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    Calling for Nexus Approach: Introduction of the Flagship Programme on Climate, Ecosystems and Livelihoods
    ZHANG Linxiu, LIU Jian, FU Chao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 227-231.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.001
    Abstract403)   HTML8)    PDF (1587KB)(167)      
    The United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) launched at the end of 2016 a decade-long (2016 -2025) flagship programme on Climate, Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CEL), with the aim to assist developing countries in delivering the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and climate targets while protecting their ecosystems and improving the livelihoods of their people. The CEL programme is a major initiative supported by China and other developing countries to promote long-term South-South cooperation, led by the United Nations Environment Programme International Ecosystem Management Partnership (UNEP-IEMP). This article presents the conceptual framework and implementation strategy of the CEL programme, which were proposed through consultations between UN Environment, Chinese and international experts. Within the conceptual framework, the CEL programme will 1) focus its work on the nexus of climate change, ecosystem services and sustainable livelihoods as the primary priority; 2) encourage cross-sectoral and multi-stakeholder cooperation, enhance interdisciplinary research, and strive for breakthroughs that cross disciplinary boundaries; 3) provide four types of services and products—monitoring and assessment, capacity building, technology demonstration, and science for policy through mainly South-South cooperation; and 4) have far-reaching impacts on delivering SDGs and climate targets in vulnerable developing countries. The CEL programme is going to be implemented in a strategic way through a set of related projects and initiatives. More particularly, it will 1) focus on fragile ecosystems like drylands, mountains, river basins and coastal zones in Asia, Africa and other key regions along the Belt and Road, in the early stage and expand to include some other regions at a later stage; 2) take a three-phase approach, including Phase I, Kick -off (2016 -2018), Phase II, Development (2019 -2021), and Phase III, Scaling-up (2022 -2025); and 3) draw on the globally relevant knowledge, expertise and other resources of a substantial network of partners. So far, UNEP-IEMP has developed more than twenty projects and initiatives in the regions along the Belt and Road, especially in Africa and the Greater Mekong Subregion, which lay a solid foundation for the implementation of CEL programme in its first phase.
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    Promoting the Nexus Approach of Climate, Ecosystems and Livelihoods in Africa through China-Africa Cooperation
    WANG Guoqin, FU Chao, LIU Jian, ZHANG Linxiu, Ayub M.O. Oduor, Dagne Mojo, Mulubrhan Balehegn
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 232-236.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.002
    Abstract346)   HTML2)    PDF (394KB)(148)      
    Africa is facing both challenges and opportunities in pursuing sustainability. The nexus approach of Climate, Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CEL) is a promising way to seize the “power of integration” for achieving sustainability of the African continent. Based on taking stock of the work of various organizations especially the United Nations Environment Programme International Ecosystem Management Partnership (UNEP-IEMP) in the Africa, this article explores the demands and opportunities for delivering the CEL approach in Africa and provides perspectives on how to promote it in the framework of China-Africa cooperation in future. It concludes that Africa is one of the focal regions in the delivery of the CEL nexus approach; UNEP-IEMP has launched several major initiatives that lay the foundation for delivering the nexus approach of CEL in Africa; however, more ambitious cooperation should be taken through a broad China-Africa partnership, based on existing institutions, networks and ongoing programmes in both Africa and China, to support future China-Africa cooperation on the nexus approach of CEL.
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    Understanding Agriculture Production and Food Security in Ethiopia from the Perspective of China
    LI Fadong, LENG Peifang, ZHANG Qiuying, SONG Shuai, QIAO Yunfeng, GU Congke, ZHANG Qian, WU Liang, Mulubrhan Balehegn, Dagne Mojo, ZHU Nong, ZHAO Xin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 237-249.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.003
    Abstract636)   HTML3)    PDF (1192KB)(289)      
    Food security and sustainable agricultural development are the hot issues of scientific research, especially after the population affected by hunger surprisingly increased in 2016. Long-lasting and recurrent famines caused by natural disasters and wars have afflicted Ethiopia. Unlike Ethiopia, which is still struggling to achieve food self-sufficiency, China managed to quickly become food self-sufficient at a rapid speed, despite the fact that it also faced the same challenges of famine over the last century. In the backdrop of differing environmental and socio-political challenges the two countries face, comparing the similarities and differences between the two countries will yield important lessons and insights for Ethiopia to follow to achieve food self-sufficiency. Here, the progress towards food security in Ethiopia and China is presented to quantitatively compare the gap of agricultural production between both countries. We found that food production in Ethiopia is heavily constrained by drought, soil degradation, climate change, out-dated agricultural production technologies, and poverty. According to these challenges, we examined corresponding responses in China to propose solutions for achieving food self-sufficiency in Ethiopia, given the realities of its unique national situation.
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    The Development of Wildlife Community Conservancies in Kenya: A Preliminary Review
    WU Liang, ZHANG Linxiu, WANG Min, KANGA Erustus, DU Cong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 250-256.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.004
    Abstract499)   HTML6)    PDF (8717KB)(175)      
    The significance of biodiversity conservation has transformed from a concern for conservation of endangered species and landscapes into an increasingly diverse yet comprehensive set of conservation, social and economic development goals. Community conservancy, a powerful extension of the PA system, has great potential to support biodiversity conservation, poverty eradication and conflict mitigation. Based on its policy environment and development characteristics, Kenya has implemented community conservation practices, and established over 160 conservancies across the country in the past decades. This paper reviews the development and experiences of community conservancies, discusses how they have been implemented in Kenya, and looks at the management paradigm, efficacy and challenges to help better understand the community conservancy approach. The development trajectory and lessons these conservancies have to offer can contribute to the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the enhancement of community wellbeing in Kenya and other countries alike.
