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    Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System in China
    ZHANG Hongqi, XU Erqi, ZHU Huiyi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 121-128.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.002
    Abstract1840)   HTML1318)    PDF (830KB)(416)      
    Rapid economic development, industrialization, and urbanization aggravates the tense relationship between human beings and the land. With multiple demands for food security, ecological protection and economic development, frequent conflicts and competition occur between multiple different functional land types. The current land use classification system focuses on the productive and living functions of land, but gives little consideration to ecological functions. This study builds a national Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System based on land functions emphasizing the concept and position of ecological land. So-called ecological land uses are types of land use regulating, maintaining and protecting ecological security. The new land classification is more flexible for overall planning purposes and for making arrangements for ecological, living and productive land spaces. The Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System includes three levels. The first level has four major types: ecological land, ecological-productive land, productive-ecological land, and living-productive land. The second level subdivides the major types into 15 functional land categories, including major ecological regulation land, common ecological regulation land, and ecological conservation land for ecological lands; pasture land, timber land and aquaculture land for ecological-productive lands; arable land and orchard for productive-ecological lands; and urban built-up area, rural living land, and industrial land for living-productive lands. The third level is based on land cover types. Based on multiple data sources, and using a strategy of zoning and re-classification, we extracted the spatial distribution of ecological-living-productive lands on a national scale. The areas of ecological land, ecological-productive land, productive land, and living-productive land area are 6,037,000 km 2, 1,353,800 km 2, 2,001,900 km 2 and 207,300 km 2, respectively; accounting for 62.89%, 14.10%, 20.85% and 2.16% of total area, respectively. For the second-level classification, the area of ecological conservation land is the largest, accounting for 20.17% of the total area. Ecological land is located mainly in central and western China. Ecological-productive land is distributed in various areas throughout the country, and productive-ecological land and living-productive land are concentrated in eastern China.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Huge Carbon Sequestration Potential in Global Forests
    LIU Yingchun, YU Guirui, WANG Qiufeng, ZHANG Yangjian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (3): 193-201.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.03.001
    Abstract1209)      PDF (1117KB)(406)      
    Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change by absorbing carbon from atmosphere.The global forests sequestrated 2.4±0.4 PgCy -1 from 1990 to 2007, while the quantitative assessment on the carbon sequestration potential (CSP) of global forests has much uncertainty.We collected and compiled a database of site above-ground biomass (AGB) of global mature forests, and obtained AGB carbon carrying capacity (CCC) of global forests by interpolating global mature forest site data.The results show that:(i) at a global scale, the AGB of mature forests decline mainly from tropical forests to boreal forests, and the maximum AGB occurs in middle latitude regions; (ii) temperature and precipitation are main factors influencing the AGB of mature forests; and (iii) the above-ground biomass CCC of global forests is about 586.2±49.3 Pg C, and with CSP of 313.4 Pg C.Therefore, achieving CCC of the existing forests by reducing human disturbance is an option for mitigating greenhouse gas emission.
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    The Analysis of Water Footprint of Production and Water Stress in China
    GE Liqiang, XIE Gaodi, LI Shimei, CHENG Yanpei, LUO Zhihai
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (5): 334-341.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.05.003
    Abstract978)   HTML644)    PDF (492KB)(246)      

    Water footprint of production can be used to identify pressure on national or regional water resources generated by production activities. Water stress is defined as the ratio of water use (the difference between a regional water footprint of production and a green water footprint) to renewable water resources available in a country or region. Water stress can be used to identify pressure on national or regional water resources generated by production activities. This paper estimates the water footprint of production and the water stress in China during the years 1985-2009. The result shows that China’s water footprint of production increased from 781.58 × 109 m3 in 1985 to 1109.76 × 109 m3 in 2009. Mega-cities and regions with less agriculture production due to local climatic conditions (Tibet and Qinghai) had lower water footprint of production, while the provinces (Henan, Shandong) with higher agriculture production had higher footprint. Provinces with severe water stress increased from 6 in 1985 to 9 in 2009. High to severe water stress exists mainly in mega-cities and agricultural areas located in the downstream areas of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River in North and Central China. The outlook for water resources pressure in China is not optimistic, with areas of stress expanding from northern to southern of China.

