along the route. We used virtual water theory to analyze China’s net virtual water import from key bulk agricultural products through international trade. For more than half of the countries along the route, their water resources will be unable to support the economic development that will be necessary for fulfilling the goals of the Initiative. As a country with insufficient water resources carrying capacity, China is a net virtual water importer in the virtual water trade. This virtual water trade can improve China’s water resources support capacity, and ensure China’s water and food security for the future.

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    Solar Radiation Climatology Calculation in China
    WANG Chenliang, YUE Tianxiang, FAN Zemeng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (2): 132-138.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.02.005
    Abstract300)      PDF (1192KB)(489)      
    The Angstrom-Prescott formula is commonly used in climatological calculation methods of solar radiation simulation. Fitting the coefficients is carried out using linear regression and in recent years it has been found that these coefficients have obvious spatial variability. A common solution is to divide the study area into several subregions and fit the coefficients one by one. Here, we use ground observation data for sunshine hours and solar radiation from 1961 to 2010. Adopting extraterrestrial radiation as the initial value, Angstrom-Prescott coefficients are obtained by Geographically Weighted Regression at a national scale. The surfaces of solar radiation are obtained on the basis of the surfaces of sunshine hours interpolated by high accuracy surface modeling and astronomical radiation; results from spatially nonstationary and error comparison tests show that Angstrom-Prescott coefficients have significant spatial nonstationarity. Compared to existing research methods, the method presented here achieves a better simulation effect.
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    Assessment of Changes in the Value of Ecosystem Services in the Koshi River Basin, Central High Himalayas Based on Land Cover Changes and the CA-Markov Model
    ZHAO Zhilong, WU Xue, ZHANG Yili, GAO Jungang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (1): 67-76.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.01.009
    Abstract329)   HTML2)    PDF (739KB)(447)      
    Climate warming and economic developments have created pressures on the ecological systems that human populations rely on, and this process has contributed to the degradation of ecosystems and the loss of ecosystem services. In this study, Landsat satellite data were chosen as the data source and the Koshi River Basin (KB) in the central high Himalayas as the study area. Changes in land cover and changes in the value of ecosystem services between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed and the land cover pattern of the KB in 2030 and 2050 was modeled using the CA-Markov model. Changes in land cover and in the value of ecosystem services in the KB for the period 2010-2050 were then analyzed. The value of ecosystem services in the KB was found to decrease by 2.05×108 USD y-1 between 1990 and 2010. Among these results, the services value of forest, snow/glacier and barren area decreased, while that of cropland increased. From 1990 to 2050, forest showed the largest reduction in ecosystem services value, as much as 11.87×108 USD y-1, while cropland showed the greatest increase, by 3.05×108 USD y-1. Deforestation and reclamation in Nepal contributed to a reduction in the value of ecosystem services in the KB. Barren areas that were transformed into water bodies brought about an increase in ecosystem services value in the lower reaches of the Koshi River. In general, this process is likely to be related to increasing human activity in the KB.
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    Fluorescence Properties of Submerged Macrophytes in Nanjishan Wetland, Southern Poyang Lake
    JIAN Minfei, WANG Sichen, YU Houping, LI Lingyu, JIAN Meifeng, YU Guanjun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (1): 52-59.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.01.007
    Abstract192)      PDF (667KB)(445)      

    We used a FluorCam portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system to measure QY-max (the maximum light quantum yield, Fv/Fm, the largest light quantum efficiency of PS II) of submerged plants in wetlands of Baisha Lake and Changhu Lake, Jiangxi Nanjishan Wetland National Nature Reserve, in winter 2013. Specifically, we measured ΦPS II (PS II actual quantum efficiency), qP (photochemical quenching) and corresponding fluorescence images. Using the visual method and sampling sites method to obtain coverage, richness and abundance of submerged plants, and determined nutrient levels in water. The results show that the QY-max of Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans in Baisha Lake ranged from 0.48 to 0.68 and 0.52 to 0.71, respectively; the ΦPS II of these two species ranged from 0.32 to 0.58 and 0.20 to 0.46, respectively. The two plants had similar photosynthetic efficiency. The QY-max of Nymphoides peltatum and V. natans in Changhu Lake ranged from 0.66 to 0.77 and 0.19 to 0.68, respectively; the ΦPS II of these two species ranged from 0.26 to 0.48 and 0.22 to 0.43, respectively. The observed higher photosynthetic efficiency of N peltatum suggests it is more likely to become the dominant species. In Baisha Lake, the frequency of occurrence of plants was: H. verticillata, 90%; V. natans, 93.3%; Najas minor 26.7%, and Potamogeton franchetii 10%. In Changhu Lake, the frequency of N. peltatum was 86.7%, V. natans was 16.7%, and N. minor was 56.7%. The overall frequency of submerged plants living in Baisha Lake was much higher than that of submerged plants living in Changhu Lake, with different species dominating the two lakes. According to comprehensive analysis and comparison of trophic levels, biodiversity and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics in the two lakes, eutrophication of Baisha Lake was higher than for Changhu Lake; and H. verticillata and V. natans were the dominant species, with similar photosynthetic activity. Conversely, in Changhu Lake, N. peltatum and V. natans were the dominant species, but the photosynthetic activity of N. peltatum was higher than V. natans. Differences in eutrophication levels in different water bodies in the Nanjishan Wetland and differing ecological niches of submerged plant species are characteristic of this system.

