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    Functional Transformation of Rural Homesteads: A Field Survey of Poyang County, Jiangxi Province, China
    TU Xiaosong, SUN Qiurong, XU Guoliang, WU Xiaofang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 214-224.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.008
    Abstract264)   HTML9)    PDF (4668KB)(6)      

    The rural homestead is a major part of the rural land system, which is an important carrier of various rural issues such as rural decline, rural hollowing and others. Great changes have occurred in China's rural areas, while the rural homestead has also undergone transformation. Based on summarizing the multi-functional classification of homesteads from previous research, this study divided and defined the population bearing function, assets, and residential function of homesteads from the perspective of functional improvement according to the results of a survey questionnaire. Using Poyang County as the case study, this paper analyzed the functional transformation of rural homesteads through the model of coordinated transformation degree. The results demonstrated the following trends. (1) From 2000 to 2017, the transformation degrees of rural homestead functions in Poyang County have obviously improved overall. (2) The high value areas of the transformation degrees were mainly distributed in the northern hilly region and around Poyang Lake, while most of the low value areas were distributed in the plain areas near the county town. (3) In the regions with better location conditions and resource endowments, the basic conditions and trend of non-agriculturalization of the population, capital and other factors are more significant. According to the differentiation of rural homestead transformations which occurred in different regions, the government could put forward targeted development suggestions for the future.

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    Impact of Land Use Changes on Habitat Quality in Altay Region
    WANG Baixue, CHENG Weiming, LAN Shengxin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (6): 715-728.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.06.001
    Abstract232)   HTML13)    PDF (6885KB)(49)      

    Altay region is located in the northern part of Xinjiang, and has complex and diverse internal geomorphic types, undulating terrain and a fragile ecosystem. Studying the impact of land use changes on habitat quality is of great significance to regional ecological protection and development, rational planning and utilization, and ensuring the sustainable development of the ecological environment. Based on the InVEST model, combined with land use panel data and topographic relief data of the Altay region, this paper studied the habitat quality from 1995 to 2018. The results show that cultivated land, water area and construction land increased gradually from 1995 to 2018, while grassland and unused land decreased. Forestland remained stable in the first five periods, but increased significantly in 2018. During 1995-2018, all land use types were transferred, mainly between cultivated land, forestland, grassland and unused land in the flat and slightly undulating areas. Poor habitat quality was dominant during 1995-2018. Habitat quality decreased significantly in 2015, which was related to the rapid expansion of cultivated and construction land as threat sources, as well as the decrease of forest and grassland as sensitive factors. However, habitat quality improved significantly in 2018, because a large amount of cultivated land and unused land were converted into forest land and grassland with high habitat suitability. Land use type has an important influence on habitat quality. The distribution characteristics of habitat quality for topographic relief types from good to bad were: large undulating area>medium undulating area>small undulating area>flat area>slightly undulating area. The findings of this study are of great significance for coordinating social, economic, and ecological development in this region and in similar areas.

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    Evolution Characteristics of Urban Land Use Efficiency under Environmental Constraints in China
    SHI Jiaying, HE Yafen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 143-154.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.002
    Abstract189)   HTML10)    PDF (849KB)(16)      

    In the context of high-quality economic development and coordinated regional development, this paper measures the urban land use efficiency of 275 prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2016, taking into account the unexpected output (environmental pollution), and explores the temporal and spatial evolution of urban land use efficiency through kernel density estimation and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results show that: (1) From 2003 to 2016, China’s urban land use efficiency showed an overall fluctuating growth, but it remained at a low level. The mean value of urban land use efficiency has been gradually decreasing in east, west and central regions. (2) In the whole country and the eastern, central and western regions, the regional differences have been increasing, and the efficiency values of the whole country and the east have become polarized. (3) Urban land use efficiency shows a weak spatial positive correlation, but the degree of spatial agglomeration is increasing. High-high agglomeration areas are mostly distributed in the southeastern coastal areas, and extend into the central region, while most of the high-low polarized areas are the capital cities of the central and western regions. The low-high depressed areas are scattered around the high-value accumulation areas, some of which have turned into high-high agglomeration areas during the study period, while the low-low homogeneous areas are mainly distributed in the central, western and northeastern regions. Therefore, it is proposed that strengthening the utilization of urban stock land, strengthening the regional cooperation mechanism, and formulating policies which improve the efficiency of land use are effective ways to promote the intensive and economical use of urban land, as well as regional coordinated development.

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    Land Use and Ecological Civilization: A Collection of Empirical Studies
    XIE Hualin, CHEN Qianru
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 137-142.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.001
    Abstract169)   HTML16)    PDF (442KB)(20)      

    The goal of ecological civilization construction is to realize the harmonious coexistence of human and nature. Land is the spatial carrier of ecological civilization construction. Land use types or behaviors reflect the level of intensive use of land resources, leading to different ecological environmental effects, thereby affecting the level of regional ecological civilization construction. This issue, “Land Use and Ecological Civilization”, discusses the theory and method of land use management in the view of ecological civilization from the aspects of land use efficiency, land use change, land multi-functional trade-off, land ecosystem service and land ecological risk by selecting 14 representative papers, providing practical reference for the formation of the land use mode and behavioral system of ecological civilization. With abundant research levels, this issue covers varied research scales such as village, county and province, various landform types such as plain and hill, and typical land use areas at home and abroad such as East China, Central China, Northwest China, Yangtze River Economic Belt and Japan. Being frontier and practical, the multidisciplinary research methods in this issue include literature research method, fractal theory, qualitative comparative analysis, VAR model, and econometrics, among others. Focusing on the prominent problems in the process of land use, this issue deeply discusses the hot topics such as land ecological efficiency, spatial behavior characteristics, land use structure optimization and ecological risk assessment. This issue not only reviews the current literature on urgent land use issues such as arable land abandonment and land use risk, but also tries to conduct trade-off and synergy analysis on the varied functions of the rural landscape and ecosystem, thus providing a theoretical and empirical basis for solving land use problems from the perspective of ecological civilization. This issue reflects the realistic urgency of guiding land use with the concept of ecological civilization, and provides theoretical guidance and technical support from the aspects of methods and research framework. Finally, this issue proposes five hot topics in the field of land use research from the perspective of ecological civilization in the future, namely, ecological management of land use structure, ecological evolution mechanism of land use process, land ecological use mode, early warning and regulation of land ecological security pattern, ecological management and control of land use behavior.