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    Carbon Storage and Its Spatial Pattern of  Terrestrial Ecosystem in China
    YU Guirui,LI Xuanran,WANG Qiufeng,LI Shenggong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2010, 1 (2): 97-109.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.02.001
    Abstract972)      PDF (3141KB)(537)      
    Process mechanisms of carbon storage and carbon cycle in earth system are the scientific foundation for analyzing the cause of climate change, forecasting the climate change trend, and making mitigation and adaptation countermeasures, which have attracted great attention from the scientific community and international community. Since the late 1980s, Chinese scientists have carried out a great deal of research on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle, and have made great progress in many fields. In this paper, we review the history of the research on the terrestrial carbon cycle in China, summarize the results of the carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems and its spatial patterns, evaluate the uncertainties of the research, and put forward important scientific issues which are needed to be addressed urgently. Overall, the research on the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems in China consists of four stages of development, i.e., the early carbon cycle research, the comprehensive study on the carbon cycle at regional scale, the experimental research on the adaptation of ecosystem carbon cycle to climate change, and the coupling cycles of C-N-H2O and the regional regulation and control. Most studies indicate that carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystems in China and its spatial pattern are controlled by temperature and precipitation. About 97.95–118.93 Pg carbon is stored in soil, forest and grassland in China. Since the mid 1970s, many management measures such as afforestation and forest management, grassland protection, farming system reformation and conservation tillage, have played important roles in carbon sequestration. However, large uncertainty exists among the evaluation results with various methods. In the future we should focus on the integrated monitoring system of the dynamics of carbon storage and carbon sink, foresight studies on the coupling cycles of ecosystem C-N-H2O and its regional regulation and control, quantitative assessment on the carbon budget and the potential of carbon sink of ecosystems in China, the evaluation of the economic benefit of various technologies for increasing carbon sink of typical ecosystems, and the measurable, reportable and verifiable scientific data and technical supports for establishing the policy framework of greenhouse gas management and carbon trading at national scale.
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    Identifying and Mapping Wetland-based Ecotourism Areas in the First Meander of the Yellow River: Incorporating Tourist Preferences
    ZHANG Aiping, ZHONG Linsheng, XU Yong, DANG Lijuan, ZHOU Bin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (1): 21-29.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.01.003
    Abstract908)      PDF (632KB)(143)      

    We identified and mapped ecotourism areas in the First Meander of the Yellow River (FMYR) by incorporating tourist preferences, and regional division was also conducted. Considering wetland protection and local natural worship, we identified available ecotourism areas and used GIS to overlay six layers of the criteria to generate a suitability map of available areas. This process incorporated the opinions of 158 tourists to weight each criterion. Available areas were classified into five levels of suitability, with class I being the least suitable for ecotourism and class V being the most suitable. Distance from water area was found to be the most important criterion, and presence of forest to be the least important. The results show that a majority of the FMYR is class II, III or IV. FMYR was further divided into five sub-regions, and it is clear that the particular ecological characteristics and service functions of each sub-region warrant particular development. This study provides useful insights for tourism planners, local managers and visitors.

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    Farmland Abandonment Research Progress: Influencing Factors and Simulation Model
    SONG Wei,ZHANG Ying
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 345-352.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.001
    Abstract907)   HTML876)    PDF (331KB)(235)      

    Farmland abandonment is a global problem and considered one of the most important areas in land use change research. Farmland abandonment research currently focuses on understanding the factors that affect farmland abandonment and developing scientific models to simulate farmland abandonment. The study reviewed the natural and political factors driving farmland abandonment and summarized the main models for farmland abandonment simulation together with their advantages and disadvantages. We discuss the main ecological effects of farmland abandonment and propose farmland abandonment research directions. The study found that: (1) the influence of labor cost change and ageing labor force on farmland abandonment needs further investigation, (2) simulation models for farmland abandonment must include the decision-making mechanism of individual farmers and focus on macro large-scale abandonment prediction models, and (3) the influence of farmland abandonment on landscape culture must be investigated in detail.

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    Great Silk Road on the Territory of Kazakhstan: From Past to Future
    Akhmetkal MEDEU, Maulken ASKAROVA, Roman PLOKHIKH, Irina SKORINTSEVA, Aruzhan BEKKULIYEVA
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (2): 114-118.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.02.009
    Abstract847)      PDF (346KB)(127)      

    The Great Silk Road is a trade route linking the East and West which gave impetus to the development of ancient society, and Kazakhstan is the heart of the trade route. At the initial stage, intensive transaction of goods took place between the West and East through The Great Silk Road. This paper reviewed the history of development of the Silk Road and suggested that today to construct the "New Silk Road", Kazakhstan should face many issues, and take many steps to become a Eurasian hub through taking full of advantages. Above all, developing mechanisms of integration and sustainable development is our urgent need.

