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    Ungulate Mortality due to Fencing and Perceptions of Pasture Fences in Part of the Future Qilianshan National Park
    Sydney M. GREENFIELD, Aliana C. NORRIS, Joseph P. LAMBERT, Wu liji, Se yongjun, ZHAN Jinqi, MA Bing, LI Deng, SHI Kun, Philip RIORDAN
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 99-109.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.010
    Abstract226)   HTML15)    PDF (780KB)(56)      

    Fencing is an important part of husbandry for pastoral communities; however, these same fences can have unintended consequences for wildlife populations by restricting movement, reducing connectivity, and causing direct mortality. This paper assesses the current status and effects of fencing present in Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve, soon to be part of the recently proposed Qilianshan National Park. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 70 households to gauge local herders’ perceptions of fences, threats of fencing to native ungulates, and the number of wildlife found entangled in fencing. We found that local communities rely on fencing for livestock management and individuals who had encountered wildlife entangled in fences were more likely to perceive fences as having negative effects. Furthermore, those who perceived fencing as harmful to wildlife were more likely to support the dismantling of fences. On the other hand, families who needed to hire others to tend to their livestock were less likely to support dismantling efforts. However, the best model was only able to account for some of the data variability, suggesting that while perceptions of fences are important, other factors could be influencing support for fence dismantling. Hence, increasing awareness of threats alone may not be enough to generate community support of a fence dismantling program. Therefore, outreach and community collaboration to reduce the impacts of fence alterations upon livestock management will be necessary for a successful fence dismantling program within the new national park. Finally, those surveyed reported finding kiang, argali, and Tibetan gazelle dead in fences, with kiang found more often than the other two. This suggests that these three species may be more vulnerable to fence entanglement and that they are good targets for future studies and dismantling efforts.

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    Policy Assessment and Recommendations for Forestry-based Ecological Poverty Alleviation: An Empirical Study from the Prefectures of Nujiang and Aba, Southwestern China
    WANG Yaming, QIN Fanding, ZHAO Guangshuai, FENG Qinliang, WU Qiong, LI Yang, YI Xutong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 110-123.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.011
    Abstract176)   HTML19)    PDF (638KB)(42)      

    China has adopted a long-term campaign against poverty. In recent decades, there is an increasing understanding that ecological poverty alleviation can meet the dual goals of environmental protection and rural poverty reduction. China is pivoting towards forestry-based poverty reduction in the severely poverty-stricken areas. However, several key factors remain elusive, including the extent to which the poor people benefit from forestry programs, whether they are satisfied with the policies and whether the policies are effective for poverty alleviation. Based on data collected through a questionnaire survey of 79 households in the prefectures of Nujiang and Aba, southwestern China, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach was used to examine the effectiveness of the forestry-based poverty alleviation policy. The results showed that four poverty alleviation pathways, including industry, employment, micro-finance and pairing assistance in villages, had obviously increased the incomes of the filing poor households and solved the problem of “Two Worries-free and Three Guarantees”. The poor were satisfied with the forestry-based ecological poverty alleviation policies and these policies had good effects in fighting against poverty. However, there are still some shortcomings, such as a lack of active participation, imperfect targeted identification, lack of funds and limited sources of funds during the policy implementation. Our results highlight the importance of the forestry industry and the public welfare position in the alleviation of poverty in the poverty-stricken areas. Synergies between ecological protection and poverty reduction are possible through sound forestry-based policies. This article recommends five policies to simultaneously realize the potential of poverty alleviation and environment protection through forestry development.

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    Overview of the Measures and Techniques Used to Protect Traffic Lines against Shifting Sands in China
    MA Ning, GUO Qun, LI Yu, LI Shenggong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 124-135.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.012
    Abstract122)   HTML17)    PDF (2189KB)(40)      