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    Using MaxEnt Model to Predict Suitable Habitat Changes for Key Protected Species in Koshi Basin, Central Himalayas
    LIU Linshan, ZHAO Zhilong, ZHANG Yili, WU Xue
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (1): 77-87.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.01.010
    Abstract300)   HTML2)    PDF (821KB)(431)      
    Because of its landscape heterogeneity, Koshi Basin (KB) is home to one of the world’s most abundant, diverse group of species. Habitat change evaluations for key protected species are very important for biodiversity protection in this region. Based on current and future world climate and land cover data, MaxEnt model was used to simulate potential habitat changes for key protected species. The results shows that the overall accuracy of the model is high (AUC > 0.9), suggesting that the MaxEnt-derived distributions are a close approximation of real-world distribution probabilities. The valley around Chentang Town and Dram Town in China, and Lamabagar and the northern part of Landtang National Park in Nepal are the most important regions for the protection of the habitat in KB. The habitat area of Grus nigricollis, Panax pseudoginseng, and Presbytis entellus is expected to decrease in future climate and land cover scenarios. More focus should be placed on protecting forests and wetlands since these are the main habitats for these species.
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    Land Aridization in the Context of Global Warming - a Case Study of Transbaikalia
    Anatoly I. KULIKOV, Bair Z. TSYDYPOV, Bator V. SODNOMOV, Ayur B. GYNINOVA, WANG Juanle
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 141-147.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.004
    Abstract253)   HTML3)    PDF (3447KB)(427)      
    An increase in the extremality of natural processes is a consequence of warming, aridization, and desertification. The authors consider the processes of warming, aridization, and desertification to be the parts of a single system and major destabilizing factors of ecological balance. Destabilization is expressed in the growth of natural processes extremality. Ecosystems of Transbaikalia were once characterized by a different natural contrast and amplitude. Warming, aridization and desertification have led to an increase of environmental regimes tensions. This is demonstrated quantitatively by the root-mean-square difference of atmospheric and soil parameters. Quantitative indicators of aridization are estimated using Walter-Gossen climate charts. Permafrost zone response information to the long-term warming is provided as well.
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    Agricultural Heritage Systems: A Bridge between Urban and Rural Development
    SHI Yuanyuan, MIN Qingwen, HE Lu, FULLER Anthony M.
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (3): 187-196.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.006
    Abstract270)   HTML0)    PDF (466KB)(420)      
    In the early 1990s, China stepped into the stage of rapid urbanization with a flourishing economy and new technological development. Surplus labor from rural areas flooded into cities and became the main force of urban development. However some severe threats to human survival emerged from urbanization, such as over- extensive urban development, excessive resource consumption, ecological degradation, food security and safety risks and social crises. It has become an imperative to balance urban and rural development to achieve greater harmony between nature and society. This paper firstly tried to focus on public dietary change, agricultural industry development, institutional guarantee, ecological restoration, as well as cultural tourism in urban and peri-urban agricultural heritage sites. Then, it established a development model, balanced the urbanization and urban-supported agriculture. This paper proposed “Agricultural heritage systems” as an entry point for balancing the development of urban areas and rural areas. Agricultural heritage systems can inherit local traditional culture, keep the green and organic agriculture cultivation systems, exploit the distinct landscape tourism, and the like for diversified development; In addition, agricultural heritage systems can take full advantage of abundant funds, firm the institutional guarantee and advanced technologies from the nearby urban complex for regurgitation-feeding of rural enterprises. With the help of these strategies, we can achieve the harmony of “Ecological Urban” and “Garden Countryside”.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Carbon Storage and Its Spatial Pattern of  Terrestrial Ecosystem in China
    YU Guirui,LI Xuanran,WANG Qiufeng,LI Shenggong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2010, 1 (2): 97-109.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.02.001
    Abstract505)      PDF (3141KB)(400)      
    Process mechanisms of carbon storage and carbon cycle in earth system are the scientific foundation for analyzing the cause of climate change, forecasting the climate change trend, and making mitigation and adaptation countermeasures, which have attracted great attention from the scientific community and international community. Since the late 1980s, Chinese scientists have carried out a great deal of research on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle, and have made great progress in many fields. In this paper, we review the history of the research on the terrestrial carbon cycle in China, summarize the results of the carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems and its spatial patterns, evaluate the uncertainties of the research, and put forward important scientific issues which are needed to be addressed urgently. Overall, the research on the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems in China consists of four stages of development, i.e., the early carbon cycle research, the comprehensive study on the carbon cycle at regional scale, the experimental research on the adaptation of ecosystem carbon cycle to climate change, and the coupling cycles of C-N-H2O and the regional regulation and control. Most studies indicate that carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystems in China and its spatial pattern are controlled by temperature and precipitation. About 97.95–118.93 Pg carbon is stored in soil, forest and grassland in China. Since the mid 1970s, many management measures such as afforestation and forest management, grassland protection, farming system reformation and conservation tillage, have played important roles in carbon sequestration. However, large uncertainty exists among the evaluation results with various methods. In the future we should focus on the integrated monitoring system of the dynamics of carbon storage and carbon sink, foresight studies on the coupling cycles of ecosystem C-N-H2O and its regional regulation and control, quantitative assessment on the carbon budget and the potential of carbon sink of ecosystems in China, the evaluation of the economic benefit of various technologies for increasing carbon sink of typical ecosystems, and the measurable, reportable and verifiable scientific data and technical supports for establishing the policy framework of greenhouse gas management and carbon trading at national scale.