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    Comprehensive Evaluation of the Suitability of Agricultural Land in Myanmar
    GU Changjun, ZHANG Yili, LIU Linshan, LI Lanhui, ZHANG Binghua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (6): 609-621.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.06.004
    Abstract805)   HTML2)    PDF (14859KB)(105)      
    Myanmar is a country with an economy based on agriculture. It has rich agricultural resources and great potential for development. The development of agriculture in Myanmar is becoming increasingly important to international food security. Assessments of agricultural land resources in Myanmar are the basis for the country’s agricultural development and for food security evaluations. In this paper we used the MaxEnt model to analyze the relationship between the suitability of land for agricultural reclamation and the main environmental variables in Myanmar, and then constructed a model to comprehensively evaluate the suitability of land for agriculture in Myanmar. The results show that: 1) the overall accuracy of the MaxEnt model is high (AUC>0.8), which means there is a high correlation between the database of selected environmental indicators and the true distribution of cultivated land in Myanmar. 2) Soil depth is the most important factor affecting the suitability of land for agriculture in Myanmar. When the thickness of soil layer is less than 100 cm, the suitability of land for agriculture is low. With respect to topographic conditions, slope is the main factor affecting suitability. When the slope is greater than 20 degrees, the suitability of land for agriculture is low. With respect to climate conditions, precipitation is the main influencing factor. There is a positive correlation between river network density and land suitability. 3) Currently, 400 000 km² of the land resources in Myanmar are suitable for agriculture, and of this amount 290 000 km² are highly suitable, accounting for nearly 40% of the country's land area. The highly suitable land is distributed mainly in Magway, Sagaing, Ayeyarwady and Yangon provinces. The provinces are also important grain production areas in Myanmar, and this serves to validate the effectiveness of the method used in this paper.
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    Ecological Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land in China
    HU Zhenqi, WANG Peijun, LI Jing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (4): 289-296.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.04.001
    Abstract789)      PDF (1862KB)(88)      
    Mining activities produced a lot of abandoned mine land. This paper introduced the theoretical and technical progress of ecological restoration of surface coal mines, mining subsidence land and coal waste piles in China and discussed some key problems for research in the future. Ecological restoration of abandoned mine land was related to many disciplines, and multi-disciplinary theories might make great contributes to it. Some practical techniques of ecological restoration of abandoned mine land and their demonstration bases in China were introduced. Ecosystem succession process and mechanism, structure optimization of land use and new technologies of ecological restoration of abandoned mine land should be focused on in research activities.
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    Water Yield of Xitiaoxi River Basin Based on InVEST Modeling
    ZHANG Canqiang, LI Wenhua, ZHANG Biao, LIU Moucheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (1): 50-54.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.01.008
    Abstract786)      PDF (1577KB)(178)      
    Water yield calculation and mapping are of great importance to water resource planning and management and hydropower station construction. A water yield model based on InVEST was employed to estimate water runoff in the Xitiaoxi River basin. The data included land use and land cover, average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, soil depth, and plant available water content. In order to test model accuracy the natural runoff of Xitiaoxi River was estimated based on linear regression relation of rainfall-runoff in a ‘reference period’. After repeated validation, when the Z value was 6.5 the water yield was 8.30 E+8 m 3 and this was a smaller difference with natural runoff. From the distribution of water yield, south and southwestern areas of the watershed had higher water yield volumes per hectare.
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    A Functional Land Use Classification for Ecological, Production and Living Spaces in the Taihang Mountains
    GENG Shoubao,ZHU Wanrui,SHI Peili
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (3): 246-255.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.03.002
    Abstract765)   HTML7)    PDF (1026KB)(152)      

    A combination of rapid industrialization, economic development and urbanization has caused a series of issues such as resource shortages, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and tension between human needs and land conservation. In order to promote balanced development of human, resources, ecosystems, the environment, and the economy and society, it is vital to conceptualize ecological spaces, production spaces and living spaces. Previous studies of ecological-production-living spaces focused mainly on urban and rural areas; few studies have examined mountainous areas. The Taihang Mountains, a key area between the North China Plain and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area providing ecological shelter and the safeguarding of crucial water sources, suffer from increasing problems of fragile environment, inappropriate land use and tensions in the human-land relationship. However, studies of the ecological, production, and living spaces in the Taihang Mountains are still lacking. Therefore, this study, based on the concept of ecological-production-living spaces and using data from multiple sources, took the Taihang Mountains as the study area to build a functional land classification system for ecological-production-living spaces. After the classification system was in place, spatial distribution maps for ecological, production and living spaces were delineated. This space mapping not only characterized the present land use situation, but also established a foundation for future land use optimization. Results showed that the area of ecological space was 78,440 km2, production space 51,861 km2 and living space 6,646 km2, accounting for 57.28%, 37.87% and 4.85% of the total area, respectively. Ecological space takes up the most area and is composed mainly of forests and grasslands. Additionally, most of the ecological space is located in higher elevation mountainous areas, and plays an important role in regulating and maintaining ecological security. Production space, mostly farmlands sustaining livelihoods inside and outside the region, is largely situated in lower elevation plains and hilly areas, as well as in low-lying mountainous basins. Living space has the smallest area and is concentrated mainly in regions with relatively flat terrain and convenient transportation for human settlements.

