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    Advances in Root System Architecture: Functionality, Plasticity, and Research Methods
    ZHANG Zhiyong, FAN Baomin, SONG Chao, ZHANG Xiaoxian, ZHAO Qingwen, YE Bing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 15-24.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.002
    Abstract368)   HTML22)    PDF (1555KB)(186)      

    Root system architecture (RSA) refers to the spatial distribution and extended morphology of plant root systems in soil. RSA not only determines the ability of plants to obtain water and nutrients but also affects other ecological functions. Hence, it plays a dominant role in the overall health of plants. The study of RSA can provide insight into plant absorption of water and fertilizers, the relationship between above- and belowground plant parts, and the physiological health and ecological functions of plants. Therefore, this paper summarizes research on the morphology, functionality, plasticity and research methods of RSA. We first review the basic structure, physiology, and ecological functions of root systems. Then the soil factors that shape RSA—including soil moisture, nutrients, temperature, aeration, and others—are summarized. After that, research methods for studying RSA are described in detail, including harvesting, two-dimensional morphological observation, and three-dimensional image reconstruction. Finally, future research developments and innovations are discussed to provide a theoretical basis for further investigations in this field.

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    A Review on the Supply-Demand Relationship and Spatial Flows of Ecosystem Services
    HUANG Mengdong, XIAO Yu, XU Jie, LIU Jingya, WANG Yangyang, GAN Shuang, LV Shixuan, XIE Gaodi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 925-935.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.016
    Abstract302)   HTML23)    PDF (1256KB)(248)      

    Research on spatial flow as it relates to the relationship between the supply and demand of ecosystem services supports a significant connection between the supply of ecosystem services and human well-being. Understanding the entire process of the production and flow, as well as the use of ecosystem services, accurately assessing the balance of supply and demand of ecosystem services, and establishing a two-way feedback relationship between supply and demand are vital for the scientific management of the ecosystem and ensuring the sustainable development of regional resources. Based on a large number of relevant publications, this paper comprehensively summarizes the concepts and assessment methods of ecosystem service supply and demand from the perspective of ecosystem service supply and demand, and discusses the impacts of land use and climate change on the temporal and spatial changes of ecosystem services under the background of global change. Then, an analysis of the research progress in the ecosystem services spatial flow indicated that there are still deficiencies in the quantification of cultural services, the dynamics of ecosystem service flow and the driving mechanism of ecosystem services. We also propose that clarifying the driving mechanism and transfer process of ecosystem services, and realizing the mutual conversion between different spatial-temporal scales of ecosystem services, is an important approach for improving the application of ecosystem services research in practice in the future.

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    High-quality Development Paths of Ice-snow Tourism in China from the Perspective of the Winter Olympics
    TANG Chengcai, ZENG Rui, YANG Yuanyuan, XU Shiyi, WANG Xin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 552-563.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.002
    Abstract283)   HTML115)    PDF (785KB)(440)      

    Preparations for the Beijing Winter Olympics have promoted the rapid development of ice-snow tourism in China, which contributes to achieving the goal of having “300 million people participate in ice-snow sports”. This paper analyzes the status quo and problems associated with the growth of ice-snow tourism in China based on the methods of documentation and field investigation. The results indicate that China’s efforts have born abundant fruits. Notwithstanding, there are still some problems due to the limited time and hastened process of ice-snow tourism development, including unreasonable exploitation, low-quality products and services, imperfect investment and financing system, inadequate management, a single marketing mode, and insufficient talent teams. Compared with developed countries in Europe and the United States, ice-snow tourism in China is in the stage of rapid development. To achieve the high-quality development of ice-snow tourism in China, this paper proposes actions from eight aspects which involve policy, products and services, marketing, safety management and control, talent teams, standardization construction, science and technology, and community participation. This study can provide references for the high-quality development of ice-snow tourism in China, as well as perfecting Chinese theoretical research on ice-snow tourism.

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    Spatial Distribution and Tourism Activation of Traditional Villages in Yunnan Province
    XU Shaohui, DONG Liping
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 851-859.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.009
    Abstract259)   HTML86)    PDF (2284KB)(16732)      

    Using ArcGIS to analyze the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province in combination with the actual local conditions of traditional villages, the purpose of this study is to determine the development model suitable for their characteristics. The results show several important features of traditional village distribution. (1) The traditional villages in Yunnan Province have spatial structural characteristics of unbalanced cohesive distribution, and they are mainly distributed in the higher-level cities and prefectures such as northwest Yunnan, west Yunnan and south Yunnan. Among them, the traditional villages of Baoshan City have the highest distribution density of 66.33 per 10000 km2. This is followed by Dali Prefecture and Honghe Prefecture, where the densities of traditional villages are 44.13 per 10000 km2 and 37.66 per 10000 km2, respectively. (2) The factors affecting the spatial distribution structure of traditional villages in Yunnan Province are natural geographical factors, humanistic historical factors and transportation factors. Among them, the natural geographical conditions with a large vertical gap in Yunnan Province gave birth to the human settlement environment of traditional villages. The history of a farming civilization that has been passed down from generation to generation has laid a brilliant and splendid humanistic foundation for traditional villages, and the high-altitude areas are relatively primitive. The transportation conditions have delayed the destruction of traditional villages by urbanization and industrialization. In summary, these factors have affected the spatial distribution pattern of traditional villages in Yunnan Province to some extent. (3) According to the law of the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province, it is necessary to explore the activation path of traditional village tourism with regional characteristics and ethnic characteristics, and also to carry out differentiated development according to the different endowment characteristics of local resources, that is to develop a series of activation modes including agricultural tourism, cultural tourism and ecological tourism.