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    Combating Desertification and Improving Local Livelihoods through the GGWI in the Sahel Region: The Example of Senegal
    Salif Diop, Aliou Guisse, Claude Sene, Birane Cisse, Ndeye Rokhaya Diop, Sokhna Dié Ka, Amady Gnagna Cisse, Saly Sambou, Ousmane Ndiaye, Adandé Belarmain Fandohan, FU Chao, WANG Guoqin, WANG Yongdong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 257-265.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.005
    Abstract431)   HTML5)    PDF (5692KB)(174)      
    The Great Green Wall Initiative (GGWI) has an overall objective of fighting desert encroachment through proven practices of sustainable management of land, and the reinforcement and protection of natural resources and systems of production and transformation, while also ensuring socio-economic development of local communities through multi-purpose activity platforms. The activities described in the present study are designed to accomplish several goals: (1) generate wealth, (2) strengthen access to basic social services, (3) manage the transition to a green economy as a means of creating suitable conditions for the emergence of rural production centers, (4) integrate sustainable development in order to eradicate poverty and food insecurity, and (5) strengthen adaptation and resilience capacities of local populations. The present study was undertaken on the basis of a wide variety of available publications and documentation, including articles and scientific papers, thesis, meeting summaries and reports, concerning the implementation of the Great Green Wall Initiative/GGWI in Senegal.
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    Coupling Conservation and Livelihoods for Sustainable Management of Protected Areas in East Africa
    FU Chao, BAI Yunli, ZHANG Linxiu, WANG Shuai, YAN Xue
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 266-272.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.006
    Abstract277)   HTML1)    PDF (976KB)(187)      
    Strengthening research efforts to understand the combined impacts of conservation and livelihoods in protected areas (PAs) will increase the collective contribution that PAs can make towards meeting global goals for sustainable development in the next decade. As an example of such efforts, in 2014 the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) jointly initiated the “Sustainable Management of Protected Areas in East Africa” project. This paper provides a brief overview of the project’s research background, goals and research tasks. The study is based on a look at the PA management system in East Africa and a review of the literature on the impact of PAs in the region. Results show that East African nations have expanded the coverage of PAs and established a complex set of PA management systems over the past century. The mandate for PAs in East African nations has changed recently from protecting biodiversity to alleviating poverty and supporting livelihoods. However, a combination of human activities and ecological processes inside and outside of PAs may not only impact biodiversity and ecosystem function over the long term, but also pose a threat to the capacity of PAs to maintain livelihoods and alleviate poverty in the local communities around them. The state of existing research in the field suggests there is an enormous need for additional research, the purpose of which is to help PA managers and policy-makers in East Africa understand how to achieve win-win outcomes for both ecosystems and human well-being. Against this background, the CAS-KWS-UN Environment joint research project aims to understand the dynamic interactions between ecosystems and human well-being around PAs in East Africa and identify good practices for PA management to reconcile conservation targets with the livelihood demands of local communities. It is intended that this research be shared with interested parties throughout the developing world. Significant progress has been made in the implementation of the project, in terms of data collection, exchanges of researchers, and the completion of case studies. In the coming year, success stories and examples of failures of PA management in the region will be systematically summarized and shared among scientists, managers and decision makers worldwide. Given its blueprint for building a “Beautiful China”, China can both supplement and benefit from East African knowledge and experience of PA management. This joint research effort promotes Sino-African cooperation on PA research and management.
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    Application of Multi-Temporal MODIS NDVI Data to Assess Practiced Maize Calendars in Rwanda
    MUGABOWINDEKWE Maurice, MUYIZERE Aline, LI Fadong, QIAO Yunfeng, RWANYIZIRI Gaspard
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 273-280.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.007
    Abstract367)   HTML2)    PDF (2069KB)(150)      
    Crop calendar is an important tool providing relevant information on crops cycles in a specific area for effective agricultural management. Crop calendars vary in different areas given dissimilarities in agro-ecosystems’ characteristics. This research used multi-temporal MODIS NDVI stratification to assess differences in practiced maize crop calendars in various areas of Rwanda. Four (4) sample NDVI strata dominated by agriculture were purposively chosen, and 433 local farmers were randomly selected from the strata for interviews. The collected information helped to know about their maize planting as well as harvesting dates in order to generate maize calendars per NDVI strata. The generated crop calendars were later classified using k-means unsupervised classification, and produced 4 groupings of practiced maize calendars irrespective of NDVI strata. ANOVA results revealed significant differences between both the generated maize crop calendars by NDVI strata and the practiced crop calendars irrespective of NDVI strata, at p = 0.05. Moreover, chi-square tests and t-tests revealed not only a significant relationship between maize calendars and number of crop growing seasons, but also a significant relationship between maize calendars and NDVI strata, at p = 0.05. Finally, findings of this research contrasted the present conviction that there exist a single general maize calendar all over the country. Instead, the results were in accordance with the fact that Rwanda agro-ecosystems differ from East to West in terms of, mainly, altitude and rainfall patterns variations.