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    Optimal Land Use Structure for Sustainable Agricultural Development—A Case Study in Changsha County, South Central China
    LI Hongqing, LI Wenqi, ZHENG Fei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 203-213.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.007
    Abstract162)   HTML8)    PDF (548KB)(11)      

    Environmental and social problems caused by overfertilization, excessive pesticides, and encroachment on farmland are increasingly serious in agricultural settings, especially in suburban agricultural areas and highly intensive agricultural areas. Hence, modern agriculture not only pursues economic benefits, but it also pays more attention to ecological functions and social stability. This paper proposes a set of methods which are designed to realize optimal agricultural benefits and sustainable development by scientifically adjusting the land use structure. Taking Changsha County in South Central China as a case study, this paper first built an index system and adopted the information entropy-TOPSIS method to assess the economic, social, and ecological benefits of agricultural land use. Next, a coupled coordination model and an obstacle model were chosen to diagnose those factors that remained as obstacles to achieving the sustainable and coordinated development of the benefits of agricultural land use. Finally, based on the analysis of the changes in the benefits and obstacles over time, socio-economic and ecological constraints were established, and the multi-objective linear programming method (MOLP) was used to determine the comprehensive benefits and optimal land use structure. The results indicate that: (1) The agricultural benefits were stably increasing from 0.20 in 1996 to 0.79 in 2016. (2) The economic benefit index is no longer the main obstacle, while the social benefit index, which includes components such as the food security index, has become the principal influencing factor. (3) The optimal land use structure and comprehensive benefits were presented by taking into consideration the economic development, environmental protection, and social needs. This study emphasizes economic development, but it also seeks coordinated development with comprehensive benefits. The results of the study could provide scientific recommendations for optimizing the agricultural land use spatial patterns and sustainable land use.

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    Research Progress and Discoveries Related to Cultivated Land Abandonment
    CHEN Qianru, XIE Hualin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 165-174.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.004
    Abstract154)   HTML2)    PDF (1538KB)(7)      

    Using bibliometric methods, this paper analyzes the total amount and keyword composition among 910 studies in the field of farmland abandonment published in the Web of Science database from 1992 to 2019. According to the usage of keywords, existing studies are reviewed from the three aspects of monitoring and mapping, driving forces and influencing factors, and effects assessment and trade-off. The results show that: (1) At present, the extraction and mapping of abandoned farmland data mainly rely on household surveys and remote sensing technology, and combing NDVI time series with spatial information can provide abandoned farmland data with high precision. (2) The driving forces and influencing factors of cultivated land abandonment have been summarized in terms of extent, sources and attributes, respectively. Cultivated land marginalization is the fundamental driving force of cultivated land abandonment, labor migration is the direct driving force, and changes in socio-economic factors are the main driving forces. (3) The environmental effects of cultivated land abandonment are spatially heterogeneous, and temporal-spatial differences, the landscape environment, climate, cultivation and topographic features will all play decisive roles in shaping the ultimate environmental effects. Studies of trade-offs between the impacts of cultivated land abandonment mainly focus on ecosystem service function and value, while the role of spatial background is often ignored. Based on a systematic review of existing literature, this paper suggests that future efforts should carry out large-scale investigations on abandoned cultivated land at the national level, conduct multi-scale research on the driving forces of land abandonment, and conduct trade-off research on the effects of land abandonment based on national conditions.

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    The Bowen Ratio of an Alpine Grassland in Three-River Headwaters, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, from 2001 to 2018
    ZHAO Xuanlan, WANG Junbang, YE Hui, MUHAMMAD Amir, WANG Shaoqiang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (3): 305-318.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.03.001
    Abstract143)   HTML14)    PDF (14203KB)(220)      

    The Bowen ratio (β) is used to quantify heat transfer from the land surface into the air, which is becoming a hot topic in research on the biogeophysical effects of land use and cover changes. The Three-River Headwaters (TRH), as a sensitive and fragile region, was selected as the study area. The β for 2001-2018 was estimated from the evapotranspiration product (ETMOD16) of MODIS and the net radiation of the land surface through the albedo from GLASS. The ETMOD16 data were evaluated against the observation data (ETOBS) at two alpine grassland flux towers obtained from ChinaFLUX. The interannual trend of the β was analyzed by multiple linear regression (MLR) and structure model (SEM) with the multiple factors of precipitation, temperature, humidity, albedo, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, MOD09Q1). The results show that the ETMOD16 values were significantly correlated with ETOBS, with a correlation coefficient above 0.70 (P < 0.01) for the two sites. In 2001-2018, the regional mean β was 2.52 ± 0.77 for the whole grassland, and its spatial distribution gradually increased from the eastern to western region. The interannual β showed a downward trend with a slope of -0.025 and a multiple regression coefficient (R 2) of 0.21 (P = 0.056). Most of the variability (51%) in the interannual β can be explained by the linear regression of the above multiple factors, and the temperature plays a dominant role for the whole region. The SEM analysis further shows that an increasing NDVI results in a decreasing albedo with a path coefficient of -0.57, because the albedo was negatively correlated with NDVI (R 2 = 0.52, P < 0.01), which indicates a negative and indirect effect on β from vegetation restoration. An obvious warming climate was found to prompt more evapotranspiration, and restoring vegetation makes the land surface receive more radiation, which both resulted in a decreasing trend in the annual β. This study revealed the biogeophysical mechanisms of vegetation restoration under a changing climate, and demonstrated the Bowen ratio can be applied as an indicator of climate-regulating functions in ecosystem assessments.