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    Glacier Changes on the Qiangtang Plateau between 1976 and 2015: A Case Study in the Xainza Xiegang Mountains
    NIE Yong, YANG Chao, ZHANG Yili, LIU Linshan, XU Xia
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (1): 97-104.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.01.012
    Abstract359)   HTML1)    PDF (587KB)(394)      
    Xainza County on the Qiangtang Plateau (QP) spans a transitionally climatic and eco-environmental zone and is therefore a very sensitive region. Glaciers in this area are one of the most important kinds of land cover as well as key water resources, yet our understanding of their current status and spatio-temporal change remains limited. Using Landsat images, this study investigated the current distribution of glaciers (2015) in the Xainza Xiegang Mountains as well as the spatio-temporal changes that took place over six time periods between 1976 and 2015. Results show that, in 2015, 131 glaciers covered a total area of 74.59 ± 5.25 km2, mainly located between 5,600 and 6,000 m above sea level (a.s.l). Between 1976 and 2015, the total number of glaciers increased by 12, while their areas decreased by 24.98% (24.83 km2). Glacial retreat has induced a loss of water resources of 11.77 × 108 m3 over the last 39 years, while spatial heterogeneities in glacial changes across various sub-basins, aspects, and altitudinal zones are also clearly observed. Climate warming is the key factor driving this continuous glacial retreat; the high-quality dataset presented in this paper for the Xainza Xiegang study area is crucial for the ongoing assessment of climatic and eco-environmental changes.
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    Satellite-based Estimation of Gross Primary Production in an Alpine Swamp Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau: A Multi-model Comparison
    NIU Ben, ZHANG Xianzhou, HE Yongtao, SHI Peili, FU Gang, DU Mingyuan, ZHANG Yangjian, ZONG Ning, ZHANG Jing, WU Jianshuang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (1): 57-66.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.01.008
    Abstract346)   HTML2)    PDF (698KB)(387)      
    Alpine swamp meadows on the Tibetan Plateau, with the highest soil organic carbon content across the globe, are extremely vulnerable to climate change. To accurately and continually quantify the gross primary production (GPP) is critical for understanding the dynamics of carbon cycles from site-scale to global scale. Eddy covariance technique (EC) provides the best approach to measure the site-specific carbon flux, while satellite-based models can estimate GPP from local, small scale sites to regional and global scales. However, the suitability of most satellite-based models for alpine swamp meadow is unknown. Here we tested the performance of four widely-used models, the MOD17 algorithm (MOD), the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM), the photosynthetic capacity model (PCM), and the alpine vegetation model (AVM), in providing GPP estimations for a typical alpine swamp meadow as compared to the GPP estimations provided by EC-derived GPP. Our results indicated that all these models provided good descriptions of the intra-annual GPP patterns (R2>0.89, P<0.0001), but hardly agreed with the inter-annual GPP trends. VPM strongly underestimated the GPP of alpine swamp meadow, only accounting for 54.0% of GPP_EC. However, the other three satellite-based GPP models could serve as alternative tools for tower-based GPP observation. GPP estimated from AVM captured 94.5% of daily GPP_EC with the lowest average RMSE of 1.47 g C m-2. PCM slightly overestimated GPP by 12.0% while MODR slightly underestimated by 8.1% GPP compared to the daily GPP_EC. Our results suggested that GPP estimations for this alpine swamp meadow using AVM were superior to GPP estimations using the other relatively complex models.
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    Land Cover Status in the Koshi River Basin, Central Himalayas
    WU Xue, GAO Jungang, ZHANG Yili, LIU Linshan, ZHAO Zhilong, Basanta PAUDEL
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (1): 10-19.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.01.003
    Abstract379)   HTML0)    PDF (660KB)(366)      
    The Koshi River Basin is in the middle of the Himalayas, a tributary of the Ganges River and a very important cross-border watershed. Across the basin there are large changes in altitude, habitat complexity, ecosystem integrity, land cover diversity and regional difference and this area is sensitive to global climate change. Based on Landsat TM images, vegetation mapping, field investigations and 3S technology, we compiled high-precision land cover data for the Koshi River Basin and analyzed current land cover characteristics. We found that from source to downstream, land cover in the Koshi River Basin in 2010 was composed of water body (glacier), bare land, sparse vegetation, grassland, wetland, shrubland, forest, cropland, water body (river or lake) and built-up areas. Among them, grassland, forest, bare land and cropland are the main types, accounting for 25.83%, 21.19%, 19.31% and 15.09% of the basin’s area respectively. The composition and structure of the Koshi River Basin land cover types are different between southern and northern slopes. The north slope is dominated by grassland, bare land and glacier; forest, bare land and glacier are mainly found on northern slopes. Northern slopes contain nearly seven times more grassland than southern slopes; while 97.13% of forest is located on southern slopes. Grassland area on northern slope is 6.67 times than on southern slope. The vertical distribution of major land cover types has obvious zonal characteristics. Land cover types from low to high altitudes are cropland, forest, Shrubland and mixed cropland, grassland, sparse vegetation, bare land and water bodies. These results provide a scientific basis for the study of land use and cover change in a critical region and will inform ecosystem protection, sustainability and management in this and other alpine transboundary basins.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Spatial Variability Analysis of Soil Nutrients Based on GIS and Geostatistics: A Case Study of Yisa Township, Yunnan, China
    LI Jing, MIN Qingwen, LI Wenhua, BAI Yanying, Dhruba Bijaya G. C., YUAN Zheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (4): 348-355.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.010
    Abstract248)      PDF (614KB)(348)      
    Hani rice terraces system is one of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) pilot sites selected by FAO. Soil nutrients are an important symbol of soil fertility, and play an important role in the sustainable utilization of land. Based on geo-statistics and GIS, the spatial variation of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium in the soil in Yisa (a town in Honghe County, Yunnan Province) was studied. The results show that the spatial variability of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium exhibited medium spatial variability, and the coefficients of variation are 12.54%, 40.14%, 40.00%, 34.89%, and 40.00% respectively. Available phosphorus exhibited strong spatial variability, and the coefficient of variation is 102.13%. The spatial variation of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium fit the index mode, however, the spatial variation of available phosphorus fits the spherical model. Total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were greatly affected by soil structural factors, while pH, organic matter and alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen were affected by both structural and random factors. The spatial distribution of soil nutrients in Yisa was intuitively characterized by Kriging interpolation. It is very important to understand the spatial distribution of soil nutrients, which will provide the guidance for adjusting agricultural management measures such as fertilization.