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    Dynamic Changes of the Bush Encroachment in Low Altitude Area of Ethiopia
    XING Yuanyuan, WANG Yongdong, YOU Yuan, SONG Qin, HARE Malicha Loje, JORRO Zinabu Bora, JIRMA Guyo Huka
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 281-289.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.008
    Abstract391)   HTML2)    PDF (11206KB)(120)      
    Bush encroachment is widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions, and it has a serious impact on livestock production, especially in Africa where livestock is a primary source for the livelihoods of many people. In this study, methods of supervised classification and decision tree classification, and indexes of a land use change significance index (Ci) and a single land use dynamic degree, were applied to remote sensing imagery of Ethiopia for 1986-2016. The results show the dynamic characteristics of grassland bush encroachment in low altitude areas (pastures <1500 m above sea level) of Ethiopia in the 30 year period studied. The results revealed several interesting features of this phenomenon. (1) The area of bush encroachment showed an increasing trend, with a maximum of 3.74×10 3 km 2 in 2003, which represented 68.97% of the total area, and declined slightly from 2003~2016. (2) Among classification types, the area of severe shrub grassland was the largest, accounting for 28.36-49.10% of the total area, while the area of moderate bush encroachment accounted for 9.77-16.68%, and slight bush encroachment accounted for 5.52-7.57%. (3) The expansion rate of shrubby grassland was 0.74% for the 30 year period, while the average annual expansion rate was 2.16% for the 8 years from 1995-2003. (4) Forest land and grassland were the two main land use types of shrub grassland transformation in low altitude areas and bush encroachment changed large amounts of forest land into grassland due to shrub grassland management. The results of this study provide basic data for revealing the impacts of development processes on subsequent bush encroachment and can inform better management for the sustainable development of grasslands in low altitude systems.
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    Spatio-temporal Characteristics of the Extreme Climate Events and Their Potential Effects on Crop Yield in Ethiopia
    SONG Shuai, LI Fadong, LU Yonglong, Kifayatullah Khan, XUE Jianfang, LENG Peifang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 290-301.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.009
    Abstract798)   HTML6)    PDF (3302KB)(215)      
    Extreme climate events exhibit an increasing spatio-temporal trend globally, and the increasing intensity and frequency may have severe impacts on the human society and natural ecosystems. This study analyzed the extreme temperature and precipitation variability from 1956 to 2016, and evaluated their potential effects on crop yield in Ethiopia. Relative extreme temperature indices exhibited a decreasing trend with low-temperature events, but a significantly upward trend with extreme high temperature events. The frequency of annual warm nights increased to a greater degree than that of cold days. The total annual wet-day precipitation decreased significantly at a rate of -46 mm/decade. Further, the succession of dry days gradually increased by 5.6 day/decade, while an opposite trend of wet days was found with a decline of 1.4 day/ decade. The correlation between annual precipitation and crop production was 0.422, indicating that extreme precipitation indices may have higher explanatory power than extreme temperature indices in the crop yield variations. Moreover, the extreme climate changes have induced significant adverse impacts on crops yield particularly in Ethiopia where no proper adaptation measures have been implemented.
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    Forecasting the Ethiopian Coffee Price Using Kalman Filtering Algorithm
    Tesfahun Berhane, Nurilign Shibabaw, Aemiro Shibabaw, Molalign Adam, Abera A. Muhamed
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 302-305.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.010
    Abstract400)   HTML2)    PDF (421KB)(302)      
    Ethiopian coffee price is highly fluctuated and has significant effect on the economy of the country. Conducting a research on forecasting coffee price has theoretical and practical importance.This study aims at forecasting the coffee price in Ethiopia. We used daily closed price data of Ethiopian coffee recorded in the period 25 June 2008 to 5 January 2017 obtained from Ethiopia commodity exchange (ECX) market to analyse coffee prices fluctuation. Here, the nature of coffee price is non-stationary and we apply the Kalman filtering algorithm on a single linear state space model to estimate and forecast an optimal value of coffee price. The performance of the algorithm for estimating and forecasting the coffee price is evaluated by using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the linear state space model and the Kalman filtering algorithm, the root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.000016375, which is small enough, and it indicates that the algorithm performs well.
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    Determination of the Status of Desertification in the Capital of Mauritania and Development of A Strategy for Combating It
    ZHOU Na, WANG Yongdong, LEI Jiaqiang, AHMEDOU Ould Soule, XU Xinwen, Alioune Fall, LEHLOU Sidi Mohamed
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 306-316.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.011
    Abstract460)   HTML8)    PDF (12304KB)(119)      
    Mauritania, located in the Western Sahara, is one of the least developed countries in the Sahara Desert. Its capital, Nouakchott, which is home to 23% of its population, suffers from soil erosion from the Sahara and saltwater intrusion from the Atlantic Ocean. The local environment is under pressure from the combined effects of climate and socio-economic factors, with desertification being recognized as the greatest threat to life. In this context, high-resolution remote sensing images of Nouakchott obtained during the winters of 1985, 1988, 2000, 2006, and 2010 are selected for interpretation and classification. Analysis of the types of desertification and land use reveals the temporal and spatial characteristics of five distinct time periods from 1985 to 2010. This study analyzes the current status of desertification in Nouakchott and suggests five preventive measures.