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    Research Status and Future Trends of Natural Resources and Sustainable Development in China: Visual Analysis based on CiteSpace
    ZHANG Quan, BAI Dongmei, PENG Xiaoxue
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (3): 419-429.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.03.011
    Abstract121)   HTML4)    PDF (6577KB)(21)      

    As an important foundation for promoting social progress and economic development, natural resources play an important role in the sustainable development of cities. However, the increasing demand of human beings for natural resources has led to various ecological environmental problems, such as excessive population density, serious environmental pollution, the continuous decline of total natural resources and per capita resources, all of which have hindered sustainable development. Therefore, the study of natural resources and sustainable development has become the focus of many current scholars. In this paper, CiteSpace is used as an analysis tool to analyze the literature on natural resources and sustainable development over the past 20 years. First of all, this paper deeply analyzes the research status of this field in terms of academic research trends, authors and research institutions, co-occurrence of keywords, etc., and on this basis, it then deeply analyzes its evolutionary path and research hot spots in the past 20 years through keyword emergence. Finally, according to the visualization of the analysis results, the future development trends of this research field are speculated: (1) Grasp the current research focus; (2) Improve the research accuracy; (3) Enrich the theoretical system of research; and (4) Establish an interdisciplinary research system.

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    The Significance of Traditional Culture for Agricultural Biodiversity—Experiences from GIAHS
    MA Nan, YANG Lun, MIN Qingwen, BAI Keyu, LI Wenhua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (4): 453-461.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.04.003
    Abstract118)   HTML1)    PDF (573KB)(5)      

    Agricultural biodiversity has a high importance in social-cultural, economic, and environmental aspects, and can help in adapting to and withstanding climate change. Conserving the GIAHS sites and the important components within them can help conserve the agricultural biodiversity and traditional agricultural culture of the whole country. This study considered Ifugao Rice Terraces, Dong’s Rice-Fish-Duck System, and Hani Rice Terraces System as three examples which show that traditional culture can be used to protect agricultural biodiversity, while as a carrier of traditional culture, agricultural biodiversity also conveys and protects the traditional culture of the nation. According to the analyses, through several years of efforts, the status of agricultural biodiversity and traditional culture in them has improved. Then, to further promote agricultural biodiversity conservation and traditional culture protection, several suggestions are made, such as establishing community seed banks; documenting and preserving traditional farming methods, techniques, and tools and developing participatory activities which encourage more farmers to participate in the protection work.

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    Analysis of the Spatio-temporal Changes in Acid Rain and Their Causes in China (1998-2018)
    CHEN Xuan, SHAN Xiaoran, SHI Zhaoji, ZHANG Jiaen, QIN Zhong, XIANG Huimin, WEI Hui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (5): 593-599.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.05.002
    Abstract109)   HTML1)    PDF (992KB)(1)      

    With the rapid development of the economy, acid rain has become one of the major environmental problems that endanger human health. Being the largest developing country, the environmental problems caused by acid rain are of increasing concern with the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. Recently, many researchers have focused on acid rain. To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of acid rain in China, the monitoring data on acid rain from 1998 to 2018 were studied using ArcGIS 10.2. The results show that the proportion of acid rain cities, the frequency, and the area of acid rain were decreasing, however, the situation still remains serious. Overall, the chemical type of acid rain was mainly sulfuric acid rain. However, the concentration ratio of SO4 2-/NO3 - decreased by 81.90% in 2018 compared with 1998, and presented a decreasing trend, which indicates that the contribution of nitrate to precipitation acidity has been increasing year by year. This research will help us to understand the distribution characteristics and causes of acid rain in China, and it may provide an effective reference for the prevention and control of acid rain in China.

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    Spatiotemporal Differentiation and the Factors Influencing Eco-efficiency in China
    LI Qiuying, LIANG Longwu, WANG Zhenbo
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 155-164.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.003
    Abstract103)   HTML14)    PDF (677KB)(11)      

    Economic development, resource utilization, and environmental protection have always presented clear dilemmas for many countries at the national level. It is clear that the related concepts of eco-efficiency and the evaluation index can help in evaluating these associated issues. Thus, based on the use of undesirable output super Slacks-Based Measure models, this study evaluated the eco-efficiency of 30 Chinese provinces during the period between 2005 and 2016. This evaluation was conducted by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics and key factors influencing these changes using a panel regression model. The results of this analysis reveal that eco-efficiency gradually increased over the course of the study period, peaking at different levels among the regions. We used the conventional CV evolutionary method to show that inequalities in eco-efficiency gradually decreased at the national level. Indeed, our estimations of the factors affecting this variable suggest that industrial structure, degree of openness, urbanization, technical innovation, and environmental governance all exert significant positive influences, while energy consumption and traffic exert negative effects. The extent of the impacts of these factors on eco-efficiency varied between the different regions.