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    Spatiotemporal Patterns and Drivers of Forest Change from 1985-2000 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China
    XIE Xue, XIE Hualin, Fan Yuanhua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (4): 301-308.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.04.009
    Abstract365)   HTML0)    PDF (961KB)(339)      
    Forests are fundamental to maintaining ecological security and achieving regional sustainable development in China. Forest land change can result in many ecological problems including soil erosion, water shortages, drought and biodiversity loss. Based on landscape ecology and logistic regression we explored the spatiotemporal patterns and factors affecting forest land changes from 1985 to 2000 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China. The results show decreased local fragmentation of woodland landscapes and that the shapes of forest patches have become more regular. For forest land cover change, soil organic matter content, slope type I (<5°), distance to the nearest village and per capita GDP were the most important independent variables from 1985 to 2000. This study indicates that spatial heterogeneity can affect the predictability of logistic regression models for forest land change.
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    A Review and Implication of Land Fallow System Research
    WU Qing, XIE Hualin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 223-231.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.002
    Abstract347)   HTML1)    PDF (395KB)(339)      
    Land fallow is of great significance for undertaking land reclamation, safeguarding national food security, promoting environmental improvements and ensuring the sustainable use of land resources. This paper reviews the important achievements in three areas of research on the land fallow system. It reviews and compares the land fallow system in different countries and regions of the world; it examines the response of farmers to the land fallow system and ecological environment; and it looks at the economic effects of the land fallow system. Based on China's rotation system for cultivated land, some relevant policy implications are put forward. Based on the different degrees of land damage, the evaluation system and the subsidy accounting standard for fallow land are formulated, and the compulsory fallow and voluntary participation of the niche fallow are targeting. The land fallow system should improve both the regulatory and the restraint mechanisms, improve the environmental awareness and environmental protection skills of farmers, change the production behaviors of farmers, and encourage farmers to change to high coverage crops to protect the land. In view of the negative effects produced by implementation of the fallow system should take corresponding management and compensation measures.
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    The Ecosystem Service Function of Shandong Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees System and Its Effect on Regional Ecosystem
    SUN Xueping, WANG Bin, LIU Moucheng, LIU Weiwei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (3): 223-230.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.011
    Abstract431)   HTML1)    PDF (788KB)(337)      
    The Shandong Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees System is a model of desertification control in the floor area in the Luxibei Plain, and of sustainable development. The current study about ancient mulberry trees in Xiajin county is mainly qualitative representation, lack of quantitative research. In addition, the relevant important ecological functional assessment should not only confine to quantitative assessment which illustrate the current condition, but also analyze the eco-service changes, derived from ecosystem structure develop, from the time dimension. Based on quantitative eco-service assessment of the ancient mulberry tree group, this paper intend to conduct a comprehensive analysis of ecological functions of ancient mulberry group focuses on the perspective of system structure and function evolution. Quantitative evaluation results show that the system has significant eco-efficiency in water conservation, reducing sediment loss, adjust atmosphere, etc. On timescale, thanks to mulberry cultivation, ecosystem structure and services have also undergone a corresponding change. In ecosystem structure: Planting pioneer trees such as mulberries and other species which can tolerate hostile site conditions, improves the micro-environment. This makes it possible for other crops to grow. The mixed forests and the combination of forestry and agriculture protect biodiversity. What’s more, they make the structure of the ecosystems more robust, giving full play to their functions. In terms of ecosystem services: ecosystem services of Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees have shown diversified development. And its main function has transferred from supply products to leisure and entertainment functions.
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    A New Approach for the Health Assessment of River Systems Based on Interconnected Water System Networks
    ZHAO Junkai, LI Lixian, ZHANG Aishe, LI Jiufa, GUO Qiuxia
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 251-257.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.005
    Abstract302)   HTML1)    PDF (339KB)(331)      
    Interconnected river system networks is a national water conservancy strategy in China and focus of research. Here we discuss the classification system, material and energy exchange between rivers and lakes, various dynamic flows and ecological functions of river-lake interconnected relationships. We then propose a novel method for the health assessment of river systems based on interconnected water system networks. In a healthy river system there is “material and energy exchange” and it is the first and foremost relationship of material and energy exchange between rivers and lakes. There are unobstructed various “flows” between rivers and lakes including material flows (water, dissolved substances, sediments, organisms and contaminants), energy flows (water levels, flow and flow velocity), information flows (information generated with water flows, organisms and human activities) and value flows (shipping, power generation, drinking and irrigation). Under the influences of nature and human activity, various flows are connected by river-lake interconnection to carry material and energy exchange between rivers and lakes to achieve river-lake interactions. The material and energy exchange between rivers and lakes become one of the approaches and the direct driving forces of changes in river-lake interconnected relationships. The benignant changes in river-lake interconnected relationship tend to be in relatively steady state and in ideal dynamic balance.