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    Sustainable Development of Ice and Snow Tourism—Theory & Empirical Studies: Preface
    TANG Chengcai, XU Shiyi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 547-551.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.001
    Abstract251)   HTML127)    PDF (370KB)(255)      

    The Beijing Winter Olympics brought a historical miracle to the development of China’s ice and snow tourism. It is both an opportunity and a challenge to reap the extra dividends of the times and to develop China’s ice and snow tourism. By selecting 18 academic papers, this special issue deeply discusses the status quo and the future measures of ice and snow tourism in China from three aspects: ice and snow tourism development and management, the ice and snow tourism experience and its influencing factors, and ice and snow tourism impact assessment. Moreover, one part entitled “Tourism Culture and Ecotourism” has been set up to emphasize those cutting-edge research topics. It is worth mentioning that this issue is in-depth and has profound connotations. First of all, the research area ranges from national to regional to the city-level, including both longitudinal and horizontal research. In additon, the research methods are practical, innovative, and at the frontier of scientific research, and include industrial correlation analysis methods, kernel density, spatial autocorrelation and other geospatial analysis methods, content analysis methods, sentiment analysis methods, structural equation models, Delphi methods, spatial statistics methods, geographic detector method and many others. In general, this special issue combines qualitative research with quantitative research, provides a variety of theoretical perspectives such as perceived value theory, institutional evolution theory, etc., and builds various useful models like the pre-competition evaluation model for ice and snow tourism heritage, the consumption skill-travel radius decision-making influence model under the moderating effect of the ski resort comprehensive leisure environment, the evaluation model of the suitability of glacier tourism resource development, the model of the relationship between tourists’ experience value and loyalty in the context of ice and snow tourism, among others. These studies are expected to provide theoretical and practical guidance for the development of ice and snow tourism in the post-Winter Olympics era, and help ice and snow tourism develop in a sustainable and high-quality direction.

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    Spatial and Temporal Pattern Changes and Driving Forces: Analysis of Salinization in the Yellow River Delta from 2015 to 2020
    HONG Mengmeng, WANG Juanle, HAN Baomin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 786-796.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.004
    Abstract247)   HTML16)    PDF (11637KB)(152)      

    China’s Yellow River Delta represents a typical area with moist semi-humid soil salinization, and its salinization has seriously affected the sustainable use of local resources. The use of remote sensing technology to understand changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of salinization is key to combating regional land degradation. In this study, a feature space model was constructed for remote sensing and monitoring land salinization using Landsat 8 OIL multi-spectral images. The feature parameters were paired to construct a feature space model; a total of eight feature space models were obtained. An accuracy analysis was conducted by combining salt-loving vegetation data with measured data, and the model demonstrating the highest accuracy was selected to develop salinization inversion maps for 2015 and 2020. The results showed that: (1) The total salinization area of the Yellow River Delta displayed a slight upward trend, increasing from 4244 km2 in 2015 to 4629 km2 in 2020. However, the area’s salting degree reduced substantially, and the areas of saline soil and severe salinization were reduced in size; (2) The areas with reduced salinization severity were mainly concentrated in areas surrounding cities, and primarily comprised wetlands and some regions around the Bohai Sea; (3) Numerous factors such as the implementation of the “Bohai Granary” cultivation engagement plan, increase in human activities to greening local residential living environments, and seawater intrusion caused by the reduction of sediment contents have impacted the distribution of salinization areas in the Yellow River Delta; (4) The characteristic space method of salinization monitoring has better applicability and can be promoted in humid-sub humid regions.

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    Mushrooms in the Mountains: Assessing the Role of Fungi on the Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) Practices in Nepal Himalaya
    DEVKOTA Shiva, SHRESTHA Uttam Babu, POUDEL Sanjeev, CHAUDHARY Ram Prasad
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1030-1036.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.008
    Abstract236)   HTML3)    PDF (1435KB)(233)      

    To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), thereby meet the post 2020 global biodiversity targets and increase resilience to climate change, nature-based approaches such as ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is suggested as a promising and integrated adaptation strategy. EbA comprises adaptation strategies that value the role of ecosystems in reducing social vulnerability to climate change. Among the different biological groups on earth, fungi play not only an important role to maintain the biogeochemical cycle/nutrient cycle in ecosystems (supporting and regulating services), but also contribute to the socio-economic and cultural benefits of societies (provisioning and cultural services). Here, we present our knowledge and scientific understanding on how these neglected groups of biodiversity-fungi are crucial for ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) approach based on our field experience, review and associated expertise on caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis), and other wild mushrooms found in Nepal. Several species of fungi are used by local communities as food, medicines, and environmental income. Fungi are important sources of household income for mountain communities in Nepal providing a cushion during shocks and disasters and supporting food security, health care, education and building shelter. For the holistic EbA approach, it is essential to strengthen local institutions as well as indigenous local knowledge which could be an important policy intervention for the identification, conservation, and sustainable management of ecologically, socially and economically useful fungal species.

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    Evaluation of Inner Mongolia Wind Erosion Prevention Service based on Land Use and the RWEQ Model
    WANG Yangyang, XIAO Yu, XU Jie, XIE Gaodi, QIN Keyu, LIU Jingya, NIU Yingnan, GAN Shuang, HUANG Mengdong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 763-774.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.002
    Abstract233)   HTML27)    PDF (9096KB)(128)      

    Inner Mongolia is the important ecological barrier zone in northern China, which plays an important role in the prevention and control of wind in the regional ecosystem. Based on the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) model and the cost-recovery method, this study simulated the wind erosion prevention service (WEPS) in Inner Mongolia in 2010 and 2015, investigated the spatial pattern of material and monetary value of WEPS, and analyzed the differences among various cities and various ecosystems. The results indicated that the total WEPS of Inner Mongolia was estimated to be 73.87×108 t in 2015, which was 4.61×108 t less than in 2010, while the monetary value of WEPS was calculated to be 738.66×108 yuan in 2015, which was 46.16×108 yuan less than in 2010. Among all the leagues and cities, Xilin Gol League supported the highest WEPS, reaching 18.65×108 t in 2015, while Wuhai provided the lowest. The WEPS of Hulunbeier increased the most, by 4.37×108 t from 2010 to 2015. The WEPS in the grassland ecosystem was the highest among the different ecosystems, accounting for more than 55% of the total WEPS in Inner Mongolia, but it was reduced by 1.05×108 t during the same period. The WEPS in the forest ecosystem increased the most, reaching 0.19×108 t. This study found that the implementation of projects such as returning farmland to forests and grasses and sand control effectively increased the WEPS by increasing the forest area. However, unsuitable land use increased the desertification of ecosystems which resulted in a reduction of WEPS in Inner Mongolia.