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    The Fractal Characteristics of Drainage Networks and Erosion Evolution Stages of Ten Kongduis in the Upper Reaches of the Yellow River, China
    YANG Hui, SHI Changxing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 165-173.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.007
    Abstract765)   HTML432)    PDF (678KB)(299)      
    The fractal characteristics of drainage in the ten kongduis of the upper Yellow River were obtained using the box counting dimension, and the evolution stages of the watershed topography were defined by different ranges of the fractal dimensions of river networks (Dg). The results show that the fractal scaleless range of the Maobula River is 20–370 m based on a combination of artificial judgment, correlation coefficient test and fitting error. Other kongduis show good fractal characteristics in this fractal scaleless range as well. The box counting dimension can be used as a quantitative index of watershed topography fractal characteristics. The fractal dimension of stream networks is independent of the threshold contributing area used for extracting the drainage networks from the DEM. The values of Dg in the upper ten kongduis are in the range of 1.08?1.14. Both the runoff yield and the sediment yield are positively and linearly related with Dg. The positive relation between the sediment yield and Dg reflects the effect of landform features on sediment yield in the young and/or mature stages of landform evolution of the study area. By revising the critical value of Dg, the value of Dg of the basin in the young evolution stage is less than 1.06, while it is more than 1.06 for the basin in mature or old evolution stage. The upper ten kongduis are in the mature stage of landform evolution.
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    The Use of Choice Experiments to Value Public Preferences for Cultivated Land Protection in China
    MA Aihui, ZHANG Jingjing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (3): 263-271.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.03.009
    Abstract750)      PDF (766KB)(74)      
    Effective programs and policies for cultivated land resource protection are often the focus of government policy-makers and researchers. Here we use survey data from Wuhan City, Hubei, China to attempt to apply a choice experiment for assessing main stakeholder preferences for cultivated land resource protection based on the hypothesis of market and policy. According to the basic principle of choice experiments, the area of cultivated land, quality of cultivated land, cost of cultivated land protection and cultivated land ecological landscape were included as attributes in the experimental design. Surveys were undertaken on two main stakeholders groups (farmers and urban residents). Our results show strong divergence between farmers and urban residents regarding protecting attributes. We then analyzed and compared welfare changes affected by different attribute combination programs. The result of this study provides theoretical and decision-making support for farmland protection funds and agricultural subsidy systems.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Assessing Changes in Rainstorms in Beijing During the Last 50 Years
    ZHANG Wei, LU Changhe
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (5): 372-377.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.05.007
    Abstract746)   HTML240)    PDF (447KB)(241)      

    With global warming, rainstorms and other extreme weather events are occurring frequently, leading to urban waterlogging disasters. A study on spatiotemporal variation characteristics of rainstorms in urban areas can provide scientific support for the design of urban drainage facilities to mitigate the damage of urban flooding disasters. Drawing on daily rainfall data from 20 meteorological stations during 1960-2010, this study analyzed change trends for annual rainstorms in Beijing, using the Mann-Kendall approach and cumulative departure curve as methodology. The results show that annual days of rainstorms in Beijing decreased non-significantly, but the precipitation of rainstorms and annual maximum daily precipitation declined significantly. The frequency of rainstorms generally decreased from southeast to northwest, with the greatest decrease occurring in the southeast plain areas. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of rainstorm risk in Beijing.