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    Ten Years of GIAHS Development in Japan
    NAGATA Akira, YIU Evonne
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (4): 567-577.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.04.014
    Abstract97)      PDF (504KB)(7)      

    Approximately ten years have passed since Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) was introduced to Japan in 2011, with 11 GIAHS sites designated so far. The Japan Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (J-NIAHS), which considers resilience, multi-stakeholder participation and sixth industrialization, was subsequently established in 2016, and has designated 15 J-NIAHS sites. GIAHS sites can be classified into three major types: Landscape, farming method, and genetic resource conservation types, and most Japanese GIAHS sites are of the landscape type. Since there is almost no national subsidy for GIAHS or J-NIAHS, designated sites are expected to secure funding for conservation from their own efforts. For this reason, a voluntary network of the Japanese GIAHS sites has been active in promoting cooperation on GIAHS conservation. The priorities of the Japanese GIAHS have focused on raising public awareness about GIAHS and J-NIAHS, improving livelihoods, as well as fostering the international exchange of experience and knowledge regarding Agricultural Heritage Systems, especially among Japan, China and Korea.

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    Damage or Recovery? Assessing Ecological Land Change and Its Driving Factors: A Case of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, China
    ZHOU Ting, QI Jialing, XU Zhihan, ZHOU De
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 175-191.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.005
    Abstract92)   HTML15)    PDF (12298KB)(19)      

    Ecological land can provide people with ecological products and ecological services; and it plays an important role in maintaining the health and safety of the ecosystem. With China’s rapid urbanization development, ecological land has been invaded in large quantities, and damaged seriously, even resulting in loses of its ecological function. Based on land use data from 1995 to 2015, our study explores the spatial and temporal evolution of the damage or recovery of ecological land in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB). Two spatial models, geographic detector and geographic weighted regression (GWR), were employed to assess the global effects and the local effects of the driving factors for ecological land change, respectively. Our study divided the ecological land change into five types based on the degree of change as severe damage, slight damage, unchanged, slight recovery, and obvious recovery. The results show that from 1995 to 2015, the total area of ecological land in the YREB increased initially and then decreased, but the overall trend was decreasing. The total damaged area was larger than the recovered area. Arable land and woodland both showed downward trends. In terms of ecological land change over the past 20 years, the type of unchanged had the largest area, followed by slight damage and slight recovery. Our study further revealed that ecological land change was the net result of the interaction of many factors, and the explanatory power between any two driving factors was greater than that of any individual driving factor. In addition, driving factors have different impacts on ecological land change in different geographical locations. This knowledge should help land managers and policymakers to be better informed when developing pertinent land use policies at the regional and local levels. The lessons can also be extended to other regions for better management of their ecological land for sustainable use.

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    Effect of Japanese knotweed ( Fallopia japonica) Mulching on Continuous Potato Cropping: Modern Evaluation of Traditional Japanese Knotweed-mulch Farming in Nishi-Awa Steep Slope Land Agriculture System, Japan
    INAGAKI Hidehiro, UNNO Nahoko, SAKAKIBARA Takumi, KUBOTA Sakiko, HASEGAWA Kana
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 254-259.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.011
    Abstract90)   HTML6)    PDF (355KB)(12)      

    Poaceae species such as silver grass or reed are commonly used in traditional mulch farming in Japan, where the Nishi-Awa area is a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) site. Farmers here have traditionally used silver grass for mulch farming; furthermore, local farmers have learned from long-standing experience that Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica, Polygonaceae) is better for cultivation of solanaceous crops in this area. However, it is unclear why Japanese knotweed mulching is beneficial for cultivation of solanaceous crops. Thus, in this study, we hypothesized that Japanese knotweed mulching may be effective in avoiding hazards associated with continuous potato cropping, as native potato used to be cultivated twice a year in the past. Therefore, we investigated the effects of Japanese knotweed mulching on continuous potato cropping and after tomato cropping, which is another solanaceous crop species. Field experiments were conducted in 2018. First, we compared Japanese knotweed mulching, silver grass mulching and no grass mulching (control) in a soil under continuous potato cultivation and in an uncultivated soil. As a result, the extent of the potato yield decrease was reduced by Japanese knotweed mulching. Secondly, we compared Japanese knotweed-mulching and no grass mulching in a soil after a tomato crop and in an uncultivated soil. The extent of decrease in potato growth and yield was also reduced by Japanese knotweed mulching. These findings indicate that mulching with Japanese knotweed helped to avoid the risks associated with continuous potato cropping.

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    Predictability of Functional Diversity Depends on the Number of Traits
    ZHANG Zihao, HOU Jihua, HE Nianpeng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (3): 332-345.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.03.003
    Abstract84)   HTML2)    PDF (7633KB)(16)      

    Analysis of functional diversity, based on plant traits and community structure, provides a promising approach for exploration of the adaptive strategies of plants and the relationship between plant traits and ecosystem functioning. However, it is unclear how the number of plant traits included influences functional diversity, and whether or not there are quantitatively dependent traits. This information is fundamental to the correct use of functional diversity metrics. Here, we measured 34 traits of 366 plant species in nine forests from the tropical to boreal zones in China. These traits were used to calculate seven functional diversity metrics: functional richness (functional attribute diversity (FAD), modified FAD (MFAD), convex hull hypervolume (FRic)), functional evenness (FEve), and functional divergence (functional divergence (FDiv), functional dispersion (FDis), quadratic entropy (RaoQ)). Functional richness metrics increased with an increase in trait number, whereas the relationships between the trait divergence indexes (FDiv and FDis) and trait number were inconsistent. Four of the seven functional diversity indexes (FAD, MFAD, FRic, and RaoQ) were comparable with those in previous studies, showing predictable trends with a change in trait number. We verified our hypothesis that the number of traits strongly influences functional diversity. The relationships between these predictable functional diversity metrics and the number of traits facilitated the development of a standard protocol to enhance comparability across different studies. These findings can support integration of functional diversity index data from different studies at the site to the regional scale, and they focus attention on the influence of quantitative selection of traits on functional diversity analysis.