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    Effects of Traditional Ecological Knowledge on the Drought- resistant Mechanisms of the Hani Rice Terraces System
    LI Jing, JIAO Wenjun, MIN Qingwen, LI Wenhua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (3): 211-217.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.009
    Abstract458)   HTML2)    PDF (2417KB)(328)      
    The Hani Rice Terraces System is one of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) sites which can successfully resist extreme droughts. The reason is not only that the forests and terraces have the important function of water conservation, which provide and conserve adequate water resources for this complex ecosystem, but also that Hani traditional ecological knowledge plays an important role in the drought-resistance process. In this paper, drought-resistant mechanisms of the Hani Rice Terraces System have been analyzed first, then Hani traditional ecological knowledge has been analyzed based on a comprehensive literature review, a questionnaire survey and key informant interviews. The results show that the Hani nationality has developed knowledge of water management techniques, including water conserving construction, water allocation and ditch management. The Hani people are also highly conscious of water resources protection. There is a good deal of forest resource management knowledge and worship of forests, which have effectively helped in protecting the forest ecological system. In the reclamation and maintenance of Hani terraced fields, the Hani people have developed a series of farming systems, which have effectively protected the terrace ecosystem. Through analyzing this knowledge of water management, forest resource management and Hani terraced fields management, our paper confirms the important role that traditional ecological knowledge plays in maintaining stability of the system and realizing the efficient use of water resource. This is not only helpful for preserving cultural heritage, but is vital for protecting the Hani Rice Terraces System as a whole.
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    Regional Ecological Vulnerability Assessment of the Guangxi Xijiang River Economic Belt in Southwest China with VSD Model
    LI Pingxing, FAN Jie
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (2): 163-170.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.02.009
    Abstract216)      PDF (1284KB)(328)      
    The interactive effects of natural and human factors on ecosystems have been well studied, and the quantitative assessment of large-scale ecological vulnerability caused by natural and human factors is now one of the most active topics in the field. Taking the Guangxi Xijiang River Economic Belt in southwest China (GXEB) as a case study, we assess ecological vulnerability based on the Vulnerability Scoping Diagram (VSD) model. The indices system is decomposed into three sub objects, ten elements and 25 indicators layer by layer, which included factors from both natural and human fields. Results indicate that zones with lower, middle-lower, middle, middlehigher and higher vulnerability account for 11.31%, 22.63%, 27.60%, 24.39%, and 14.07%, respectively. The western and eastern parts of GXEB are more vulnerable than the central part and the mountain and urban areas are of higher vulnerability than the basins and river valleys. Compared with a vulnerability assessment based on natural factors only, it is concluded that human activities indeed cause the transition from naturally stable zones to vulnerable zones. The nature-dominated vulnerable zones are different with human-dominated ones in size and distribution, the latter being smaller, more scattered and distributed in urban areas and their surroundings. About 53% of total construction land is distributed in zones with middle and middle-higher ecological vulnerability; less vulnerable zones should attract construction in the future. Relevant suggestions are proposed on how to reduce vulnerability according to inducing factors. The VSD model has a significant advantage in the quantitative evaluation of ecological vulnerability, but is insufficient to distinguish nature-or human-dominated vulnerability quantitatively.
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    On Estimating Transportation Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Off-shore Island Tourism—A Case Study of Haikou City, China
    WU Pu, TIAN Mi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (6): 472-479.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.06.007
    Abstract282)   HTML0)    PDF (680KB)(327)      
    In the tourism industry, transportation is the greatest consumer of energy and contributes the largest amount of CO2 emissions (ECCE). Airplane flights make up between 60% and 70% of all forms of tourism transport. Since airplane travel is the main way for tourists to access islands, airplane travel receives considerable attention in the study of the relationship between island tourism transportation, environment and economy. However, the parameters adopted to estimate ECCE in the literature are usually either out-of-date or taken from papers not written in China. To improve the accuracy of estimates, all the parameters used in this paper are current and were obtained locally. Based on these parameters and a bottom-up approach, a more accurate estimation of ECCE for the off-shore island city of Haikou was obtained in 2012. The results indicate that 24.30% of the city’s energy consumption, 33.89 PJ, was due to tourism transportation, while CO2 emissions were 2.54 Mt. It is incorrect to assume that tourism is “an industry with no pollution”. In Haikou, for example, tourism turns out to be the major form of energy consumption in the city. This paper makes several suggestions intended to minimize the negative environmental impact from tourism transportation. These include recommending longer stays, a decrease in the number of flights, taxation of airplane emissions, and the setting up an environmental recovery fund.