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    Comparative Evaluation between Water Parallel Pricing System and Water Pricing System in China: A Simulation of Eliminating Irrigation Subsidy
    SHEN Ming, ZHONG Shuai, SHEN Lei, LIU Litao, ZHANG Chao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (4): 237-245.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.04.001
    Abstract723)   HTML405)    PDF (609KB)(265)      
    The reform in water pricing plays a critical role in agricultural production, which is believed to have great water savings potential. We consider eliminating irrigation subsidies as a simulation and conduct a comparative evaluation between the water parallel pricing system (WPPS) and the water pricing system (WPS), which are incorporated into two computable general equilibrium (CGE) models, respectively. The results prove that, compared with WPPS, WPS would contribute higher capacities for water savings with more farming imports and less loss in farming output; households in rural and urban areas would benefit from more income and food consumption, which would be matched by increasing farming imports. A policy recommendation is that eliminating the irrigation subsidy should pay more concerns on alleviating the negative effects on farming outputs. Moreover, improvements in agricultural labor mobility and water demand elasticity are needed to enable more focus on the water conservation policy, particularly in WPS.
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    Typical Water-land Utilization GIAHS in Low-lying Areas: The Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem Example in China
    BAI Yanying, SUN Xueping, TIAN Mi, Anthony M. FULLER
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (4): 320-327.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.006
    Abstract718)      PDF (566KB)(182)      
    Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem is a raised field agriculture system with typical water-land utilization. It was identified as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) site by FAO in April 2014. Based on a literature review and field investigations, we analyzed the history and development, structure and characteristics, functions and values of the Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem in this research. The system has a long history, rich biodiversity, important ecosystem services, traditional adapted agricultural technologies and a folk culture. Altogether, these features form an attractive landscape created by its special water-land utilization. It also has great importance for the livelihood maintenance of the local people. However, the inheritance and conservation effort of Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem is facing great threats from modern agriculture, urbanization and labor loss. This paper will provide insight into the Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem, and provide scientific support for the conservation and development of this special system. It will also provide a good example for similar areas in China and worldwide.
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    Increased CO 2 Emissions from Energy Consumption Based on Three-Level Nested I-O Structural Decomposition Analysis for Beijing
    ZHANG Wang, SHEN Yuming, ZHOU Yueyun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (2): 115-122.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.02.003
    Abstract718)      PDF (967KB)(128)      
    The first task in ensuring a reduction in CO 2 emissions is to quantitatively measure the factors and their effect size on increasing CO 2 emissions due to fossil fuel consumption. An extension of the buying and import-noncompetition economy-energy-CO 2 emission input-output model was designed to analyze CO 2 emission increases for Beijing from 1997-2007. The increase in CO 2 emissions because of energy consumption was broken down into nine kinds of effects including the change in energy consumption intensity and structure, and economic scale expansion. We found that the effect of economic scale expansion such as consumption investment, export and selling were the main factors increasing CO 2 emissions. The effect of the change in energy consumption intensity was the dominant factor reducing CO 2 emissions. CO 2 emissions increased rapidly from 2002. The first increase in carbon emissions was related to the service industry, adjustment in industrial structure and the priority given to tertiary industries. High energy consumption manufacturing was the industrial branch driving CO 2 emissions; the main industry driving CO 2 emission reductions was the energy industry. The new round of industrialization with ‘high carbon’features meant that CO 2 emissions increased rapidly from 2002-2007. The quantity and direction of the nine focal effects varied across industries and different industrial sectors.
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    Overview on China’s Rare Earth Industry Restructuring and Regulation Reforms
    SHEN Lei, WU Na, ZHONG Shuai, GAO Li
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (3): 213-222.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.03.001
    Abstract709)   HTML240)    PDF (474KB)(308)      
    Rare earth elements (REEs) that are key to new technologies and green innovations are critical to life in modern societies. China continues to dominate the global REEs market despite several international trade disputes and market fluctuations. Pressured by an increasingly difficult situation, the Chinese government has been carrying out industry restructuring and has introduced regulatory reforms in recent years to promote the healthy development of the rare earth industry. This paper reviews the literature on the development of the rare earth industry and analyzes the reform policies, combining this with an analysis of relevant macroeconomic data. It discusses the current status of China's rare earth industry, the progress of industrial restructuring and the main problems the rare earth industry faces. The paper discusses the evolution of rare earth policies from that of "open production and open supply" to that of "limiting low quality development but encouraging export of high quality rare earths" and then to "integrating rare earth resources trade". Six key policies, including those for export quotas, export duties, environmental laws, resource utilization technology, industry consolidation and stockpiling, are discussed in detail. Policy suggestions based on this discussion are put forward concerning the treatment of small rare earth mines in China: firstly, robust efforts to prevent illegal mining must always be maintained; secondly, it is certain that the formation of large-scale conglomerates should be accelerated in the near future; thirdly, the management of key sections should be reinforced; fourthly, support for technological innovation and the development of the applications industry should continue; fifthly, specific rare earths laws and regulations should be greatly improved. The paper also puts forward some suggestions on revisions to improve mineral resources law: firstly, China must increase the market access threshold and suppress low-end excess production capacity; secondly, the new environmental protection verification must be developed for all rare earth enterprises; thirdly, minimum required indicators for the development and utilization of rare earths resources must be implemented in China. These recommendations can serve as a reference for efforts to promote the sustainable development of China's rare earth industry.
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    Greenness Index from Phenocams Performs Well in Linking Climatic Factors and Monitoring Grass Phenology in a Temperate Prairie Ecosystem
    ZHOU Yuke
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (5): 481-493.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.05.003
    Abstract702)   HTML12)    PDF (6775KB)(148)      

    Near-surface remote sensing (e.g., digital cameras) has played an important role in capturing plant phenological metrics at either a focal or landscape scale. Exploring the relationship of the digital image-based greenness index (e.g., Gcc, green chromatic coordinate) with that derived from satellites is critical for land surface process research. Moreover, our understanding of how well Gcc time series associate with environmental variables at field stations in North American prairies remains limited. This paper investigated the response of grass Gcc to daily environmental factors in 2018, such as soil moisture (temperature), air temperature, and solar radiation. Thereafter, using a derivative-based phenology extraction method, we evaluated the correspondence between key phenological events (mainly including start, end and length of growing season, and date with maximum greenness value) derived from Gcc, MODIS and VIIRS NDVI (EVI) for the period 2015-2018. The results showed that daily Gcc was in good agreement with ground-level environmental variables. Additionally, multivariate regression analysis identified that the grass growth in the study area was mainly affected by soil temperature and solar radiation, but not by air temperature. High frequency Gcc time series can respond immediately to precipitation events. In the same year, the phenological metrics retrieved from digital cameras and multiple satellites are similar, with spring phenology having a larger relative difference. There are distinct divergences between changing rates in the greenup and senescence stages. Gcc also shows a close relationship with growing degree days (GDD) derived from air temperature. This study evaluated the performance of a digital camera for monitoring vegetation phenological metrics and related climatic factors. This research will enable multiscale modeling of plant phenology and grassland resource management of temperate prairie ecosystems.