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    Effects of Prosopis juliflora Invasion on Native Species Diversity and Woody Species Regenerations in Rangelands of Afar National Regional State, Northeast Ethiopia
    Wakshum SHIFERAW, Sebsebe DEMISSEW, Tamrat BEKELE, Ermias AYNEKULU
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 35-45.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.004
    Abstract232)   HTML0)    PDF (3783KB)(95)      

    Investigation of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora and its effects on indigenous plant species are important for the control of the species. The study aimed to assess: (1) the effects of Prosopis juliflora invasion on the diversity of plant species in Awash Fentale and Amibara Woredas; (2) the effects of Prosopis juliflora invasion on the regeneration potential of native woody species. Sample collection was performed in habitats of Prosopis juliflora thicket, Prosopis juliflora mixed with native species stands, non-invaded woodlands, and open grazing lands. The vegetation was stratified into invasion levels of Prosopis juliflora and then a random sampling technique for data collection. Among species of plants, the highest proportion of species, 75 (47.8%), was recorded under non-invaded woodlands, but the lowest proportion of species, 22 (14%), was recorded under open grazing lands. The invasion of Prosopis juliflora reduced the Shannon diversity index. The mean values of the Shannon diversity index and species richness under Prosopis juliflora mixed with native species (H′=2.22, R=14) and non-invaded woodlands (H′=2.23, R=13) were significantly higher than Prosopis juliflora thicket (H′=1.96, R=12) and open grazing lands (H′=1.84, R=10). The highest total density (358 stems ha?1) of seedlings was recorded under Prosopis juliflora mixed with native species. But, the lowest total density (153 stems ha?1) of seedlings was recorded under Prosopis juliflora thickets. Moreover, 102 trees ha?1 native woody species were recorded under Prosopis juliflora thicket, but 1252 trees ha?1 native species were recorded under non-invaded woodlands. If the invasion of Prosopis juliflora and its effects on native species diversity continue coupled with a drier climate, plant diversity of the Afar flora region will be highly affected and its ecosystem services will be under question. Thus, the participation of all stakeholders and multidisciplinary research approaches should be designed for the management of the species and rehabilitation of the rangelands in the region.

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    Evaluation of the Land Use Benefit of Rapidly Expanding Cities based on Coupling Coordination and a Transfer Matrix
    NIU Wentao, SHEN Qinghui, XU Zhenzhen, SHANG Wenwen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 542-555.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.010
    Abstract213)   HTML4)    PDF (2146KB)(51)      

    The efficient use of urban land is one of the key factors for high-quality urban development, especially in large cities that lack land resources. By constructing an analysis framework of the land use benefit system and the transfer matrix of land use type, this study identified the evolutionary law governing the land use benefit system and its dynamic coupling coordination relationship with the rapidly expanding city by taking Zhengzhou, a national central city in China, as a case study. The results show that the urban land use (ULU) benefit system of Zhengzhou gradually shifted from the eco-environmental benefit type (1998-2005) to the socio-economic benefit type (2006-2019), with the coupling degree presenting a typical inverted U-shaped evolutionary process. In the same period, the urban area of Zhengzhou expanded by about 461 square kilometers. A further transfer matrix analysis shows that the main source of expansion has been the conversion of arable land, grassland, woodland and water areas to construction land. Therefore, the local government should implement a differentiated land use strategy according to the characteristics of the land use benefit system and the evolution of the coupling and coordination relationship, exploit the opportunity of urban boundary delimitation, and promote urban transformation and upgrading as well as eco-city construction.

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    Assessment of Climate Suitability for Human Settlements in Tibet, China
    LIN Yumei, ZHU Fuxin, LI Wenjun, LIU Xiaona
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 880-887.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.012
    Abstract204)   HTML7)    PDF (3662KB)(180)      

    Climate is an important factor that affects the livability of a region. The climate suitability of a region’s environment for human settlement profoundly affects the regional socio-economic development and the population distribution. Tibet is an area that is sensitive to climate change. Given the impact of global climate change, the climate suitability of Tibet has undergone significant changes. In this study, the temperature humidity index (THI) values for Tibet were calculated, and the relationships between the population distribution and the THI were analyzed quantitatively. In this way, the zoning standards for climate suitability in Tibet were determined such that the climate suitability could be evaluated. The results show that the average annual temperature in the southeast of Tibet, where the population was densely distributed, was relatively high. The mean annual relative humidity showed a trend of gradually decreasing from south to north. Regions with a suitable climate, including the high suitability areas (HSAs), the moderately suitable areas (MSAs) and the low suitability areas (LSAs), accounted for only 7.90% of the total area but accommodated over 40% of the total population. The critically suitable areas (CSAs) accounted for 37.81% of the land area and 48.24% of the total population. Non-suitable areas (NSAs) were widely distributed in Tibet and accounted for 54.29% of the total area and 11.33% of the total population. The results of this study may provide a reference for guiding the reasonable distribution of population and promoting the optimization of the spatial planning in Tibet.