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    Agri-cultural Heritage: An Interdisciplinary Field with Development Prospects
    MIN Qingwen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (4): 437-443.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.04.001
    Abstract82)   HTML6)    PDF (405KB)(17)      

    Traditional agricultural heritage research has a very long history. Programme on “The conservation and adaptive management of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)” initiative launched by FAO in 2002, aimed at not only preserving agricultural heritage system, but also applying the principle of dynamic conservation to promote rural development to benefit local community, to assure food security and maintaining the ecosystem. Since then, many more scientists have been enrolled in the new field focusing on the function and value, application and management, conservation and development and other aspects of these traditional agricultural systems which facilitate an emerging cross-discipline. In this paper, based on the concepts and characteristics of GIAHS and China Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (China-NIAHS), the author specifies that Agri-cultural Heritage is a compound heritage that integrates the characteristics of natural, cultural and intangible cultural heritage, and a typical social-economic-natural complex ecosystem composed of economic, biological, technological, cultural and landscape components. For their conservation and development, the joint efforts of scientists from economics, ecology, geography, history, management sciences, culturology, ethnology, sociology and other subjects are needed. Based on progresses studies and perspectives of the field, the author felt that although a good start of the research on Agri-cultural Heritage has been made, there is still much room for development which show a steady growth trend and suggested 32 priority areas in research; a new subject of Agroheritology could emerge in the near future.

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    Spatial Behavior Characteristics of Land Use based on Fractal Theory: Taking Poyang Lake Area as an Example
    HE Yafen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 192-202.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.006
    Abstract79)   HTML2)    PDF (1186KB)(8)      

    Landscape morphology can reflect the spatial behavior of land use. Using the Poyang Lake area as an example, the landscape pattern characteristics in 1995, 2000, 2015, and 2018 are determined by calculating the fractal dimension, fractal stability, patch density, patch shape fragmentation, and landscape isolation, and fractal theory is used to analyze the spatial behavior of land use. The results show that building land was the land use type which consistently had the highest fractal dimension, but the fractal dimension of building land shows a downward trend, indicating that the spatial form of building land gradually developed in an orderly direction under the action of land use spatial behavior. Paddy, dryland, and forested land were the land use types which always had the lowest fractal dimension, and they are in unstable states. The calculation results of patch density, patch shape fragmentation index, and landscape isolation index supported the conclusions of the fractal analysis. One recommendation for realizing the rational layout of the land is to reduce the fractal dimension of building land through scientific and reasonable planning and to guide the orderly development of building land. For natural landscapes such as forested land, shrub forest land, high-coverage grassland, and water area, their fractal dimensions should be increased to reduce human interference and maintain their stability. Finally, the results of this study suggest that the fractal dimension should be introduced into the National Spatial Planning, and used as an index for evaluating the rationality of the regional land use pattern.

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    Research Methodology for Tourism Destination Resilience and Analysis of Its Spatiotemporal Dynamics in the Post-epidemic Period
    FENG Ling, GUO Jiaxin, LIU Yi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (5): 682-692.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.05.011
    Abstract67)   HTML4)    PDF (768KB)(5)      

    As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread, the global tourism industry is facing enormous challenges. There is an urgent need to explore an effective path for tourism to recover and revitalize. With the normalization of the epidemic, tourism destinations will pay more attention to the prevention, warning, and coping strategies of the epidemic, and this focus will also be evident in the study of tourism destination resilience in the post-epidemic period. Some studies on the epidemic and the resilience of tourism are currently underway, but few of them are integrated with research on the resilience of tourism destinations in the post-epidemic period, although no systematic research ideas or methods have been found. Based on resilience theory, this paper summarizes the general research ideas and develops an epidemic resilience model suitable for urban tourism destinations. The present study also proposes a set of research methods based on the index system to analyze the resilience and its spatiotemporal dynamic characteristics of tourism destinations in the post-epidemic period. The methodology can be divided into three stages: Firstly, construct the conceptual model and evaluation system for tourism destination resilience; Secondly, select case sites for empirical analysis, measure the resilience of tourism destinations, and analyze the characteristics of spatiotemporal differences and subsequent factors of influence; And finally, establish an adaptive management mechanism for tourism destinations to use in response to the epidemic and in guiding the formulation of post-epidemic recovery policies.

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    Spatiotemporal Pattern and Driving Force Analysis of Vegetation Variation in Altay Prefecture based on Google Earth Engine
    HE Yuchuan, XIONG Junnan, CHENG Weiming, YE Chongchong, HE Wen, YONG Zhiwei, TIAN Jie
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (6): 729-742.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.06.002
    Abstract66)   HTML3)    PDF (12858KB)(11)      

    Quantitative evaluation and driving mechanism analysis of vegetation dynamics are essential for promoting regional sustainable development. In the past 20 years, the ecological environment in Altay Prefecture has changed significantly due to global warming. Meanwhile, with increasing human activities, the spatiotemporal pattern and driving forces of vegetation variation in the area are uncertain and difficult to accurately assess. Hence, we quantified the vegetation growth by using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) on the Google Earth Engine (GEE). Then, the spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation from 2000 to 2019 were analyzed at the pixel scale. Finally, significance threshold segmentation was performed using meteorological data based on the correlation analysis results, and the contributions of climate change and human activities to vegetation variation were quantified. The results demonstrated that the vegetation coverage in Altay Prefecture is mainly concentrated in the north. The vegetation areas representing significant restoration and degradation from 2000 to 2019 accounted for 24.08% and 1.24% of Altay Prefecture, respectively. Moreover, spatial correlation analysis showed that the areas with significant correlations between NDVI and temperature, precipitation and sunlight hours accounted for 3.3%, 6.9% and 20.3% of Altay Prefecture, respectively. In the significant restoration area, 18.94% was dominated by multiple factors, while 3.4% was dominated by human activities, and 1.74% was dominated by climate change. Within the significant degradation area, abnormal degradation and climate change controlled 1.07% and 0.17%, respectively. This study revealed the dynamic changes of vegetation and their driving mechanisms in Altay Prefecture, and can provide scientific support for further research on life community mechanism theory and key remediation technology of mountain-water-forest-farmland-lake-grass in Altay Prefecture.