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    Recognizing the Scientific Mission of Flux Tower Observation Networks—Lay the Solid Scientific Data Foundation for Solving Ecological Issues Related to Global Change
    YU Guirui, CHEN Zhi, ZHANG Leiming, PENG Changhui, CHEN Jingming, PIAO Shilong, ZHANG Yangjian, NIU Shuli, WANG Qiufeng, LUO Yiqi, CIAIS Philippe, BALDOCCHI D. Dennis
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 115-120.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.001
    Abstract701)   HTML236)    PDF (2322KB)(349)      
    As the Earth entering into the Anthropocene, global sustainable development requires ecological research to evolve into the large-scale, quantitative, and predictive era. It necessitates a revolution of ecological observation technology and a long-term accumulation of scientific data. The ecosystem flux tower observation technology is the right one to meet this requirement. However, the unique advantages and potential values of global-scale flux tower observation are still not fully appreciated. Reviewing the development history of global meteorological observation and its scientific contributions to the society, we can get an important enlightenment to re-cognize the scientific mission of flux observation.
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    Research Progress in Ecological Carrying Capacity:Implications, Assessment Methods and Current Focus
    XUE Qian, SONG Wei, ZHANG Yili, MOU Fengyun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (5): 514-525.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.05.009
    Abstract683)   HTML137)    PDF (464KB)(197)      
    In recent years, rapid global urbanization accompanied by rapid economic growth has resulted in increasingly serious eco-environmental problems such as land degradation and pollution. As a society, we are gradually realizing the role of environmental protection and ecologically-focused construction in promoting sustainable development. As an important method for assessing sustainable development, ecological carrying capacity (ECC) has become a powerful tool for investigating sustainable development and assessing eco-environmental problems. Based on results from a large number of previous studies in this discipline, we summarized and generalized the implications, main assessment methods, and key research domains of ECC. Deficiencies and future trends in ECC research are identified. In terms of implications, ECC can be roughly defined into the perspectives of environmental change, human effects on ecological systems, and holistic ecological systems. The primary assessment methods and models can be classified in accordance with these three perspectives, including ecological footprint method, ecosystem-services-based method, net primary productivity method, situation space method, energetic ecological footprint model, system dynamics model, and coupling model. We compared the advantages and disadvantage of different methods and analyzed their applicable conditions. As ECC research has advanced, related studies have gradually extend to land systems, watershed systems, ecologically vulnerable areas, tourism systems, and urban comprehensive systems, which have solved relevant eco-environmental problems based on ECC assessments. Currently, ECC research lacks a standard definition for the ECC index threshold, research related to dynamic monitoring and early warning, sufficient consideration of scientific and technological drivers, and spatial pattern analyses. Future trends in ECC-related research should provide a large-scale assessment of cross-border areas and ecological vulnerable areas, construct an ecological warning platform, and consistently analyze ECC and regional leading industries.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Typical Ecotones in China
    GAO Jixi, LV Shihai, ZHENG Zhirong, LIU Junhui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (4): 297-307.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.04.002
    Abstract679)      PDF (2192KB)(224)      
    An ecotone is a transition area between two biomes or two different ecosystems and are often fragile, sensitive and variable. Since the 1970s, the study of the ecotone has increasingly gained notoriety as an important facet of ecological research. China, with a vast complex geology, climate and vegetation, is home to a variety of ecotones. This variety is witnessed in breeds, scales and sizes. This vast array has not only laid a solid foundation for scientific research but also enhanced China’s economic development, social development and cultural diversity conservation. According to the geographical distribution and ecological features of China’s large scale ecotone, “The trinity index system” has been established including land use types, natural climate characteristics and agricultural economic development to classify and define the spatial distribution of typical ecotones in China. Based on this classification, the natural environmental characteristics, environmental fragility and the existing problems of five kinds of typical ecotones have been studied. This study will lead to a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary patterns of ecotones.
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    Progresses and Perspectives of Ecological Research in China
    LI Wenhua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2010, 1 (1): 3-14.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.01.001
    Abstract660)      PDF (6671KB)(217)      
    Ecology has been recognized as an independent discipline since 1869, when Ernest Haeckel first used this terminology and defines it as a branch of science for studying the interactions between organisms and their environment. The modern ecology expanded the subject and scope of the study; broke throw the limitation of pure naturalism tendency and was actively involved in solving the urgent task of world-concerned global development problem. While equipped by modern methodology and equipments, it becomes a bridge between science and development. Although a wealth of knowledge with deep ecological thought has been accumulated in the long course of China’s development, it has not developed into a science until the 1950s. The development of ecology in China may roughly be divided into four phases (i.e. primitive embryonic phase, fundamental ecological study phase, ecosystem study phase, and the phase for sustainable development. This paper gives a general review of the development of ecology in China and introduced the progress in several selected areas. These include: biodiversity conservation, ecological research related to global change, restoration of degraded ecosystems, desertification control, ecosystem study on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, promotion of sustainable development from concept to action, and evaluation of ecosystem services and eco-compensation, etc. Based on the current development status of ecological science in China and the needs of the country, six priority areas for development of Ecology in the future were recommended.
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    Set Relationships between Tourists’ Authentic Perceptions and Authenticity of World Heritage Resources
    CHEN Xianger, CAI Jianming, YANG Zhenshan, Natasha WEBSTER
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (1): 20-31.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.01.003
    Abstract657)      PDF (2002KB)(153)      
    Tourists' authentic perceptions are crucial for the development of world heritage resources. The paper focuses on exploring the relationships between tourists' authentic perceptions and authenticity-based tourism development of world heritage. Through the empirical study on the Forbidden City in Beijing, we find that the relationships between the above two factors can be simulated by the model of set theory in algebra. As a result, five types of set relationships are proposed: "separation relation", "intersection relation", "inclusion relation Ⅰ", "inclusion relation Ⅱ" and "superposition relation". According to sample distribution rules, the set relationships can be further divided into primary set relationships and secondary set relationships. The study on set relationships based on demographic characteristic of tourists by using two-way analysis of variance method shows that the tourists in different groups of gender, ages, levels of education, visit frequencies and levels of early perspectives have different perceptions for the set relationships. The findings in this paper are helpful for identifying effects of the authenticity-based exploitation of world heritage resources and proposing future strategies for world heritage resources from tourists' authentic perspectives.
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    Spatio-temporal Patterns of Vegetation Change in Kazakhstan from 1982 to 2015
    LUO Liang, DU Wenpeng, YAN Huimin, ZHEN Lin, DONG Yu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (4): 378-384.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.04.009
    Abstract651)   HTML431)    PDF (2129KB)(199)      
    The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), as a key indicator of vegetation growth, effectively provides information regarding vegetation growth status. Based on the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS) NDVI time series data for Kazakhstan from 1982 to 2015, we analyzed the spatial pattern and changes in the vegetation growth trend. Results indicated that the three main types of vegetation in Kazakhstan are cropland, grassland and shrubland, and these are distributed from north to south. While the regional distribution pattern is obvious, the vegetation index decreased from north to south. The average NDVI values of the three main vegetation types are in the order of cropland > grassland > shrubland. During the period from 1982 to 2015, the NDVI initially increased (1982-1992), then decreased (1993-2007), and then increased again (2008-2015). The areas where NDVI decreased significantly accounted for 24.0% of the total land area. These areas with vegetation degradation are mainly distributed in the northwest junction between cropland and grassland, and in the cropland along the southern border. The proportions of total grassland, cropland and shrubland areas that were degraded are 23.5%, 48.4% and 13.7%, respectively. Areas with improved vegetation, accounting for 11.8% of the total land area, were mainly distributed in the mid-east cropland area, and the junction between cropland and grassland in the mid-east region.
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    Changes in China’s Grain Production Pattern and the Effects of Urbanization and Dietary Structure
    LU Chunxia, LIU Aimin, XIAO Yu, LIU Xiaojie, XIE Gaodi, CHENG Shengkui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 358-365.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.004
    Abstract651)   HTML13)    PDF (533KB)(131)      