    Shifting sands are one of the main contributors to desertification in China. This paper briefly reviews the measures and techniques which are used to protect traffic lines by stabilizing and fixing sands in the desert and desertification-affected arid and semi-arid areas in north China. We introduce the types and features of these measures and techniques, including mechanical, chemical, and biological measures, and outline how they have been applied in different areas and in different traffic lines over the past six decades, from 1950s to 2010s, taking the Baotou-Lanzhou railway, the Qinghai-Tibet railway, and the Tarim Desert highway as examples Mechanical measures such as erecting sand-retaining wind walls and placing straw checkerboards have proved to be very efficient for stabilizing shifting sands and protecting traffic lines that pass through the desert areas. Chemical measures are not widely used in the current sand fixing systems because of their high cost and potential pollution risks. Biological measures are preferred because they exhibit much better sand fixation performance and longer duration than the former two types of measures despite their relatively high cost. A combination of different measures is usually adopted in some areas to attain better sand-fixing effects. Stabilizing sand dune surfaces with mechanical measures or irrigation from underground water or river if available helps early recruitment of some drought-tolerant plants (xerophytes). We also point out the restrictions for existing sand-fixing measures and techniques and future research orientation. This review has implications for addressing eco-environmental issues associated with infrastructure construction that is part of the Belt and Road Initiative in desert and desertification-affected arid and semi-arid areas in the Mongolian Plateau.

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    Research Framework for Ecosystem Vulnerability: Measurement, Prediction, and Risk Assessment
    WANG Yajun, ZHONG Lifang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 499-507.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.007
    Abstract269)   HTML11)    PDF (408KB)(68)      

    The fragility of ecosystem health has become a key factor hindering the sustainable development of the ecological environment. Through a review of published research from domestic and foreign scholars, starting from the endogenous logic of studies in the field of ecosystem vulnerability (EV), this paper sorts out the literature on the aspects of measurement models, prediction methods and risk assessment, comprehensively defines the research category and scientific framework of EV, and analyzes the research ideas and development trends. We arrived at the following conclusions: 1) The connotation of ecosystem vulnerability not only embodies the change in the vulnerability of the natural environment, but it also reflects the irreversible damage to the ecosystem caused by excessive development and industrial production activities. 2) The setting of ecosystem vulnerability indices should aim to fully reflect the essential features of that vulnerability, which should include the index systems of natural, social, economic and other related factors. 3) There are many types of ecosystem vulnerability measurement methods, prediction models and risk evaluation models, which have different focuses and advantages. The most appropriate method should be adopted for conducting comprehensive and systematic evaluation, prediction and estimation according to the different representation and evolution mechanisms of the chosen research object and regional ecosystem vulnerability. 4) Based on the regional system characteristics, corresponding risk management measures should be proposed, and pertinent policy suggestions should be put forward to improve the ecological safety and sustainable development of an ecologically vulnerable area.

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    Spatial Distribution of Surface Soil Organic Carbon Density and Related Factors along an Urbanization Gradient in Beijing
    TIAN Yuhong, LIU Fenghua, WANG Tiantian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 508-515.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.008
    Abstract133)   HTML2)    PDF (1067KB)(17)      

    Urban surface soil has a unique set of structures and processes that affect surface soil organic carbon density (SOCdensity) and its spatial variations. Using Beijing as a case study, and assisted by field investigations and experiments, we analyzed the spatial distribution of SOCdensity in different land use types and functional regions, and assessed associated factors such as urbanization level, the physiochemical properties of soil and plant configurations. The present study aims to provide useful information about the mechanisms driving soil organic carbon and climate change in developing and developed areas in urbanized regions like Beijing. Results indicate that P is the main factor positively influencing SOCdensity in most regions. Because of the specific interference directly related to human beings in urban areas, with decreases in the urbanization level, more physiochemical factors of soil can influence SOCdensity. SOCdensity under grasses is not significantly different from that under other plant compositions. Urbanization processes decrease the heterogeneity of the spatial pattern of SOCdensity in most land use types, but increased its contents when the area reached a developed level in Beijing. More factors related to human interference and spatial variation of surface soil carbon storage, especially under impervious land in urban areas, should be considered in future studies.

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    Effect of Long-term Experimental Warming on the Nutritional Quality of Alpine Meadows in the Northern Tibet
    SUN Wei, LI Shaowei, ZHANG Yangjian, FU Gang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 516-524.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.009
    Abstract127)   HTML1)    PDF (1789KB)(34)      

    The nutritional quality of grasslands is closely related to recruitment of young and population dynamics of livestock and wild herbivores. However, the response of nutritional quality to climate warming has not been fully understood in the alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, especially in the Northern Tibet. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental warming ( beginning in 2008) on nutritional quality in three alpine meadows (site A: 4313 m, B: 4513 m and C: 4693 m) in the Northern Tibet. Crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude ash (Ash), ether extract (EE) and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) were examined in 2018-2019. Experimental warming only increased the content of CP by 27.25%, ADF by 89.93% and NDF by 41.20%, but it decreased the content of Ash by 57.76% in 2019 at site B. The contents of CP and WSC both increased with soil moisture (SM). The content of CP decreased with vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The combined effect of SM and VPD was greater than air temperature (Ta) in controlling the variations of the CP content, ADF content and nutritional quality. Compared to Ta, VPD explained more of the variation in NDF and Ash content. All of these findings suggest that warming effects on nutritional quality may vary with site and year, and water availability may have a stronger effect on the nutritional quality than temperature in the alpine meadow of the Northern Tibet.