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    Spatiotemporal Variation of Cultivated Land Security and Its Drivers: The Case of Yingtan City, China
    KUANG Lihua, YE Yingcong, GUO Xi, XIE Wen, ZHAO Xiaomin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 280-291.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.014
    Abstract66)   HTML2)    PDF (1392KB)(5)      

    Maintaining an adequate security level of cultivated land is essential for the healthy and sustainable survival of China’s large and growing population. We constructed a cultivated land security evaluation index system, combined with an improved TOPSIS method by taking into account the balance and stability of quantitative, qualitative, and ecological security. We applied this improved method to an evaluation of the state of cultivated land security and analyzed its spatiotemporal variation in Yingtan City (Jiangxi Province, China) from 1995 to 2015. The drivers of the changes in cultivated land security were investigated via a spatial regression model, which can eliminate the effect of spatial autocorrelation. The results showed that cultivated land security decreased rapidly from 1995 to 2005, although it tended to rise slowly in the subsequent period from 2005 to 2015. Areas deemed to be in a highly dangerous state were mainly distributed in the Yuehu District, while those that were secure appeared primarily in the southern mountainous area, with the area in a generally dangerous state extending to the west in the same direction as urban development. Among the examined drivers, social-economic factors and policy factors significantly influenced the cultivated land security. Our work suggests that government managers should take appropriate measures to improve cultivated land security according to its spatiotemporal variations and the underpinning drivers in this region.

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    Spatio-temporal Pattern of Multifunction Tradeoffs and Synergies of the Rural Landscape: Evidence from Qingpu District in Shanghai
    REN Guoping, LIU Liming, LI Hongqing, YIN Gang, ZHAO Xu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 225-240.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.009
    Abstract65)   HTML2)    PDF (540KB)(3)      

    The configuration of a multifunctional rural landscape is critical for its protection. Although studies on multifunctional rural landscapes have been conducted, there is a lack of information regarding the spatiotemporal characteristics and tradeoff/synergy relationships of rural landscape functions in the time series on the administrative unit scale. The purposes of this study were to (1) analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of the tradeoff and synergy from the perspective of multifunctionality for efficient use of rural landscape resources and (2) formulate regional sustainable development policies to minimize the conflict between people and nature. Aiming at the scientific representation of landscape function and the quantification of landscape multifunctional relationships, and by taking Qingpu District of Shanghai as an example, six kinds of rural landscape functions were constructed according to the functional framework of “productive function, living function and ecological function”. Based on the data for 1980 to 2018, the characteristics of variations of multifunctional tradeoff and synergy relationships of the rural landscape in 184 administrative villages were studied by the methods of Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis and bivariate spatial autocorrelation. The following results were obtained. 1) The fine division of rural landscape function types was realistic and necessary for analyzing the regional multi-function relationships in the regions with rapid development. In the process of rapid urbanization, the rural landscape functions of urban suburban areas changed under the combined action of natural resource endowment, social and economic conditions and other internal and external factors. As a result, the agricultural production function could not replace the economic development function and become the function of rural landscape production. The research results of Qingpu District showed that the agricultural production function was no longer the primary functional form, yet the economic development function became the dominant function in this area. 2) Temporal and spatial analysis methods of rural landscape functions can accurately and comprehensively reflect the evolution of the characteristics of multifunction tradeoffs and synergies. According to the Spearman rank correlation analysis of the multifunction value of the rural landscape in the time dimension, the results masked the differences of resource and environment carrying capacity caused by the differences of regional landscape resource endowment in the spatial dimension. 3) The spatial and temporal differences of the multi-functional tradeoffs and synergies of the rural landscape in Qingpu District from 1980 to 2018 were significant. There was significant heterogeneity of tradeoffs and synergies between functions in the spatial pattern, with clustering characteristics. Meanwhile, as for the temporal pattern, the tradeoffs and synergies of functions changed differently in terms of Moran's I and the correlation coefficient. The results of this study can provide scientific references for urban-suburban-rural space reconstruction and regional sustainable development.

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    Research Progress on Ecological Risk Assessment based on Multifunctional Landscape
    LIN Dayi, LIU Fangyu, ZHANG Jiping, HAO Haiguang, ZHANG Qiang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 260-267.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.012
    Abstract61)   HTML2)    PDF (438KB)(9)      

    The unreasonable utilization and trade-offs of the multifunctional landscape is one of the important causes leading to ecological risk. Quantifying the relationship, heterogeneous process and driving mechanism between landscape function and human well-being can provide a scientific basis for achieving a win-win situation of regional development and ecological protection, and it is also an important issue for relevant scientific research. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding landscape function and ecological risk, identified the feedback mechanisms among landscape change, landscape function, human well-being and ecological risk, constructed the ecological risk assessment framework based on landscape functions, and sorted out the key scientific issues and research trends. The interconnections between the multifunctional landscape, human well-being, and ecological risk comprise an important scientific issue in ecological risk assessment. However, there is a lack of understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of landscape function trade-offs, and there is also a lack of systematic and standardized methods for the identification and comprehensive evaluation of landscape functions. Exploring ecological risk management and the methodologies that integrate the two processes of nature and humanity is an inevitable trend for future research. Coupling landscape structure, function and process into ecological risk assessment, as well as focusing on the combination of human well-being, landscape function trade-off and ecological risk control policy design are important issues to be studied.