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    Patterns of Changes to Woody Vegetation near Resettlement Sites in Semi-arid Northwestern Ethiopia
    Mulubrhan Balehegn, Kidane Hintsa
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (3): 317-329.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.03.012
    Abstract304)   HTML3)    PDF (2710KB)(149)      
    Communal rangelands provide diverse ecosystem services to millions of pastoralists and agro-pastoralists. Resettling destitute communities into hitherto uninhabited communal rangelands and forests, a common practice throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, is a threat to the sustainable use of range and forest land resources. In order to understand the effect of resettlement on a semi-arid woodland in northwestern Ethiopia, satellite imagery of 23 resettlement villages taken over a period of fourteen years, and woody vegetation floristic data for three old resettlements, three new resettlements, two refugee camps and one protected area were analyzed using ANOVA and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The normalized differential vegetation index ( NDVI) and canopy cover around all village types decreased with disturbance gradients, while the magnitude of change varied according to the type of settlement. Limited canopy cover was observed in refugee camps and new resettlements, compared to old resettlements and protected areas. Woody vegetation height class showed a J shaped distribution in all sites except refugee camps (RC), indicating a decline in vegetation. CCA showed that variables like site type, altitude and disturbance gradient significantly affected the diversity of woody species at the different sites. Comparison of individual species responses to disturbances indicated that low fodder value invaders like Dichrostachys cinerea, and many Acacia species were increasing in proportion and coverage at the expense of some multipurpose species including Tamarindus indica, Diospyros mespiliformis, and Pterocarpus lucens. In the absence of regulated vegetation use, resettlements result in a decline in overall vegetation cover and a shift in floristic diversity in favor of invasive species.
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    The Rangeland Livestock Carrying Capacity and Stocking Rate in the Kailash Sacred Landscape in China
    DUAN Cheng, SHI Peili, ZHANG Xianzhou, ZONG Ning, CHAI Xi, GENG Shoubao, ZHU Wanrui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 551-558.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.001
    Abstract789)   HTML5)    PDF (1122KB)(323)      
    Maintaining the health and productivity of rangelands by controlling the livestock stocking rate to remain within carrying capacity is of significance to ensure sustainable management of rangeland ecosystems. But we know little about the safe carrying capacity in particular rangeland landscapes. This has hampered efforts to use rangelands in a risk-averse manner in fluctuating rainfall environments, and especially in arid and semiarid areas. To address this lack of information, we took Kailash Sacred Landscape in China (KSL-China) as our study site and used remote sensing data, meteorological data and statistical data from 2000 to 2015 to analyze rangeland carrying capacity, stocking rate, and major influencing factors. Rangeland carrying capacity presented an increasing trend, while stocking rate was gradually decreasing, resulting in an increase of carrying rate in the study area. The increased carrying capacity was closely related to increased rainfall. Stocking rate declined owing to government regulations, particularly implementation in 2004 of the national policy of Returning Grazing Land to Grassland. There was a sharp reduction of livestock number below 200 000 standard sheep units (SU) after 2005. The decrease of stocking rate had a stronger effect on rangeland carrying rate than did the increase of carrying capacity. Ecosystem restoration programs have provided subsidies to pastoralists to encourage them to reduce livestock numbers. Our findings suggest that a safe rangeland carrying capacity is ca. 170 000 SU in KSL-China. There is a carrying capacity surplus of ca. 50 000 SU for safe animal husbandry development in the study area. More importantly, future climate warming and increases in grazing may jointly play a key role in affecting rangeland carrying capacity.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Spatio-temporal Distribution of Drought in the Belt and Road Area During 1998-2015 Based on TRMM Precipitation Data
    BAI Yongqing, WANG Juanle, WANG Yujie, HAN Xuehua, Bair Z. Tsydypov, Altansukh Ochir, Davaadorj Davaasuren
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 559-570.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.002
    Abstract503)   HTML10)    PDF (4026KB)(257)      
    Drought is a worldwide natural disaster that has long affected agricultural production as well as social and economic activities. Frequent droughts have been observed in the Belt and Road area, in which much of the agricultural land is concentrated in fragile ecological environment. Based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite (TRMM) 3B43 precipitation data, we used the Precipitation Abnormity Percentage drought model to study the monthly spatio-temporal distribution of drought in south region of N50° of the Belt and Road area. It was observed that drought during winter was mainly distributed in Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia, while it was mainly distributed in Central Asia and West Asia during summer. The occurrence of historical droughts indicates an obvious seasonal cycle. The regional variations in drought were analyzed using the Breaks for Additive Season and Trend tool (BFAST) in six sub-regions according to the spatial distribution of six economic corridors in the Belt and Road area. The average drought conditions over the 18 years show a slight decreasing trend in Northeast Asia, West Asia, North Africa, South Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and a slight increasing trend in Central Asia. However, it was a fluctuating pattern of first increasing and then decreasing in Southeast Asia. The results indicate that the total drought area in the Belt and Road region showed a general decreasing trend at a rate of 40,260 km2 per year from 1998 to 2015.