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    Physiological Responses of Pistia stratiotes and Its Fluoride
    Removal Efficiency
    ZHANG Yun, CHEN Jinfa
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 525-530.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.010
    Abstract168)   HTML1)    PDF (1999KB)(20)      

    Phytoremediation technology using aquatic plants is being used increasingly in constructed wetlands to purify wastewater. The physiological responses of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and its effectiveness in removing fluoride (F -) from water are described in this article. The results indicate that Pistia stratiotes has the ability to accumulate F -. The removal efficiency ranged from 27.79% to 56.32% for the various initial F -concentrations tested, and was highest (56.32%) in the highest initial concentration group 60mg/L. The F - concentrations in control groups (without Pistia stratiotes) changed very little, from -1.135% to -0.007% of the initial concentrations. At the highest removal rate, the bioconcentration factor was 7.84. The rate of purification conformed to the Michaelis-Menten equation, and the correlation coefficients (R 2) were all greater than 0.97. The Specific Growth Rates (SGR) of the treatment groups were -8.03% to -1.22%, and the SGR of plants under F -stress decreased during the experimental period. The partial correlation analysis showed that concentrations of F - in water were strongly linearly correlated with peroxidase.

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    The Situation with College Express Packaging Waste and Recycling Recommendations—Taking the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences as an Example
    ZHANG Wenjing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 530-536.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.009
    Abstract614)   HTML8)    PDF (367KB)(153)      

    Questionnaires and interviews are employed in this paper to investigate and analyze the situation with respect to express packaging waste at the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (GCASS). The survey results show that: (1) the campus receives a large number of express packages and there is, in turn, a considerable amount of packaging waste; (2) there are four main types of express packaging materials: paper packaging, plastic bags, wrapping tapes and package fillers; (3) neither the students nor the school perform well in the recycling of express packaging waste; (4) the samples investigated in this paper can be divided into four categories by cluster analysis, and the author infers from this that the colleges and universities with a large proportion of female students should pay more attention to the issue of recycling of express packaging waste. Several suggestions are presented based on the research results: (1) establishing a campus waste recycling system is the most efficient way to solve the problem of express packaging waste at GCASS; (2) we should advocate for green packaging and manage it from the source of waste generation because most of the express packaging material does not easily degrade naturally, and this represents a huge hidden danger to human health and the environment; (3) the school should cultivate student awareness of environmental protection. If education and penalties are implemented together, the recovery system will run better.

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    An Evaluation of the Effect of Termites on Rangeland Degradation: The Case of Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
    Yeneayehu FENETAHUN, XU Xinwen, WANG Yongdong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 525-529.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.008
    Abstract377)   HTML5)    PDF (949KB)(144)      

    The infestation rate of termites in the Yabello rangeland, caused by both climatic and human factors, is of interest at certain times. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the impact of termites and determine appropriate management measures in the study area. Data was collected from three kebeles of the Yabello district (Dida Tuyura, Danbal-Waccu and Arero), the selection of which was dependent on the extent to which the termites had spread. A field survey method and semi-structured questionnaires were used for 40 community representatives from each of the selected kebeles. A total of 120 community representatives were interviewed and the interviews were supported by direct observations and informal discussions to understand the impact of termites on rangeland degradation, and to explain the trends. Historical background data of termite infestation rates in the study area was collected and evaluated .In addition to the direct impact caused by termites on forage products, buildings and crops, the linkages of termites with the environment and management mechanisms were identified. Yabello rangeland has often been under termite infestation stress and problems are increasing at an alarming rate. So in order to minimize the impact of termites on rangeland degradation identification of exact termite species and take appropriate management together with the community knowledge and scientific management system was recommended.