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    Spatial Distribution and Cultural Features of Traditional Villages in Beijing and Influencing Factors
    XIAO Xiaoyue, TANG Chengcai, LIANG Wenqi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1074-1086.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.012
    Abstract202)   HTML4)    PDF (1782KB)(113)      

    Traditional villages are important part of Beijing, an internationally famous historic and cultural city. Exploring the spatial distribution and cultural features of traditional villages, and the factors that have shaped them, will help promote the protection and utilization of traditional villages in Beijing. ArcGIS spatial analysis, literature analysis, fieldwork and in-depth interviews were mainly carried out to analyze the spatial distribution and cultural features of traditional villages in Beijing and their influencing factors. The results show three main features. (1) The overall distribution of traditional villages in Beijing is random, although there are more traditional villages in the southwest and northeast and less in the southeast and northwest. Most of them are distributed along the higher piedmont plains or intermountain basins, and most of them are backed by hills and surrounded by rivers or along the ancient road. (2) There are some cultural commonalities among the traditional villages in Beijing, and nine typical traditional village cultures have been formed, including traditional residential culture, traditional folklore culture, the Great Wall garrison culture, mausoleum guarding culture, etc. (3) The formation of the spatial distribution and cultural features of traditional villages in Beijing is influenced by natural environmental factors like terrain, climate, and rivers, as well as human activities such as royal life, capital construction, ancient military defense, transportation, trade, etc. This study can provide a reference for the scientific protection and effective utilization of traditional villages in Beijing and all over the country.

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    Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Paschim Kusaha Village of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Sunsari District, Nepal
    Deepa KARKI, Nabin POUDEL, Sweta DIXIT, Sijar BHATTA, Bharat GOTAME, Man Kumar DHAMALA, Dipak KHADKA
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1022-1029.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.007
    Abstract197)   HTML1)    PDF (4744KB)(119)      

    Human-wildlife conflict has been one of the most trouble-causing issues in many areas of Nepal including Eastern Nepal. This study assessed the human-wildlife conflict status in Paschim Kusaha Village of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (KTWR), Sunsari District, Nepal. Data were collected from 47 respondents of different households through questionnaire surveys and formal and informal interviews. Results revealed that the most destructive wild animals were wild elephants, wild boar, and wild water buffalo and the most raided crops were paddy (63.83 %), maize (19.15%), and potato (17.02%). Most of the encounters between humans and wildlife were recorded at night (after dusk and before dawn) (78.72%). Local people were suffering from damage of physical properties, human harassment or nuisance, and depredation of cropland due to wild animals. A total of 70% of respondents had a positive attitude towards conservation despite disturbing human mortality records (22 deaths in the last five years) from the reserve area and surrounding. Awareness of wildlife behavior together with conservation and easy access to compensation schemes were suggested to minimize conflicts in the area.

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    Attitude of People towards Relief Fund as Human-Wildlife Conflict Management Strategy: A Case Study of Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, Nepal
    RAI Pratap, JOSHI Rajeev, NEUPANE Bijaya, POUDEL Bishow, KHANAL Sujan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 604-615.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.015
    Abstract197)   HTML3)    PDF (842KB)(202)      

    The present study aimed to assess if the people are satisfied with the relief fund scheme in the three different user committees belonging to 10 Buffer Zone User Group (BZUG) of Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park (SNNP) in the situation with the higher incidents of conflict on those areas. Differences in local people’s attitudes and the effect of socio-economic factors like age, education, economic status, the quantity of crop damage, and their influence on the satisfaction level of people towards the prevailing relief scheme were mainly captured using a semi-structured questionnaire survey of the households. A total of 162 households (HHs), comprising 40.5% of the total 377 households, were surveyed using a purposive sampling method. People’s attitude towards relief schemes was measured at three levels (positive, negative, or neutral) while the Chi-square test at 5% level of significance was used to determine whether people’s attitudes and relief schemes were dependent or not. Similarly, Chi-square test was used to determine the dependency of different socioeconomic factors and people’s attitudes towards the relief scheme. The results showed that the majority of respondents i.e. 56% were not satisfied (negative attitude) with the relief scheme, 26% were neutral and only 18% of respondents were positive towards the relief fund (satisfied). A mere 41.93 USD was provided as relief against the crop loss of 101 USD at an average in the study area. Similarly, 73 USD was the relief amount for livestock loss (goat) of 124 USD per case. Owing to inadequate and delayed payment, the relief fund scheme was unable to bring a satisfactory change in the attitudes of people. Thus, the regular amendments of relief guidelines to address insufficient and delayed payment are recommended. Additionally, further studies on the wildlife damage relief schemes and its cost-effectiveness and appropriate measures to manage the drawback of this scheme are required.

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    Current Situation and Future Development Trend of Global Skiing Tourism Market
    Laurent VANAT, LI Yu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 207-216.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.020
    Abstract197)   HTML3)    PDF (744KB)(135)      

    The global ski tourism market has been in a relatively mature period. However, passenger flows are stagnating in many countries and the growth perspectives are not very appealing. This change of the tourism market troubled the entire ski industry with new challenges, leading to the ski tourism industry model established in the 20th century failing to meet the current development needs. According to multiple data sources, including relevant industry reports and the latest data from internetm, this article based on a variety of these reports and the latest data from website, analyzed the ski tourism market’s both sides of supply and demand, systematically summarized the evolution of ski tourism industry since the 21st century, discussed the process of the ski tourism industry’s development and the economy’s growth, and revealed the relationship between the influencing factors of ski tourism market’s potentials. Meanwhile, the main problems and challenges in the ski market were also summarized. The results showed that global ski tourism had entered a mature stage since the beginning of 2000. Moreover, there was a specific correlation between skiing participation rate and GDP, which varied with the regional economic level and the maturity degree of skiing industry. Despite some impacts from COVID-19, the ski industry in most regions exhibited signs of recovery in 2021. The Winter Olympic Games in China have brought new opportunities to the skiing industry and have been expected to encourage global participation in skiing. However, some existing ski resorts in different countries and regions may not significantly contribute to the future development of global ski tourism, and the potential growth of ski tourism market might be small and mainly concentrated in China. At present, the biggest threat to the ski market is baby boomers having long been the bulk of ski resort visitors. The ski market is faced with this aging problem and the widespread phenomenon of ski culture fault. How to meet the needs of this new generation of customers who lack ski backgrounds or cultures is a severe challenge for all emerging and existing ski resorts around the world. Besides, public transport accessibility, service quality and resorts operation capacity have also been the improvement direction of the ski market in dire need.