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    Spatio-temporal Differentiation of Trade-offs and Synergies of Ecosystem Services in Typical Mountain Areas of China
    FENG Yanyun, ZHAO Yuluan, YANG Zhimou, XUE Chaolang, LIU Yan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 268-279.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.02.013
    Abstract61)   HTML0)    PDF (17333KB)(5)      

    Mountain area accounts for a high proportion of the land area in China, and it is the focal area to solve the contradiction of imbalanced regional development, as well as an important source of ecosystem services. Therefore, this area has been facing long-term pressure and challenges in economic development and ecological protection. In this paper, we selected a rocky desertification mountain area, an active mountain area of new tectonic movement and a typical northern earth-rock mountain area, as Qian-Gui karst Mountain area, Hengduan Mountain area and Taihang Mountain area, as examples to represent three main types of mountain areas. Three representative types of ecosystem services, including NPP (Net Primary Productivity) as a support service, water conservation as a regulation service, and agricultural produce as a supply service, were incorporated into this study. Linear regression, correlation analysis and other methods were then used to investigate the spatial-temporal characteristics of the trade-offs and synergies in each of the three kinds of mountain areas during 1990-2015 in China. The analysis yielded three main conclusions for the three mountainous areas. (1) The agricultural produce supply service decreased relatively, while the support and regulation services of NPP and hydrological regulation increased significantly. (2) There was a synergistic relationship between NPP and the hydrological regulation services in the three mountainous areas. The synergistic relation in Qian-Gui karst Mountain area became enhanced, while those in Hengduan and Taihang Mountain areas became weakened, and the former was weakened to a greater extent. There was a trade-off between NPP, the hydrological regulation service and the agricultural produce supply service among the three mountainous areas. In particular, the trade-off between NPP and the agricultural produce supply service in Qian-Gui karst Mountain area became weaker, while those in Hengduan and Taihang Mountain areas were enhanced, and the latter was enhanced to a greater degree. (3) Significant spatial differentiation was evident in the trade-offs and synergies of ecosystem services among the three mountain areas.

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    Carbon Emission Evaluation in Jinan Western New District based on Multi-source Data Fusion
    XIAO Huabin, HE Xinyu, KUANG Yuanlin, WU Binglu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (3): 346-357.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.03.004
    Abstract61)   HTML8)    PDF (17657KB)(6)      

    Carbon emissions caused by human activities are closely related to the process of urbanization, and urban land utilization, function vitality and traffic systems are three important factors that may influence the emission levels. For clarifying the space structure of a low-carbon eco-city, and combining the concept of “Combining Assessment with Construction” to track and contrast the construction of the low-carbon eco-city, this research selects quantifiable low-carbon eco-city spatial characteristics as indicators, and evaluates and analyzes the potential carbon emissions. Taking the Jinan Western New District as an example, diversity of construction land, travel carbon emission potential, and density and accessibility of adjacent road networks in the overall urban planning were measured. After the completion of the new urban area, the evaluation mainly reflected certain factors, such as the mixed degree of urban functions, the density of urban functions, the walking distance to bus stops and the density and number of bus stops. Dividing the levels and adding equal weights after index normalization, the carbon emission potential is evaluated at the two levels of the overall and fragmented areas. The results show that: (1) The low-carbon emission potential areas in the planning scheme basically reached the planned goals. (2) There is inconsistency between districts and indicators in the planning scheme. The diversity of construction land and the accessibility of the adjacent road network are relatively small; however, there is a large difference between the travel carbon emission potential and the road network accessibility. (3) Carbon emission potential after completion did not reach the planned expectation, and the low-carbon emission potential plots were concentrated in the Changqing Old City Area and Central Area of Dangjia Town Area. (4) The carbon emission indicators varied greatly in different areas, and there were serious imbalances in the density of public transportation lines and the mixed degree of urban functions.

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    Elements and Element Components of the Rural Landscape in Linpan of Western Sichuan in Relation to Perception, Preference and Stress Recovery
    LUO Hao, DENG Li, JIANG Songlin, FU Erkang, MA Jun, SUN Lingxia, JIANG Mingyan, CAI Shizhen, JIA Yin, CAI Jun, LI Xi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (3): 384-396.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.03.008
    Abstract60)   HTML3)    PDF (4870KB)(4)      

    Natural environments contribute to people’s perception, preference and health restoration. Many researchers have focused either on the positive effects of overall rural environments on stress recovery or concentrated on the perception and preference aspects of the rural landscape, but few have integrated perception, preference and stress recovery simultaneously. This paper developed a framework which includes 11 elements and 38 element components related to Linpan, China, and distributed it online as part of a survey. As a result, a total of 324 valid questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire included demographic details, perception and preference degree for Linpan, as well as self-estimations of stress recovery. Stepwise multiple linear regression was employed, and revealed 16 significant predictors for the perception, preference and stress recovery in rural environments. In terms of elements, atmosphere and imagery were the two elements that could be best perceived, while woodland, farmland, water, residence and road were the five most important elements for the preference. Moreover, seven elements were also identified as significant predictors for stress recovery. Among the element components, tranquility as well as road and water proximity were the two significant predictors for perception, while wide visibility as well as woodland and residence blending contributed significantly to stress recovery. The five element components of woodland interior, vegetable field, stream, courtyard space and branch road each had a significantly predictive ability for preference and stress recovery. These findings extend the understanding of the perception, preference and restorative properties of rural environments through the combination of elements and element components in Linpan of Western Sichuan, helping to improve the quality and characteristics of rural external and internal environments and create health-promoting environments.