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    Enzyme Activities and Microbial Communities in Subtropical Forest Soil Aggregates to Ammonium and Nitrate-Nitrogen Additions
    WEI Yan, WANG Zhongqiang, ZHANG Xinyu, YANG Hao, LIU Xiyu, LIU Wenjing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 258-267.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.006
    Abstract363)   HTML1)    PDF (862KB)(326)      
    A laboratory incubation experiment was established to examine the impacts of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen additions on soil microbial attributes of a subtropical Pinus elliottii forest ecosystem in southern China. Soils were subjected to three different treatments: the control with no nitrogen addition (CK), the ammonium nitrogen addition (NH4+-N), and the nitrate nitrogen addition (NO3--N). Samples from bulk and two different size fractions (macroaggregate (>250 μm) and microaggregate (53-250 μm)) were analyzed for soil properties, enzyme activities and microbial communities on day 7 and 15 of the incubation. Our study demonstrated that NH4+-N had a greater influence on soil microbial activities than NO3--N. NH4+-N additions resulted in significant increases in β-1,4-glucosidase (βG) and β-1,4-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG) enzyme activities in bulk, macroaggregate and microaggregate soils after 7 and 15 days incubation. NO3--N additions only significantly increased in βG and NAG enzyme activities in bulk, macroaggregate soils after 7 and 15 days incubation, but not in microaggregate. All NH4+-N and NO3--N additions resulted in significant increases in gram-positive bacterial PLFAs in microaggregates. Only a significant correlation between soil nutrient contents and enzyme activities in macroaggregates was founded, which suggests that the soil aggregation structure played an important role in the determining enzyme activities.
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    Recognizing the Scientific Mission of Flux Tower Observation Networks—Lay the Solid Scientific Data Foundation for Solving Ecological Issues Related to Global Change
    YU Guirui, CHEN Zhi, ZHANG Leiming, PENG Changhui, CHEN Jingming, PIAO Shilong, ZHANG Yangjian, NIU Shuli, WANG Qiufeng, LUO Yiqi, CIAIS Philippe, BALDOCCHI D. Dennis
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 115-120.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.001
    Abstract354)   HTML0)    PDF (2322KB)(323)      
    As the Earth entering into the Anthropocene, global sustainable development requires ecological research to evolve into the large-scale, quantitative, and predictive era. It necessitates a revolution of ecological observation technology and a long-term accumulation of scientific data. The ecosystem flux tower observation technology is the right one to meet this requirement. However, the unique advantages and potential values of global-scale flux tower observation are still not fully appreciated. Reviewing the development history of global meteorological observation and its scientific contributions to the society, we can get an important enlightenment to re-cognize the scientific mission of flux observation.
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    The Evaluation of Rural Territorial Functions: A Case Study of Henan, China
    FU Chao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 242-250.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.004
    Abstract352)   HTML1)    PDF (385KB)(323)      
    China’s new urbanization process requires coordinated development between cities and rural areas. Territorial functions of rural areas are defined as advantageous effects on nature and human society that, in particular, rural systems perform via their property and interactions with other systems at certain social development stages. This paper establishes an index system for evaluating rural territorial functions including agricultural function, social function, economic function and ecological function. By establishing a model based on a General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) with the county-level as the basic unit, we comprehensively evaluate the rural territorial functions of 109 counties and/or cities in Henan province, China in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Results show that compared with that in 2000, each function in 2010 improved, with the spatial heterogeneity of economic function the most evident, social service function comparatively balanced and spatial distribution of agricultural production function changing little. Cluster analysis was adopted to study the major functions of rural regions. Henan was divided into six major function zones to enhance administrative management and developmental policy. The six major function zones are Type I (core economic development zone), Type II (agricultural production safeguarding zone), Type III (function improving zone for rural areas), Type IV (model zone of livelihood and social services), Type V (economic restructuring and development zone), and Type VI (nature conservation areas). Different development goals and development strategies should be considered according to different major function areas to achieve the coordinated development of urban and rural areas in China.
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    Visualizing Patterns of Genetic Landscapes and Species Distribution of Taxus wallichiana (Taxaceae), Based on GIS and Ecological Niche Models
    YU Haibin, ZHANG Yili, GAO Jungang, QI Wei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (3): 193-202.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.03.001
    Abstract220)      PDF (1988KB)(319)      
    The Chinese yew (Taxus wallichiana), which is widely distributed in the Himalayas and in southern China, is now on the edge of extinction. In order to understand the evolutionary processes that control the current diversity within this species at the genetic and ecological levels, its genetic patterns and range dynamics must first be identified and mapped. This knowledge can then be applied in the development of an effective conservation strategy. Based on molecular data obtained from 48 populations of T. wallichiana, we used GIS-based interpolation approach for the explicit visualization of patterns of genetic divergence and diversity, and a number of potential evolutionary hotspots have been specifically identified within the genetic landscape maps. Within the maps of genetic divergence and diversity, five areas of high inter-population genetic divergence and six areas of high intra-population genetic diversity have been highlighted in a number of separate mountain regions, and these evolutionary hotspots should have the priority to be protected. Furthermore, four geographical barriers have been identified: the eastern Himalayas, the Yunnan Plateau, the Hengduan Mountains and the Taiwan Strait. According to ecological niche modeling (ENM), the populations of T. wallichiana within the Sino-Himalayan Forest floristic subkingdom experienced westward expansion from the periods of Last Inter-glacial to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Following the LGM, the distribution range overall became reduced and fragmented. These findings challenge the classic mode of contraction-expansion in response to the last glaciation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the changes in geographical landscapes and climate that occurred during the Quaternary resulted in current genetic landscape patterns.