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    Characteristics and Determinants of China’s Ice-and-Snow Tourism Industrial Cluster
    SONG Changyao, YIN Tingting, LI Xinjian, CHEN Wei, LI Shan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 564-577.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.003
    Abstract194)   HTML113)    PDF (2812KB)(217)      

    Ice-and-snow tourism (IST) is a booming industry, and the development of its industrial clusters reflects its regional development quality. Taking 1985-2021 data for China’s IST enterprises, this study used industrial cluster identification and industrial correlation analysis to explore the development of IST industrial clusters. The following results were obtained: (1) China’s IST initially formed hotspot industrial clusters in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Northeast, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, Chengdu-Chongqing, and Xinjiang regions. (2) Multiple industry forms failed to become deeply integrated into development, indicating a need to optimize the structure of the IST industrial chain. (3) The development environment of IST industrial clusters in each province showed differentiated characteristics. (4) IST industrial clustering was affected by both internal and external factors. External factors were grouped into climate and ice-and-snow resources, government policies and sports events, and economic fundamentals and market conditions. Internal factors included industrial association and industrial integration in the IST industrial cluster. Based on this study’s identification of the characteristics of China’s IST industrial clusters, countermeasures are proposed for their optimal development.

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    Research Progress on Farmers’ Livelihood Transformation and Its Ecological Effects—A Review
    WANG Ding, WANG Xin, HAO Haiguang, LIN Dayi, XIAO Rui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 912-924.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.015
    Abstract190)   HTML4)    PDF (1469KB)(82)      

    Farmers’ livelihoods and their impacts on the ecosystem are important indicators of human-land relationships. Appropriate livelihood strategies for farmers can meet the needs of human well-being and promote the sustainable use of natural resources, thereby maintaining the health and stability of natural ecosystems. Scholars have carried out a great deal of research on the changes in farmers’ livelihoods, as well as the driving mechanisms and ecological effects, but there are still many controversial issues about the ecological effects of farmers’ livelihood transformation. On the basis of collecting and sorting out the relevant literature, this paper analyzes the previous research results on the transformation mechanism and ecological effects of farmers’ livelihoods, and further explores the coupling relationship. Through the analysis and summary, we find that the choice of farmers’ livelihoods is affected by natural factors, subjective willingness and social policies. The transformation of farmers’ livelihood changes the ways of production, consumption and resource utilization, which in turn profoundly affects the evolutionary process of the natural ecosystems. This paper establishes a research framework for the livelihood transformation mechanism of farmers and its ecological effect, and finally summarizes two directions that need to be studied further in the future: (1) Exploring the interactions between the driving factors of farmers’ livelihood transformation; and (2) Exploring a win-win sustainable mechanism for farmers’ livelihood needs and natural resource utilization.

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    The Impacts of Relocation on the Livelihoods among Different Agro-pastoralist Groups in an Immigrated Village in Tibet
    ZHU Jin, PAN Ying, ZHAO Zhongxu, LI Zhennan, WU Junxi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 888-896.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.013
    Abstract189)   HTML4)    PDF (2254KB)(116)      

    China has achieved a comprehensive victory in poverty eradication. Relocation has been the major measure of the poverty alleviation strategy, and 10 million poor people have successfully been relocated in the ‘Thirteenth Five-Year’ period (from 2016 to 2020). This paper established an integrated evaluation index system for the livelihoods of relocated groups and the sustainability of the village, based on the framework of United Nation 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and using the data from questionnaire surveys in Bailang Village, Tibet. The indicator system quantitatively analyzed the changes in the livelihoods of different agro-pastoralist groups before and after relocation from the three aspects of living standards, livelihood assets, and livelihood strategies. The results showed that relocation led to the improvement of the livelihoods of immigrated households. As the duration after relocation increases, the living standards rise steadily, especially in poverty eradication (SDG1), which increased nearly 100%. Relocation affects the livelihood strategies of the relocated groups, in that the original pure farmers chose more diverse livelihood strategies and the non-farm employment ratio (SDG8) of the village increased. The total SDG score increased from the perspective of the sustainable development of the village. The data also showed that relocation had limited impacts on the livelihoods of the aborigines. The results implied that the relocation policy for poverty alleviation has been implemented successfully in this area. This research could support policy optimization for improving the sustainability of the village and the livelihoods of the immigrants.

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    Spatial and Temporal Changes and Influencing Factors of Tourism Resilience in China’s Provinces under the Impact of COVID-19
    YU Jinyan, ZHANG Yingnan, ZHANG Yahui, JIANG Yixuan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (2): 217-229.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.02.001
    Abstract188)   HTML18)    PDF (1281KB)(131)      

    COVID-19 has led to the interruption of personnel flow, and the tourism industry has become one of the most seriously affected industries. With the gradual improvement of the domestic epidemic situation, the tourism industry has recovered in various provinces and regions, but that recovery shows the characteristics of temporal and spatial heterogeneity. From the perspective of “resilience”, this study characterizes the resistance and recovery of the tourism industry in the face of the epidemic impact, analyzes the trends of change, spatial pattern and phased characteristics of tourism resilience, and explores the factors influencing the differences in tourism resilience. The results indicate that China's tourism industry shows obvious resilience characteristics, and the trend of tourism resilience in most provinces and regions fluctuates and rises. For example, Gansu, Hainan, Guizhou, Hebei and Shandong have a high level of comprehensive toughness, while Tibet, Ningxia, Shanxi and Beijing have a very low level of comprehensive toughness, and most other provinces and regions show the characteristic pattern of “weak in the north and strong in the south”. This study shows that China's tourism resilience has experienced three stages: hard resistance, accelerated recovery and increasing with fluctuation. The resistance of the tourism industry to the impact of the epidemic is generally weak, and the ability to recover is significantly variable. The severity of the epidemic, the strictness of prevention and control policies, the joint influences of tourist source-destination, tourism foundation, geographical location and other factors will have a certain impact on tourism resilience.