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    Synergy between Virtual Local Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases Emissions Embodied in China’s International Trade
    CHEN Yiying, LEE Harry. F., WANG Ke, PEI Qing, ZOU Ji
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 571-583.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.003
    Abstract326)   HTML2)    PDF (1165KB)(194)      
    Increasing pressure from the international community to reduce carbon emissions, coupled with the need to reduce domestic air pollutants, is forcing China to deal with both sources of emissions. Air pollutants and greenhouse gases are closely linked via their common source, fossil fuels. As a result of globalization, large portions of these emissions are associated with trade. This study uses data from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD), including 27 EU countries and 13 major countries, covering the period from 2000 to 2009, and applies MRIO (Multiregional input-output) to estimate emissions embodied in China’s international trade. We focus on the synergy between LAPs (local air pollutants) and GHG consumption-based emissions, and the relationship between virtual LAPs and virtual GHGs associated with China’s international trade from 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that a strong synergistic relationship exists and that air pollutant control can serve as an endogenous mechanism to mitigating greenhouse gases. Thanks to domestic actions to control air pollutants, every ton reduction of LAP emissions related to export can save 27.1 tons of GHG emissions in 2005 over emissions efficiency levels, and can save 32.4 tons of GHG emissions in 2009 over 2005. Mitigation actions taken to reduce air pollutants could also reduce GHG emissions.
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    Assessment of Urban Air Pollution and Spatial Spillover Effects in China: Cases of 113 Key Environmental Protection Cities
    GONG Zezhou, ZHANG Xiaoping
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 584-594.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.004
    Abstract489)   HTML8)    PDF (1205KB)(277)      
    With rapid urbanization and energy consumption, environmental pollution and degradation have become increasingly serious problems in China. At the beginning of 2013, China implemented new ambient air quality standards (GB 3095-2012) in which the concentration of six pollutants including PM 2.5, ozone, carbon monoxide, PM 10, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were monitored. This study gathered annual air pollutant concentration data for the six pollutants in 113 key environmental protection cites throughout China in 2014 and 2015 to explain spatial patterns of urban air pollution. Based on the Kernel density estimation method, spatial hotspots of air pollution were illustrated through which spatial cluster of each pollutants could be plotted. By employing an entropy evaluation system, urban air quality was assessed in terms of the six atmospheric pollutants. We conclude that, in general, CO and SO 2 were two important pollutants in most Chinese cities, but this varied greatly among cities. The assessment results indicate that cities with the worst air quality were mainly located in northern and central provinces, dominantly in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area. Regression modeling showed that a combination of meteorological factors and human-related determinants, to say specifically, industrialization and urbanization factors, greatly influenced urban air quality variation in China. Results from spatial lag regression modeling confirmed that air pollution existed obvious spatial spillover effects among key cities. The spatial interdependence effects of urban air quality means that Chinese municipal governments should strengthen regional cooperation and deepen bilateral collaboration in terms of air regulation and pollution prevention.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Impacts of Non-farm Employment of Rural Laborers on Agricultural Land Use: Theoretical Analysis and Its Policy Implications
    HAO Haiguang, LI Xiubin, XIN Liangjie
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 595-604.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.005
    Abstract700)   HTML25)    PDF (458KB)(245)      
    During rapid urbanization and industrialization process, non-farm employment of rural laborers has emerged as a prevalent phenomenon in rural areas of China and become an important driving factor for changes in agricultural land use. This article attempts to theoretically analyze the impacts of non-farm employment of rural laborers on agricultural land use based on economic frameworks. As rational agents, farmers aim to maximize their income and follow equilibrium principles when they decide how to allocate their labor forces (or working time) in two departments (farm and non-farm) and how to use their agricultural land with different quality and location. The income earned by non-farm employment is higher, and there exists a comparative advantage between labors, as a result the quantity and quality of labor input in agricultural land use decreases. With the limitation of labor input during agricultural land use decision-making of farm households, on the one hand, land with higher quality is still utilized by farmers. On the other hand, poor quality land will be less well managed and is more likely to be abandoned. Non-farm employment of rural laborers and the rising of opportunity costs will result in abandonment of poor quality land, and great importance should be attached to this by policy makers.
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    Enhancing Households’ Economic Benefits through Wetlands Friendly Investment Model: A Case of Ndembera River Valley, Tanzania
    Norbert John Ngowi, Agnes Godfrey Mwakaje
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 605-612.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.006
    Abstract317)   HTML4)    PDF (673KB)(194)      
    The Wetlands Friendly Investments model has been used to conserve wetland resources and improve rural livelihoods in Tanzania since 2003. Nevertheless, studies’ linking this model to households’ economy is lacking. This paper attempts to examine the households’ economic benefits from the implementation of the activities which are part of the model. A total of 174 intervention households in Ndembera Valley were surveyed using questionnaire. The interviews and transect walk complemented households data. Template, descriptive statistics, t tests and regressions in SPSS ver.20 software were used in the analysis. Results show the difference of annual gross income because of the wetland investment model is about USD 732.0. This study demonstrates that wetland resources could be conserved and utilized using local incentive models. Similar techniques could be applied for related studies elsewhere. Socio-economic factors should be considered for holistic impact of the model on household poverty reduction.