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    Declining Precipitation Enhances the Effect of Warming on Phenological Variation in a Semiarid Tibetan Meadow Steppe
    ZHAO Guangshuai, SHI Peili, ZONG Ning, HE Yongtao, ZHANG Xianzhou, HE Honglin, ZHANG Jing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (1): 50-56.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.01.007
    Abstract397)   HTML2)    PDF (593KB)(318)      
    Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of global warming, especially on the Tibetan Plateau. However, whether climate warming has enhanced the advance of grassland phenology since 2000 remains debated and little is known about the warming effect on semiarid grassland phenology and interactions with early growing season precipitation. In this study, we extracted phenological changes from average NDVI in the growing season (GNDVI) to analyze the relationship between changes in NDVI, phenology and climate in the Northern Tibetan Damxung grassland from 2000 to 2014. The GNDVI of the grassland declined. Interannual variation of GNDVI was mainly affected by mean temperature from late May to July and precipitation from April to August. The length of the growing season was significantly shortened due to a delay in the beginning of the growing season and no advancement of the end of the growing season, largely caused by climate warming and enhanced by decreasing precipitation in spring. Water availability was the major determinant of grass growth in the study area. Warming increased demand for water when the growth limitation of temperature to grass was exceeded in the growing season. Decreased precipitation likely further exacerbated the effect of warming on vegetation phenology in recent decades due to increasing evapotranspiration and water limitations. The comprehensive effects of global warming and decreasing precipitation may delay the phenological responses of semiarid alpine grasslands.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Spatial Distribution Modelling of Kobresia pygmaea (Cyperaceae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    WU Liang, WANG Min, OUYANG Hua, CHENG Shengkui, SONG MingHua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (1): 20-29.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.01.004
    Abstract278)   HTML0)    PDF (489KB)(317)      
    Kobresia pygmaea Willd. dominates the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Knowledge of this species’ distribution and ecological environment could provide valuable insights into the alpine ecosystem and key species living there, support species and ecosystem conservation in alpine regions, and build on species origin and evolutionary research. To avoid modelling uncertainty encountered in a single approach, four species distribution model algorithms (Surface Range Envelope (SRE), Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Generalized Boosted Regression (GBM) and Maximum Entropy (MAXENT)), were used to simulate the distribution of K. pygmaea based on occurrence samples that were verified using DNA sequencing techniques. Species distribution modelling revealed a vast distribution region of K. pygmaea in the northern Tibetan Highlands and alpine meadows in the southern and eastern declivity of the plateau. A high evaluation performance was found for the GLM, GBM and MAXENT models. Different potential range size patterns for the four models were found between 374340-482605 km2 (average = 421591 km2). Precipitation during growing seasons was found to be the dominant factor accounting for the distribution, consistent with patterns of heat and water patterns conditions of alpine ecosystems on the plateau. Species distribution models provide a simple and reliable approach to simulating the spatial patterns of species inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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    Progress in the Research on Benefit-sharing and Ecological Compensation Mechanisms for Transboundary Rivers
    HAN Ze, SONG Wei, DENG Xiangzheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 129-140.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.003
    Abstract376)   HTML0)    PDF (509KB)(314)      
    Transboundary rivers have important geopolitical and geo-economic connotations, but riparian states of transboundary rivers are often driven by their own rapid population growth and economic development to be-come involved in regional conflicts about the development and use of water resources. Therefore, finding a balance between the need for fair and reasonable development of water resources and the effective protection of environment from an ecological perspective has become a major problem faced by the international community. This paper begins with consideration of international water laws related to transboundary rivers and then reviews advances in the research on benefit-sharing, ecological compensation mechanisms, and adaptive management systems. We believe that existing international water laws form a complete legal system and that more attention needs to be paid to transboundary cooperation and sustainable water resource use. With respect to how transboundary water conflicts are resolved, there is a trend to move away from single water resource allocation (a zero-sum game) to benefit-sharing in order to achieve a win-win situation for riparian states, but there are still some difficulties in transboundary ecological compensation. In China, the central government has paid attention to horizontal ecological compensation between upstream and downstream, offering guidance to promote establishment of inter-province ecological compensation. Based on existing practice, horizontal ecological compensations are still in their infancy, small in scale, supported by a weak legal system, lacking market mechanisms to encourage their use and relying on fiscal transfers as the method of payment. In the future, China will need to intensify its research on legal system development, international cooperation, and benefit-sharing as these impact transboundary water resources. Because government can be seen as a management department with multiple identities (enabler, regulator and buyer), to improve adaptive transboundary ecological compensation mechanisms, government must develop as soon as possible data sharing platforms, standards of water consumption behaviors and intergovernmental policies (or ordinances).