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    Ski Tourism Experience and Market Segmentation from the Perspective of Perceived Value: A Case Study on Chongli District of Zhangjiakou
    XU Xiao, LI Yaping, LI Yanqin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 655-666.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.011
    Abstract187)   HTML10)    PDF (612KB)(504)      

    As an emerging mountain vacation tourism product, ski tourism is becoming increasingly important in the domestic tourism market. As an important theory for studying the quality of consumer experience, perceived value has been widely employed in tourism research in recent years, and improving the ski tourism experience value has become the focus of competition among ski tourism destinations. Taking the ski tourists in Chongli District of Zhangjiakou as an example, 305 valid questionnaires were collected by using online and offline methods. Based on the theory of perceived value, this paper adopted principal component analysis and cluster analysis to conduct a preliminary study of ski tourism experience and market segmentation. In addition, this paper examined the differences in demographic and behavioral characteristics of different types of ski tourists. This study finds that: (1) The perceived value of ski tourism experience includes four dimensions: facility value, perceived price, safety value and service value. (2) Using the perceived value to segment ski tourists, three different customer segments are identified: comfort-pursuant, price-sensitive and safety-oriented. (3) There are significant differences in key metrics, such as number of visits and stay time, among different types of ski tourists according to their demographic characteristics such as gender, age, monthly income, and behavioral characteristics. These results reveal the different dimensions of the perceived value of ski tourism experience and determine the market segments and characteristics of ski tourists. Developing a corresponding marketing strategy based on the different market segments can better promote the perceived value of ski tourists, and ultimately strengthen the competitiveness of the enterprises.

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    A Pre-game Evaluation of the Tourism Legacy of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games
    WANG Ning, JIANG Yiyi, XU Haibin, FANG Yan, ZHANG Yue, WANG Zhe
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 578-591.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.004
    Abstract181)   HTML16)    PDF (1093KB)(369)      

    The role of tourism in social and economic development and stabilizing the Olympic legacy has been widely discussed. Beijing is the first “Dual-Olympic City”. For the first time, the Beijing Winter Olympics has adopted a model of three competition areas, which has attracted much attention to the study of its tourism legacy. In the legacy plan, the construction of the “Beijing-Zhangjiakou Sports Culture and Tourism Belt” was proposed. The development of ice and snow tourism and the cultivation of the ice and snow tourism market is also reflected in many policy documents and government actions. The scientific planning before the competition laid a good foundation for the sustainable development of its ice and snow tourism heritage. This research combines Olympic legacy research with tourism destination theory, and focuses on ice and snow tourism directly related to the Winter Olympics and the significance of pre-event planning for legacy protection. At the same time, the improvement of the quality of ice and snow tourism destinations is embedded in the pre-Olympic legacy, and opinions and suggestions on how to ensure the stability of the legacy after the games are given. This study uses the literature review method and the second-hand materials survey research method, then through establishing a tourism legacy pre-game evaluation model and the use of geographic information, government reports, policies, publicly released statistics and news reports, etc.. It explores the legacy of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics and Paralympics, aiming to lay the foundation for preserving the continuous value of the ice and snow tourism legacy during and after the Olympics. The results indicate that the Beijing Winter Olympics has made relatively complete plans and reliable progress in both tangible and intangible legacy. Complete tourism infrastructure, an optimistic sport and cultural atmosphere, and the improvement of residents’ health concept and sports awareness have become boosters for the development of ice and snow tourism in the Beijing-Zhangjiakou region.

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    The Evaluation of Urban Green Space Landscape Changes and Ecosystem Services in Beijing
    XIAO Yu, GAN Shuang, HUANG Mengdong, LIU Jia, MAO Hui, ZHANG Changshun, QIN Keyu, XIE Gaodi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 897-911.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.014
    Abstract180)   HTML12)    PDF (6005KB)(129)      

    As a very important part of the urban ecosystem, the urban green space system plays an active role in maintaining the urban ecosystem stability, providing ecosystem services, and improving the quality of the urban environment. In order to deal with the problems brought about by the deterioration of the urban ecological environment, it is necessary to study and analyze the spatial distribution pattern, evolutionary characteristics and ecosystem services of urban green space to maximize its ecological benefits and comprehensive functions. In this study, we took Beijing urban area as an example, and based on the spatial distribution data of urban green space and remote sensing data, we first calculated the urban green space type transition matrix, landscape pattern index and ecosystem services. Then, we analyzed the changes in urban green space landscape patterns, ecosystem services and their spatial distributions from 2000 to 2020, and studied the interactive relationships between landscape changes and changes in ecosystem services. The results showed three key findings. (1) Beijing’s urban green space construction has achieved remarkable results from 2000 to 2020. The area of green space has increased by 77.41%, mainly from cultivated land and construction land. (2) From 2000 to 2020, the amounts of dust retention, SO2 absorption, NO2 absorption, cooling and humidification, carbon fixation and oxygen release, and rainwater runoff reduction in Beijing's urban green space have shown continuous increases in general. (3) There is a close relationship between urban green space landscape changes and green space ecosystem services, and total area (TA) has the highest correlation with ecosystem services. Except for rainwater runoff reduction, the correlation coefficients between TA and ecosystem services are all higher than 0.85. This research can provide theoretical guidance for optimizing Beijing's green space and determining how to maximize the effect of green space for improving the ecological environment, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the construction of Beijing's ecological environment.