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    Study of Ecological Compensation for Paddy Fields: Oriented towards Eco-environmental Restoration
    XIONG Ying, LIU Moucheng, PANG Shiming, SUN Yehong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 613-619.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.007
    Abstract305)   HTML2)    PDF (421KB)(251)      
    Agricultural land provides not only food and fiber (an important element of food security), but also serves as a non-market commodity with characteristic externalities and public services. However, there are also many negative impacts on environment of the paddy production. Thus, Payments for paddy ecosystem services encourage farmers to engage in ecological or organic agricultural practices and agro-ecological/environmental supply. However, compared with forest, wetland, and pasture, the eco-function and ecosystem services of paddy fields have gotten insufficient attention. It is necessary to establish an eco-compensation mechanism for paddy fields that boosts behavior that protects farms to benefit the ecosystem. Based on a review of eco-compensation for paddy fields, this paper proposes the policy game framework of eco-compensation for paddy fields, which is oriented to ecological restoration. Secondly, this paper introduces methods for determination of compensation standards, including the cost the farmers’ willingness to accept, and the ecological benefits of adopting environmental friendly farming practices. And finally, this paper puts forward policy recommendations for eco-compensation for paddy ecosystems.
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    Evaluation of Agricultural Ecological Security in Hubei Province
    LI Pingheng, YAN Lidong, PAN Shilei, MA Yifei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 620-627.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.008
    Abstract286)   HTML2)    PDF (451KB)(148)      
    With the promotion of agricultural ecological civilization construction in China, agricultural ecological security has received increasing attention. How to ensure agricultural ecological security has become a great concern for many scholars. As an important agricultural province in China, Hubei is of great significance to Chinese food security and agricultural sustainable development. This paper aims to establish an index system of agricultural ecological security and security classification of Hubei via Analytic Hierarchy Process and Pressure-State-Response methods. An evaluation of agricultural ecological security in Hubei, with a base of the national average value in 2015, reveals that the security degree has increased by 0.07566 from 0.90150 in 2005 to 0.97716 in 2015. Results show that agricultural ecological security in Hubei has improved but failed to reach the national average and there is still large space for improvement of the security level, considering a trend of deterioration in some indexes, such as per capita water resources, population density, per unit area pesticide load of farmland, forest coverage, grassland degradation rate and average annual precipitation. Influencing factors, especially population spatial distribution, misconduct in agricultural production, insufficient ability in agricultural natural disaster prevention, deficiency of agro-ecological technology of agricultural ecological security in Hubei are analyzed. For improvement of the degree of agricultural ecological security in Hubei, some countermeasures and suggestions are discussed.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    A View on the Limiting City Expansion: Inner-City Attraction Issues through Linear Correlation
    Carlos Alberto Tello
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 628-634.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.009
    Abstract672)   HTML1)    PDF (2661KB)(154)      
    Current inner-city 1 depopulation coupled with significant peripheral expansions disrupting nature, are the rule in many of the world’s large cities such as Montreal. Expansion needs to be balanced from the inner-city attraction perspective. To deal with that objective and following an inductive process in the scientific method, two field surveys were implemented in one of Montreal’s inner-city most popular neighbourhoods (Sainte-Marie) for measuring its current attraction power. Results expose that current local residential housing/services improvement in terms of their medium to high needs/impedances 2 linear correlations to achieve it discourage people to continue living in Sainte-Marie on a “free will” basis. This report concludes that limiting city expansion at least through this inner-city neighbourhood’s attraction level is still very much a myth.
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    Planning Method of Non-Development Zone in Southern Jiangyin
    QIN Xianhong, GONG Zhidong, SUN Haohao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 635-640.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.010
    Abstract907)   HTML2)    PDF (3278KB)(173)      
    Jiangyin was the earliest to conduct Non-development zone planning and has attracted the attention of people all over China because it is regarded as the Chinese version of Smart Growth. The planning process is as follows. Based on SPOT and TM satellite remote sensing images develop a regional land use map with high precision using artificial interpretation methods. Then, according to the relationship between anti-development suitability and disasters, agriculture, ecology, built-up area distribution and other geographical factors, generate a comprehensive evaluation chart of anti-development suitability using GIS analysis, such as buffer analysis and overlay analysis. Later, with a regional land use map and anti-development suitability evaluation chart, using the principle of ecological security network and learning from the management experience of nature reserves, draw the scope of Non-development zone and core area. Last, put forward a series of protective measures for the above Non-development zone, that is only allowed to develop agriculture and tourism, strictly restricted industrial projects and urban real estate activities, and all existing industrial factories must be moved to planned industrial parks. This is good practice whereby local governments keep land resources for future generations and more advanced than an urban expansion strategy. This method is very useful for promoting land use layout optimization in Southern Jiangsu Developed Areas.