    Grain production patterns are the basis of a nation’s food security. Since China’s reform and opening-up began in 1978, China’s urbanization process, driven by rapid social and economic development, has accelerated steadily. During this time, the dietary structure of urban and rural Chinese has also changed significantly. Accordingly, grain production patterns have undergone major changes. First, traditional grain production patterns in the north and the south have changed, and the food production center has shifted toward the north. In 1980, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 60% of China’s total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 40%. In 2015, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 56% of the total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 44%. Second, grain production by regions of the country is “shrinking in the east but expanding in the central regions,” meaning that grain production in eastern coastal provinces has decreased significantly, while that in the central region has expanded. The proportions of the nation’s total grain production from the eastern, central and western regions were 38%, 36% and 26%, respectively, in 1980. These had changed to 27%, 46%, and 27%, respectively, in 2015. Third, the spatial centralization of grain production has increased. The total grain yield of 13 major grain-producing provinces and regions in the country accounted for 69.27% of nation’s total in 1980, and it had reached 76.18% in 2015, showing that the impact of major grain-producing areas on national food security has increased. The influence of rapid urbanization on grain production areas shows remarkable regional differences. As the level of urbanization has increased, build-up land occupies a large number of high-quality farmland, especially in east coastal provinces and thus the grain planting area decreased obviously. The effect of dietary structure changes on grain production patterns was evident in two ways. On the one hand, as dietary diversity has increased, total grain consumption has decreased. The reduction in the proportion of planting area for grain crops to total crop planting area dropped from 82% in 1980 to 68% in 2015, making this change in total grain consumption evident. On the other hand, the ratio of grain for human consumption declined as the ratio of grain consumed by animals increased. The reduction in the proportion of rice and wheat grown and an increase in the proportion of feed grain production (mostly maize) from 20% in the 1980s to 36% in 2015 makes this change in grain production and consumption evident. In the future, with the establishment of national functional areas for grain production, the spatial pattern of grain production will return, while the demand for feed grains will continue to increase but with the space for expansion limited.