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    Spatio-temporal Dynamic Evolution and the Factors Impacting Eco-efficiency in Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle
    LI Hongli, CHEN Yunping
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 986-998.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.004
    Abstract167)   HTML7)    PDF (9618KB)(84)      

    In response to the 14th National Five-year Plan of China and to better explore new strategies for promoting regional coordinated green development, the eco-efficiency values of Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle and the corresponding temporal analysis from 2004 to 2018 were assessed in this paper using the super-SBM model and Markov chain. Meanwhile, the spatial analysis of eco-efficiency was conducted by a geographically weighted regression model. Although eco-efficiency has risen at an increasing rate, the economic development of Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle was still ecologically ineffective. This means there is an urgent need to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and promote technological innovation. During the study period, the evolution of the eco-efficiency presented as a “π” shape, and was accompanied by the phenomenon of “club convergence”. There was also a strong tendency for eco-efficiency to maintain the original status quo, which indicates that it lacked sufficient momentum for improvement, so it was difficult to achieve a leapfrog transfer. Spatially, the eco-efficiency was distributed from northwest to southeast in a high-low-high manner. The spatial-temporal differences of eco-efficiency narrowed but the effect of agglomeration was relatively weak and there was a polarization trend. Further investigation suggests that the differences in the development level of urbanization, opening, technology, environmental regulation and advancement of industrial structure led to the spatial differences of eco-efficiency. Each city in the Economic Circle should make every effort to improve eco-efficiency accordingly, and thus to promote the green development of the whole region, so as to lay a foundation for driving the green and coordinated development of the central and western regions.

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    Review of Tourism Ecological Security from the Perspective of Ecological Civilization Construction
    HAN Ying, TANG Chengcai, ZENG Rui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 734-745.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.018
    Abstract166)   HTML19)    PDF (545KB)(108)      

    In the era of sustainable development, the ecological impact of the development of the tourism industry has attracted extensive attention from all walks of life. Generally considered, tourism ecological security (TES) is an important link to realize the high-quality development of tourism destinations and promote the construction of ecological civilization. Based on keyword discrimination of TES, tourism ecological risk and tourism ecological health, and from the perspective of ecological civilization construction, this paper uses the databases of Web of Science and CNKI as data sources to systematically comb and analyze TES research from the aspects of development process, research methods and research content, and puts forward the prospects for future research on this basis. This analysis found that research in the TES field presents four main characteristics. (1) The phased characteristic of “germination - exploration - development” is significant, and a relatively standard research framework of “evaluation - influencing factors - early warning - regulation” has been formed. (2) The empirical orientation of the research methods is distinct. (3) The development trend is characterized by small-scale dominance and a large-scale surge. (4) The disciplinary integration and practical combination have been continuously strengthened. Combined with the development trends and hot spots of TES, this paper proposes that the direction and goal of deepening TES research in the future should be carried out from the aspects of strengthening research on thresholds, early warning and regulation, improving the application of big data, constructing the synergistic effect mechanisms between tourism and ecology, and realizing the longitudinal deepening and interconnection of scale research.

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    Analysis of Food Consumption and Its Characteristics in Uzbekistan based on the Emergy Method
    JIA Mengmeng, ZHEN Lin, ZHANG Changshun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 842-850.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.008
    Abstract164)   HTML4)    PDF (1020KB)(107)      

    Food resources play a great role in human livelihood, so it is meaningful to investigate their utilization and structural evolution, especially in developing countries. This study takes data from FAOSTAT and the World Bank, and applies the emergy method to analyze Uzbek food consumption changes and characteristics from 1992 to 2019. Two main results were obtained: (1) National food consumption showed a persistent increase and had a remarkable change in stages, with the first stage of low-level repetition, the second stage of speeding up and the third stage of high development. The increase of animal-based food consumption was more notable than that of plant-based food consumption. (2) Per capita annual food consumption had a tendency of change that was similar to that of national food consumption. The proportion of animal-based food in the total per capita annual food consumption usually remained about 2-fold higher than that of plant-based food consumption. The main food consumption pattern was the combination of crops such as wheat and rice with meat such as beef. The fruit and vegetable consumption also increased. With the growing population, various changes in food demand will inevitably happen, so it is necessary to take sustainable measures in time to satisfy the new demand and to protect resources and the environment.

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    Effects of Simulated Diurnal Asymmetrical Warming on the Growth Characteristics and Grain Yield of Winter Highland Barley in Tibet
    QIN Yong, FU Gang, SHEN Zhenxi, ZHONG Zhiming
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.001
    Abstract161)   HTML7)    PDF (1129KB)(54)      

    There has been an obvious diurnal asymmetrical warming effect as a result of the overall climate warming in the Tibetan Plateau. To reduce the uncertainty caused by the diurnal asymmetrical warming effect on future food security predictions in the Tibetan Plateau, this study used winter highland barley (var. Dongqing No. 1) for the experimental materials, and the FATI (Free Air Temperature Increase) field open heating system to carry out a simulated diurnal asymmetrical warming experiment (AW: All-day warming, DW: Daytime warming, NW: Nighttime warming, CK: Control) for two growing seasons (2018-2019 and 2019-2020) at the Lhasa Agroecosystem Research Station. The growth characteristics and yield of Tibetan winter highland barley were investigated in this study. Compared to the control, all the AW, DW and NW treatments had significant effects on the phenological period of winter highland barley, with the advancement of the phenological phase and shortening of the whole growth period. The degree of influence was AW>NW>DW, and all the AW, DW and NW treatments shortened the interval from sowing to heading of winter highland barley and increased the interval from heading to maturity. The effect on the phenological phase was the most obvious for AW and reached a statistically significant level (P<0.05). During the generative growth phase, the biomass above-ground and plant height of winter highland barley had an increasing tendency under the different warming conditions. In the late growth period, the biomass above-ground and plant height of the NW treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. In addition, the warming caused a decrease in the dry matter distribution proportions of leaves and stems at the mature stage, and an increase in the distribution ratios of roots and spikes; and the AW, NW and DW treatments increased grain yields by 16.4%, 24.6% and 9.5%, respectively, on average in the two years. The increasing effect on grain yields of the NW treatment reached a significant level compared with the control in 2019-2020 (t=-2.541, P=0.026). In terms of yield composition, the effective spike number and 1000-grain weight tended to increase. The grain number per spike tended to increase, except for the AW treatment, while panicle length and seed setting rate tended to decrease, except for the NW treatment. Therefore, the effects of different simulated diurnal asymmetrical warming treatments on the growth characteristics and yield of winter highland barley were variable in the Tibetan Plateau.