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    Temporal Variations in Growth and Aboveground Biomass of Phragmites australis and EVI Analysis in Jiaozhou Bay Coastal Salt Marshes, China
    XI Min, KONG Fanlong, LI Yue
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 641-647.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.011
    Abstract266)   HTML2)    PDF (557KB)(204)      
    To better ascertain leaf, stem and flower traits, and analyze aboveground allocation during the vegetation period, three sampling vegetation transects were settled and reed samples were collected at intervals to determine morphological parameters and dry and wet weights in Jiaozhou Bay wetland. Remote sensing data were also combined to evaluate regional biomass through EVI regression models. Results show that growth dynamics of leaves and stems changed during the vegetation period. Stem length increased rapidly and peaked in September (194.40 ± 23.89 cm), whereas leaf width peaked in July. There was a significantly negative correlation between stem length and stem diameter with a value of -0.785. Stem biomass was higher than that of leaves, and the maximum value of aboveground biomass was 27.17 ± 3.56 g. F/C exhibited a tendency to increase and values ranged from 0.37-0.76. The aboveground biomass of sample plots reached a peak of 2356 ± 457 g/m 2 in September. EVI was 0.05-0.5; EVI and biomass had a better fitting effect using the power-exponent model compared with other models and its function was y = 4219.30 x 0.88 ( R 2 = 0.7810). R 2 of the other three models ranked as linear function > polynomial function > exponent function, with the values being 0.7769, 0.7623 and 0.6963, respectively. EVI can be used to estimate vegetation biomass, and effectively solved the problems of the destructive effect to sample plots resulting from traditional harvest methods.
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    Ecotourism Resources Assessment and Development Strategy for Guizhou Province, China
    WANG Jing, ZHONG Linsheng, CHEN Tian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 648-654.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.012
    Abstract387)   HTML2)    PDF (614KB)(249)      
    The aim of this study is to understand ecotourism resources, taking into considering their quality and the comparative advantages of districts in order to develop effective strategy. Ecotourism is an important developmental model for those undeveloped regions that have superior landscape resources in ecologically fragile environments. This article has identified 181 ecotourism sites in Guizhou province, based on field work in the province. A quantitative assessment using 18 indicators was performed and, based on the results, these resources were divided into five levels. The paper also analyzed the comparative advantage of districts to reflect the developmental potential of different districts. Results show that ecotourism resources in Guihzhou province are numerous, varied in type and high quality; among them, six sites ranked level 5 represented the essence of Guizhou province. Moreover, there are four districts that are high superiority — Anshun, Qiannan and Qianxinan and Zunyi - one that is average and four that are low. According to our analysis, ecotourism development models for Guizhou province can be classified into four types; effective strategies were proposed for each.
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    Seasonal Variations of Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in Changping Plain, Beijing
    JIANG Tisheng, QI Junyu, WANG Mingyu, LIU Qingzhe, QU Cixiao, CHU Junyao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (6): 655-663.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.06.013
    Abstract391)   HTML1)    PDF (1731KB)(155)      
    Changping Plain, located in the northwest of Beijing, has become an important groundwater recharge area for the Beijing Plain and an important source for the urban water supply. In this study, groundwater samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons in 2015 from 24 monitoring wells distributed in Changping Plain. A Piper-Tri-linear diagram, a Schoeller diagram, a Gibbs diagram, and the isotope technique were used to investigate the temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of groundwater hydrochemicals and the sources of groundwater recharge. The results indicated: 1) seasonal variations in the concentrations of HCO 3 -, Ca 2+, and Na + were significant; the spatial variations of these ions were more dramatic in the dry season than in the wet season due to the dilution effect of precipitation; 2) Most groundwater samples had a HCO 3-Ca-Mg based hydrochemical type and a few had a HCO 3-Na-K based hydrochemical type; the hydrochemical type tended to evolve from HCO 3-Ca-Mg based to HCO 3-Na-K based in some monitoring wells that showed distinct seasonal variation; 3) the groundwater in the study area originated mainly from atmospheric precipitation, and it is affected by evaporation and concentration processes.
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    Overview on China’s Rare Earth Industry Restructuring and Regulation Reforms
    SHEN Lei, WU Na, ZHONG Shuai, GAO Li
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 213-222.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.001
    Abstract933)   HTML241)    PDF (474KB)(400)      
    Rare earth elements (REEs) that are key to new technologies and green innovations are critical to life in modern societies. China continues to dominate the global REEs market despite several international trade disputes and market fluctuations. Pressured by an increasingly difficult situation, the Chinese government has been carrying out industry restructuring and has introduced regulatory reforms in recent years to promote the healthy development of the rare earth industry. This paper reviews the literature on the development of the rare earth industry and analyzes the reform policies, combining this with an analysis of relevant macroeconomic data. It discusses the current status of China's rare earth industry, the progress of industrial restructuring and the main problems the rare earth industry faces. The paper discusses the evolution of rare earth policies from that of "open production and open supply" to that of "limiting low quality development but encouraging export of high quality rare earths" and then to "integrating rare earth resources trade". Six key policies, including those for export quotas, export duties, environmental laws, resource utilization technology, industry consolidation and stockpiling, are discussed in detail. Policy suggestions based on this discussion are put forward concerning the treatment of small rare earth mines in China: firstly, robust efforts to prevent illegal mining must always be maintained; secondly, it is certain that the formation of large-scale conglomerates should be accelerated in the near future; thirdly, the management of key sections should be reinforced; fourthly, support for technological innovation and the development of the applications industry should continue; fifthly, specific rare earths laws and regulations should be greatly improved. The paper also puts forward some suggestions on revisions to improve mineral resources law: firstly, China must increase the market access threshold and suppress low-end excess production capacity; secondly, the new environmental protection verification must be developed for all rare earth enterprises; thirdly, minimum required indicators for the development and utilization of rare earths resources must be implemented in China. These recommendations can serve as a reference for efforts to promote the sustainable development of China's rare earth industry.