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    A National Key R&D Program: Technologies and Guidelines for Monitoring Ecological Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems in China
    WANG Shaoqiang,WANG Junbang,ZHANG Leiming,XIAO Zhishu,WANG Feng,SUN Nan,LI Daiqing,CHEN Bin,CHEN Jinghua,LI Yue,WANG Xiaobo,WANG Miaomiao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (2): 105-111.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.02.001
    Abstract645)   HTML10)    PDF (778KB)(200)      

    Ecological quality is defined as the stability, adaptability and resilience of an ecosystem. Monitoring and assessing ecological quality are important bases for China's ecological civilization construction. The national key research and development program “Technologies and guidelines for monitoring ecological quality of terrestrial ecosystems in China”, launched in July 2017, includes plans to study the observation technologies and provide guidelines on the ecological in-situ observation, the regional biodiversity and ecosystem function monitoring and its applications, all of which contribute to national ecological quality assessment. A year after its implementation, some important progress has been achieved, such as building the indicator system for comprehensive monitoring of ecological quality and improvement of the methods, mass data transmission, infrared camera-based monitoring of biodiversity, multi-angle automatic spectral observation systems, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based desert monitoring. We have organized this special issue and attempted to introduce the monitoring techniques and assessment methods on ecological quality from different perspectives in order to further promote the development of ecology and its observation methods.

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    Values and Conservation of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces System as a GIAHS Site
    ZHANG Yongxun, MIN Qingwen, JIAO Wenjun, LIU Moucheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (3): 197-204.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.03.007
    Abstract640)   HTML3)    PDF (3765KB)(175)      
    Agri-cultural Heritage Systems (AHS) have not only various values but also important enlightening roles for modern agriculture. With agro-scientific and technological progress, the traditional agriculture that has lasted for thousands of years is declining gradually, thus is attached the importance of exploring and protecting our AHS. As a traditional agricultural system for 1300 years, the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces System (HHRTS) has many significant characteristics such as beautiful landscapes, distinctive rice varieties, ecologically clean agricultural production systems, systematic methods of managing water and soil and special ethnic culture. It was designated successively as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) in 2010 and as a World Heritage (WH) in 2013. In this paper, taking HHRTS as an example, we analyzed the economic, ecological, aesthetic, cultural, and social values, as well as the research values, of the GIAHS. We conclude that the restrictions on increasing peasant earnings and improving their living standards are difficult with the low efficiency of traditional planting patterns and the single-industry structure of farming in rugged terrain. However, these restrictive factors are beneficial for developing some industries like green agriculture, organic agriculture or ecological food production because of the clean farmland environment. In the end, we propose the basic approaches to protect the Hani terraces agriculture system should include the local governments to encourage the development of ecotourism, organic agriculture and featuring agriculture by multi-mode economic compensation. It is very important for protecting terraces to coordinate benefits among corporations, governments and villagers by making reasonable policies of compensation.
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    The Progress of Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity: from Single-factor Carrying Capacity Research to Comprehensive Research
    FENG Zhiming, SUN Tong, YANG Yanzhao, YAN Huimin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (2): 125-134.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.02.002
    Abstract637)   HTML398)    PDF (438KB)(126)      
    As a concept to describe development restrictions, resources and environment carrying capacity (RECC) research has developed over more than 100 years since it was first proposed at the beginning of the 20 th century. It is now regarded as a significant factor in evaluating the level of cooperation between regional population, resources, and environment; and it is currently used as an effective and operational tool to guide regional sustainable development. This article first reviews the origin of RECC and its early headway. It then reviews the historical development of RECC from single factors, such as land resources carrying capacity, water resources carrying capacity and environmental carrying capacity (environmental capacity), to more comprehensive research, such as comprehensive evaluation, emergy analysis, and ecological footprint analysis. In general, it appears that comprehensive research will become increasingly important in RECC research. However, there are several deficiencies in the current state of comprehensive research. Firstly, comprehensive RECC research lacks a common measurement standard, though some scholars have attempted to create one. Secondly, the RECC evaluation of open systems and dynamic studies should be strengthened. Thirdly, more attention should be paid to standardization, digitalization, and systematization to promote the applicability of RECC research to national practical demands.
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    Pricing Weather Derivatives Index based on Temperature: The Case of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
    Tesfahun BERHANE,Aemiro SHIBABAW,Gurju AWGICHEW
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (4): 415-423.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.04.008
    Abstract628)   HTML1)    PDF (863KB)(107)      

    In this paper we present a stochastic model for daily average temperature to calculate the temperature indices upon which temperature-based derivatives are written. We propose a seasonal mean and volatility model that describes the daily average temperature behavior using the mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We also use higher order continuous-time autoregressive process with lag 3 for modeling the time evolution of the temperatures after removing trend and seasonality. Our model is fitted to 11 years of data recorded, in the period 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, obtained from Ethiopia National Meteorological Services Agency. The analytical approximation formulas are used to price heating degree days (HDD) and cooling degree days (CDD) futures. The suggested model is analytically tractable for derivation of explicit prices for CDD and HDD futures and option. The price of the CDD future is calculated, using analytical approximation formulas. Numerical examples are presented to indicate the accuracy of the method. The results show that our model performs better to predict CDD indices.

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