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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System in China
    ZHANG Hongqi, XU Erqi, ZHU Huiyi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 121-128.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.002
    Abstract425)   HTML0)    PDF (830KB)(312)      
    Rapid economic development, industrialization, and urbanization aggravates the tense relationship between human beings and the land. With multiple demands for food security, ecological protection and economic development, frequent conflicts and competition occur between multiple different functional land types. The current land use classification system focuses on the productive and living functions of land, but gives little consideration to ecological functions. This study builds a national Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System based on land functions emphasizing the concept and position of ecological land. So-called ecological land uses are types of land use regulating, maintaining and protecting ecological security. The new land classification is more flexible for overall planning purposes and for making arrangements for ecological, living and productive land spaces. The Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System includes three levels. The first level has four major types: ecological land, ecological-productive land, productive-ecological land, and living-productive land. The second level subdivides the major types into 15 functional land categories, including major ecological regulation land, common ecological regulation land, and ecological conservation land for ecological lands; pasture land, timber land and aquaculture land for ecological-productive lands; arable land and orchard for productive-ecological lands; and urban built-up area, rural living land, and industrial land for living-productive lands. The third level is based on land cover types. Based on multiple data sources, and using a strategy of zoning and re-classification, we extracted the spatial distribution of ecological-living-productive lands on a national scale. The areas of ecological land, ecological-productive land, productive land, and living-productive land area are 6,037,000 km2, 1,353,800 km2, 2,001,900 km2 and 207,300 km2, respectively; accounting for 62.89%, 14.10%, 20.85% and 2.16% of total area, respectively. For the second-level classification, the area of ecological conservation land is the largest, accounting for 20.17% of the total area. Ecological land is located mainly in central and western China. Ecological-productive land is distributed in various areas throughout the country, and productive-ecological land and living-productive land are concentrated in eastern China.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Urban Expansion and Spatiotemporal Relationships with Driving Factors Revealed by Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression
    DONG Guanglong, XU Erqi, ZHANG Hongqi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 277-286.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.008
    Abstract290)   HTML1)    PDF (710KB)(312)      
    Urbanization improves our lives but also threatens human health and sustainable development. Revealing the spatiotemporal pattern of urban expansion and spatiotemporal relationships with driving forces, especially in terms of the ubiquitous and fast growing small city, is a crucial prerequisite to solving these problems and realizing sustainable development. Kunshan, China was used as a case study here. Eleven variables from four aspects covering physical, socioeconomic, accessibility and neighborhood were selected, and logistic regression and geographically weighted logistic regression modeling were employed to explore spatiotemporal relationships from 1991-2014. Results reveal that urban expansion in Kunshan shows an accelerating tendency with annual expansion from 2000-2014 four times higher than for 1991-2000. More importantly, the annual expansion rate of Kunshan of 28.42% in 2000-2014 is higher than that of a large city. Urban expansion and related factors have spatiotemporal varying relationships. From a global perspective, the closer to a city, town, main road and the higher the GDP, the more likely a region will undergo urbanization. Interestingly, the effect of population on urban expansion is decreasing, especially in developed areas, and the effect of distance to lake is enhanced. From a local perspective, the magnitude and even the sign of the coefficients vary across the study area. However, the range of the coefficient of GWLR is around that of the corresponding variable in LR, and the sign of most variables in GWLR is consistent with that of corresponding variables in LR. GWLR surpasses LR with the same explanatory variables in revealing regional differences and improving model reliability. Based on these findings, more attention should be given to small cities in China. Promoting the connotation of city culture and public services to realize New-type Urbanization and regional diversity policy in order to manage urban expansion scientifically are also recommended.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Resources, Environment and Economic Patterns and Key Scientific Issues of the Silk Road Economic Belt
    DONG Suocheng, LI Zehong, LI Yu, SHI Guangyi, YU Huilu, WANG Juanle, LI Jun, MAO Qiliang, HUANG Yongbin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (2): 65-72.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.02.001
    Abstract295)      PDF (682KB)(312)      

    The paper analyzes the distribution pattern of resources, ecological environment, society and economy, and holds that it is conducive to Silk Road countries to carry out Omni-directional and multi-level economic cooperation. Then the article puts forth main modes and paths of sustainable economic development for the Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB): ecological civilization mode, regional economic integration mode, transportation economic belt mode and international tourism economic zone mode. Finally, the article summarizes the key scientific issues for the sustainable development in the SREB and puts forward several action projects which include establishing International Scientists League and Think Tanks, establishing international information sharing platform and scientific policy-making system of ecological environment and sustainable development of the SREB, starting international science cooperation and technology traineeship program of the SREB, founding the international cooperation committee in the SREB and founding transnational construction and win-win cooperation mechanism of coping with climate change and ecological environment.

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    Responses of Soil CO2, CH4 and N2O Fluxes to N, P, and Acid Additions in Mixed Forest in Subtropical China
    GAO Wenlong, YANG Hao, LI Shenggong, KOU Liang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 154-164.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.006
    Abstract197)   HTML0)    PDF (827KB)(309)      
    Understanding how nitrogen (N) availability interacts with soil acidity and phosphorus (P) availability to affect soil-atmosphere exchanges in CO2, CH4 and N2O in forest ecosystems is important for understanding the mechanisms driving ecosystem responses to enhanced N deposition. Here, we conducted an experiment with N, P and acid (H) addition in a mixed forest in subtropical China to investigate how acid and P addition affects CO2, CH4 and N2O exchange under N addition. Our results showed that soil NH4+-N and NO3--N increased after N addition, but CO2 emissions in N addition plots remained unaffected. CH4 uptake in N-, P-, NP-, NH- and NPH-addition plots were reduced by 21.1%, 15.7%, 39.1%, 26.6%, and 28.4%, respectively. CH4 uptake in NP-addition plots were lower compared to N-addition and P-addition plots, indicating that N and P addition had an additive effect on inhibiting CH4 uptake. N2O emission in N-, NP-, NH- and NPH-addition plots increased by 158.6%, 176.0%, 117.2%, and 91.8%, respectively. N2O emissions in NPH-addition plots were lower compared to NP-addition plots while showed no difference between N-addition and NH-addition plots. This suggests that only under P rich conditions, acid addition would greatly mitigate N2O emissions under N addition. Our results demonstrate that for N and P co-limited forest ecosystems with acidic soils, low P availability constrains the inhibition of soil CH4 uptake by N deposition. When P availability is low, a weak soil acidation induced by N deposition may have less influence on the stimulation of N2O emissions by N deposition.
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