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    The Evaluation of Food and Livelihood Security in a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) Site
    YANG Lun, YANG Jianhui, JIAO Wenjun, LIU Moucheng, LI Wenhua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (4): 480-488.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.04.006
    Abstract60)   HTML2)    PDF (562KB)(13)      

    Based on the basic selection criteria of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) and food and livelihood security research trends, this paper established an evaluation framework and indicator system for food and livelihood security in GIAHS and selected the first GIAHS site in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as a case for empirical evaluation. The results demonstrate that the food and livelihood security of farmers at this site was at a medium level, with an average evaluation value of 2.91, which still lagged behind the level of better food and livelihood security. Specifically, the average values of farmers’ evaluation of food security and livelihood security were 1.43 and 1.48, respectively, which show that farmers’ food security in the study area was at a medium level and that of livelihood security was relatively good. Simultaneously, the more simple a farmers’ economic activities (i.e., agriculture-oriented economic activities or non-agriculture-oriented economic activities), the worse their food and livelihood security; while the more diversified the economic activities (i.e., engaged in part-time economic activities), the better the food and livelihood security.

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    Does the Environmental Supervision System Improve Air Quality in China? An Empirical Study using the Difference-in-Differences Model
    CAO Zhiying, WANG Liangjian, WU Jiahao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (5): 581-592.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.05.001
    Abstract60)   HTML3)    PDF (1681KB)(10)      

    To effectively solve the problem of environmental pollution, the Chinese government has implemented an environmental supervision system since 2002. The environmental supervision system mainly uses the four functions of supervision, investigation, coordination, and emergency response to strengthen environmental protection supervision and law enforcement, respond to environmental emergencies, and coordinate cross-regional pollution disputes. As an important system design for China to control environmental pollution and promote the ecological transformation of economic development, the policy effect of the environmental supervision system deserves attention. This paper uses the difference-in-differences method to investigate the impact of the top-down environmental supervision system on air quality based on the 2000-2016 data for 285 prefecture-level cities in China. The results indicate that the annual average concentration of PM2.5 decreased significantly after the implementation of the environmental supervision system. The dynamic analysis shows that PM2.5 decreased most markedly in the first year after the implementation of the policy, and then the effect gradually weakened. Mechanism analysis suggests that the environmental supervision system can break the collusion between government and enterprise, encourage enterprises to carry out technological innovation, change pollutant discharge behavior and push local governments to adjust the industrial structure, enhance environmental protection awareness to reduce the PM2.5 concentration, and improve air quality. Comparing different regions, the PM2.5 in East China, North China and Northeast China are relatively high, and the pressure for air pollution control is great. Meanwhile, we find that the environmental supervision system has a significant station effect. Compared with other cities, the cities where the environmental supervision centers are located are more deterred by the environmental supervision, and their air quality has improved to a significantly greater degree. In the future, we should further strengthen the environmental supervision of high-pollution areas and non-station cities, and pay more attention to improving the long-term effect of the environmental supervision system.

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    Impact of Agricultural Labor Transfer on Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution: A Case Study of Jiangxi, China
    ZHANG Peiwen, LU Hua, CHEN Yijing, SHU Cheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (3): 358-366.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.03.005
    Abstract59)   HTML1)    PDF (538KB)(5)      

    A large proportion of the rural labor force in China will continue to transfer to non-agricultural sectors in the near future, which will inevitably lead to the transformation of the agricultural production mode and the structure of the farmers’ livelihood. The Chinese government is making great efforts to govern agricultural nonpoint source pollution (ANSP), and farmers' environmental behavior is a key factor that must be considered in the formulation of agricultural environmental policies. Based on a set of micro survey data on farmers in the study area and econometric methods, this study investigates the impact of agricultural labor transfer on ANSP by considering the substitution effect of agricultural factors and the effect of agricultural economies of scale. The results show that the increase of the agricultural labor force will not be conducive to reducing ANSP, while the income increase brought by agricultural labor transfer will improve the input structure of agricultural factors and have a positive impact on ANSP reduction. Government departments should provide subsidies or incentive measures to help agricultural social service organizations to expand their coverage and increase the frequency of socialized agricultural services, in order to guide farmers in the use of environment-friendly agricultural technology to reduce the ANSP caused by agricultural factors at the source. Furthermore, it is necessary to facilitate the development of small-sized agricultural machinery suitable for small-area land cultivation.

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    Effects of Grazing on the Grassland Vegetation Community Characteristics in Inner Mongolia
    GUO Caiyun, ZHAO Dongsheng, ZHENG Du, ZHU Yu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (3): 319-331.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.03.002
    Abstract58)   HTML1)    PDF (3626KB)(12)      

    The continuous increase of livestock production in Inner Mongolia has caused severe degradation of the grassland ecosystems in recent years. Previous grazing experiments have shown a wide range of vegetation responses between the biome types on a global scale, but there is still a lack of sufficient studies to discern the relative responses of a given biome type. We conducted a meta-analysis of vegetation coverage (VC), plant density (PD), total biomass (TB), above-ground biomass (AGB), under-ground biomass (UGB) and Shannon-Weaver Index (SI) in different grassland types in Inner Mongolia obtained under conditions of different grazing intensities and durations. The results showed that grazing decreased VC, TB, AGB, UGB, and PD significantly. Compared to the global and national average values, the negative effects of grazing to steppe biomass in Inner Mongolia were higher than that on the global scale, while less pronounced than that in China. TB of the meadow steppe in Inner Mongolia increased by 40% under moderate grazing intensity and duration because of compensatory growth. SI of the desert and meadow steppe showed negative linear relationships with the grazing intensity in Inner Mongolia. The percentage changes in AGB, PD, and SI to grazing showed quadratic relationships with the mean annual temperature of the experimental year. With increasing mean annual precipitation, the negative effects of grazing on UGB and SI first decreased and then increased, with that of VC and grazing showing a cubic relationship.

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    Institute of Ecological Civilization of Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (2): 303-303.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-013-0000-0
    Abstract58)   HTML0)    PDF (681KB)(12)      
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