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    A Review and Implication of Land Fallow System Research
    WU Qing, XIE Hualin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 223-231.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.002
    Abstract647)   HTML212)    PDF (395KB)(667)      
    Land fallow is of great significance for undertaking land reclamation, safeguarding national food security, promoting environmental improvements and ensuring the sustainable use of land resources. This paper reviews the important achievements in three areas of research on the land fallow system. It reviews and compares the land fallow system in different countries and regions of the world; it examines the response of farmers to the land fallow system and ecological environment; and it looks at the economic effects of the land fallow system. Based on China's rotation system for cultivated land, some relevant policy implications are put forward. Based on the different degrees of land damage, the evaluation system and the subsidy accounting standard for fallow land are formulated, and the compulsory fallow and voluntary participation of the niche fallow are targeting. The land fallow system should improve both the regulatory and the restraint mechanisms, improve the environmental awareness and environmental protection skills of farmers, change the production behaviors of farmers, and encourage farmers to change to high coverage crops to protect the land. In view of the negative effects produced by implementation of the fallow system should take corresponding management and compensation measures.
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    A Comparative Assessment of Land Use Functions Based on Perceptions of Policy Makers and Local Farmers in Guyuan, Western China
    WANG Chao, ZHEN Lin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 232-241.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.003
    Abstract360)   HTML2)    PDF (565KB)(327)      
    The land use function (LUF) concept is a useful tool in assessing sustainable development. With the goal of exploring the conceptive difference of policy makers and local farmer on LUFs and understanding the capacity of different land use types to provide LUFs, we used a participatory method to assess LUFs in Guyuan, which included four phases: literature review and field surveys; specification of the LUF context; ranking of priorities and weighting of LUFs; and visualization and discussion of the results. It was found that policy makers perceived regional problems and critical LUFs well, whereas farmers had a clearer perception of local issues that affect their livelihood. For policy makers, environmental functions had a higher priority than economic and social functions; in contrast, farmers prioritized economic and social functions. However, based on the perception of both groups, the result was the same whereby environmental functions had the highest LUF value and economic functions had the lowest. Participatory assessment methods enhanced our understanding of causal linkages between land use and LUFs, and may help stakeholders improve future land use decisions and management for regional sustainable development.
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    The Evaluation of Rural Territorial Functions: A Case Study of Henan, China
    FU Chao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 242-250.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.004
    Abstract488)   HTML209)    PDF (385KB)(364)      
    China’s new urbanization process requires coordinated development between cities and rural areas. Territorial functions of rural areas are defined as advantageous effects on nature and human society that, in particular, rural systems perform via their property and interactions with other systems at certain social development stages. This paper establishes an index system for evaluating rural territorial functions including agricultural function, social function, economic function and ecological function. By establishing a model based on a General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) with the county-level as the basic unit, we comprehensively evaluate the rural territorial functions of 109 counties and/or cities in Henan province, China in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Results show that compared with that in 2000, each function in 2010 improved, with the spatial heterogeneity of economic function the most evident, social service function comparatively balanced and spatial distribution of agricultural production function changing little. Cluster analysis was adopted to study the major functions of rural regions. Henan was divided into six major function zones to enhance administrative management and developmental policy. The six major function zones are Type I (core economic development zone), Type II (agricultural production safeguarding zone), Type III (function improving zone for rural areas), Type IV (model zone of livelihood and social services), Type V (economic restructuring and development zone), and Type VI (nature conservation areas). Different development goals and development strategies should be considered according to different major function areas to achieve the coordinated development of urban and rural areas in China.
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    A New Approach for the Health Assessment of River Systems Based on Interconnected Water System Networks
    ZHAO Junkai, LI Lixian, ZHANG Aishe, LI Jiufa, GUO Qiuxia
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 251-257.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.005
    Abstract451)   HTML107)    PDF (339KB)(407)      
    Interconnected river system networks is a national water conservancy strategy in China and focus of research. Here we discuss the classification system, material and energy exchange between rivers and lakes, various dynamic flows and ecological functions of river-lake interconnected relationships. We then propose a novel method for the health assessment of river systems based on interconnected water system networks. In a healthy river system there is “material and energy exchange” and it is the first and foremost relationship of material and energy exchange between rivers and lakes. There are unobstructed various “flows” between rivers and lakes including material flows (water, dissolved substances, sediments, organisms and contaminants), energy flows (water levels, flow and flow velocity), information flows (information generated with water flows, organisms and human activities) and value flows (shipping, power generation, drinking and irrigation). Under the influences of nature and human activity, various flows are connected by river-lake interconnection to carry material and energy exchange between rivers and lakes to achieve river-lake interactions. The material and energy exchange between rivers and lakes become one of the approaches and the direct driving forces of changes in river-lake interconnected relationships. The benignant changes in river-lake interconnected relationship tend to be in relatively steady state and in ideal dynamic balance.
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