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    Delimitation of Urban Growth Boundary Based on the Coordination of Ecology and Residential Activity Spaces: A Case Study of Jinan, China
    JIA Kun, ZHANG Chao, YANG Yanzhao, YOU Zhen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 518-524.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.007
    Abstract325)   HTML6)    PDF (1809KB)(93)      

    Delimitation of an urban growth boundary (UGB) can effectively curb disorderly urban expansion, optimize urban development space and protect the ecological environment. Eco-environmental sensitivity was evaluated and areas prohibiting construction expansion were extracted by establishing an index system. Point of interest (POI) and microblog data were utilized to analyze the expansion of residential activity space. Urban space expansion potential was calculated using a comprehensive evaluation model, and an urban growth boundary for Jinan in 2020 was delimited combining the predicted urban expansion scale. The results showed that: (1) An evaluation of eco-environmental sensitivity can effectively protect ecological land and provide an ecological basis for urban expansion. Regions with high eco-environmental sensitivities in Jinan are located along the banks of the Yellow River and Xiaoqing River and in southeast mountainous areas, but eco-environmental sensitivities in the central, north and southeast areas are relatively low; (2) The model to evaluate urban residential activity expansion can quantify the spatial distribution of urban residents' activities. Regions with high potential for residential activity space expansion in Jinan are mainly concentrated in the middle of Jinan and most are part of existing built-up areas and surrounding areas; (3) The method that delimits urban growth boundaries based on the coordination of ecology and residential activity space is reasonable. Spatial expansion in Jinan mainly extends towards the east and west wings, and the boundary conforms to the spatial strategy guiding Jinan’s development and is consistent with the overall layout in related plans. Considering both ecological protection and the internal forces driving urban expansion, the method of urban growth boundary delimitation used in this study can provide a reference and practical help for studies and management of urban development in the new era.

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    Traditional Tea-grass Integrated System in Shizuoka as a GIAHS Site: Values and Conservation—Background of Application and Efforts after Registration
    Hidehiro INAGAKI, Yoshinobu KUSUMOTO
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 511-517.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.006
    Abstract504)   HTML4)    PDF (2236KB)(120)      

    The traditional tea-grass integrated system in Shizuoka is the first example of a Globally Important Agriculture Heritage Systems (GIAHS) site in Japan that was proposed by a local government. In this paper, we report the background and circumstances leading to the recognition of this system, its registration as a GIAHS, and its current use after registration. Although semi-natural grasslands have decreased considerably in Japan, we found unique semi-natural grasslands with no pest insects and a rich biodiversity around the tea fields. These grasslands and the farming method employed are known as “Chagusaba”, which was registered as a GIAHS in 2013. However, the registration process for GIAHS was not easy, as many local farmers do not understand the value of their traditional farming methods or the GIAHS honor. After registering Chagusaba as a GIAHS, our main agenda was branding. Traditional farming, with time and effort, produces high-quality tea. As labor saving technologies in agriculture have progressed in Japan, the price of high-quality tea has declined, and consequently, the numbers of farmers performing the inefficient traditional farming methods are decreasing. It is necessary to correctly brand the Chagusaba-grown tea and reflect the value of the traditional farming method in the price. The local government of the Shizuoka Prefecture is currently working on implementing a certification system, which includes scientific evaluation using GPS, and the introduction of biodiversity indicators.

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    Different Irrigation Methods and Their Comparisons Based on the Parametric Evaluation Method in Khosouyeh Dam Subbasin, Iran
    Masoud MASOUDI, Reza ZARE
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 504-510.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.005
    Abstract274)   HTML5)    PDF (916KB)(86)      

    Today, the world's population is rising dramatically, and in line with this increase in the population of food and agricultural products, there must be an increasing in the number of problems associated with this process of agricultural land. Then it is necessary to use the maximum potential of this lands that product maximum yield without any damage. To reach this objective, land suitability evaluation is the most important way that can reach human to this objective. The main objective of this research was to compare different irrigation methods based on a parametric evaluation system in an area of 221402 ha in the Khosouyeh Subbasin of the Fars province, in the south of Iran. After preparing land unit map, 37 points were selected for sampling. Soil properties were evaluated and analyzed. Suitability maps for drop and gravity irrigation were generated using GIS technique. The results revealed land suitability of 98.42% of the case study was classified as permanently not suitable (N2) and 1.52% currently not suitable (N1) for gravity irrigation. On the other hand, land suitability of 77.73% of the case study was classified as permanently not suitability (N2), 6.05% currently not suitable (N1), 12.43% marginally suitable (S3) and 3.79% moderately suitable (S2) for drop irrigation. The limiting factors for both kinds of drop and gravity irrigation are soil depth and slope of land.

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