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    Ecosystem Service Value Evolution and Security Pattern Optimization in Huaihai Economic Zone
    CAO Yuhong, CAO Yuandan, CHEN Zhiyu, YU Dailiang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 977-985.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.003
    Abstract160)   HTML8)    PDF (1257KB)(104)      

    The ecological and environmental effects caused by land use change have attracted global attention. Huaihai Economic Zone, as the core of the Huaihe River ecological economic belt, has experienced a reciprocal evolution of land use, ecological security and regional economic development. Based on multi-stage land use data extracted by Google Earth Engine (GEE), the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of ecosystem service value (ESV) evolution in Huaihai Economic Zone from 1998 to 2018 were analyzed with the help of ESV assessment and a minimum accumulated resistance model (MCR), and the regional ecological security pattern (ESP) was optimized. The results show that ESV intensity has obvious spatial differentiation, which is higher in northeastern China and lower in southwestern China. The median ESV area accounted for the largest proportion, while the high and low ESV areas accounted for a small proportion. The characteristics of EVS temporal and spatial differentiation show decreasing and increasing grades. From the perspective of development period, the ESV grade changes show a positive trend. In the optimization of the ecological security pattern, 26 important ecological sources, 22 main landscape ecological corridors, and 65 ecological strategic nodes were optimized and identified, and the middle-level ecological security zone accounted for the largest proportion. The main reasons for the changes in the ESV and ESP are closely related to the changes in local natural resources and the changes and adjustments in government protection policies. These research results can provide a reference for inter-provincial territorial space protection and the formulation of a sustainable development strategy.

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    Evaluation and Promotion Model of Tourist Satisfaction in Ice and Snow Tourism Destinations
    CHEN Xiangyu, XU Shiyi, TANG Chengcai, FAN Zhijia, XIAO Xiaoyue
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 635-645.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.009
    Abstract160)   HTML11)    PDF (762KB)(263)      

    The successful bid for the Beijing Winter Olympics has brought historic opportunities for the development of ice and snow tourism in China. An index system for the evaluation of tourist satisfaction in ice and snow tourism destinations was constructed from the target layer-factor layer-index layer approach in this paper. Taking tourists with ice and snow tourism experience as the research object, and integrating a questionnaire survey and the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) method, a total of 840 valid questionnaires were collected to assess the satisfaction of tourists in snow and ice tourism destinations, and the promotion model of tourist satisfaction in ice and snow tourism destinations was put forward. This process led to three main results. (1) Ice and snow tourists in China are characterized as young and better-educated, with college students aged 19 to 25 as the main consumer group. More than 70% of ice and snow tourists are pretty satisfied with the current development of ice and snow destinations in China, and are willing to participate again. (2) Other than “ice and snow souvenirs”, tourists’ perceptions of importance are all higher than the level of perceived satisfaction, and the importance values of the 13 indicators including “Scenic spot security” and “Diversity of ice and snow entertainment and sports” are especially high, showing that tourists have high expectations and demands of the destinations. However, the perceived satisfaction level of tourists for all indexes is generally low, mostly at the general satisfaction level, indicating that ice and snow tourism destinations have only partially met the demands of ice and snow tourists, and there is still much room for improvement. (3) After IPA analysis, five suggestions for improving the satisfaction of tourists in ice and snow tourism destinations were put forward, including diversification of the tourism business model, construction of tourism facilities, a market diversified cultivation model, a humanized mode of tourism service and a refined management model. The results of this study will help to enrich the theory of ice and snow tourist satisfaction and promote the high-quality development of China's ice and snow tourism in the post-Winter Olympics era.

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    Evaluation of Rural Tourism Resources based on the Tourists Perspective: A Case Study of Lanzhou City, China
    PU Lili, LU Chengpeng, CHEN Xingpeng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1087-1097.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.013
    Abstract150)   HTML3)    PDF (1711KB)(116)      

    Rural tourism has become a hot spot in China's tourism development. Based on the AHP model and the comprehensive evaluation method of fuzzy cognition, this paper builds an evaluation system for the evaluation of rural tourism resources, including resource value, environmental factors, reception conditions with three criterion layers, and 25 evaluation factors. We recovered 574 valid questionnaires through two online forms and field research in Lanzhou city, and then used them to complete the empirical analysis. The results show four main aspects of the tourists' perspective on rural tourism resources. Firstly, rural tourists are concerned about higher service facilities. The evaluation of rural tourism resources pays more attention to the reception conditions, and tourists pay more attention to the facilities of the reception conditions. In addition, the reception condition value accounts for a more concentrated 8-10 points (61.4%), which is higher than environmental elements (58.87%) and the value of the resource itself (54.26%). Secondly, tourists' attention to rural tourism resources mainly focuses on the pleasurable (0.1152), tour line design (0.1014), experience (0.0765), ornamental (0.0747) and other aspects. Thirdly, the degree of cognition mainly focuses on nature (4508), environmental safety (4469), pleasantness (4387), accommodation conditions (4367), tour line design (4363) and other aspects of the rural tourism resources. Fourthly, the cognition of rural tourism resources is basically given priority with 6-9 points, and environmental factors accounted for the highest portion. However, rural tourists have higher expectations for the popularization and education of rural tourism resources, but the sense of acquisition is relatively low. Through the further improvement and improvement of the naturalness of environmental resources, environmental safety of reception conditions, and the enjoyment of external traffic and resource value, the overall benefit of rural tourism resources is maximized. The results of this study can provide reference for the theoretical foundation of rural tourism resources.

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    Ecological Protection and Livelihood Improvement in Ecologically Vulnerable Regions
    ZHEN Lin, XU Zengrang, CHENG Wuxue
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 759-762.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.001
    Abstract148)   HTML20)    PDF (944KB)(143)      
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