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    A Review of the Contemporary Eco-Agricultural Technologies in China
    YANG Lun, LIU Moucheng, YANG Xiao, MIN Qingwen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 511-517.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.015
    Abstract348)   HTML33)    PDF (338KB)(170)      

    Eco-agriculture is the principal measure for addressing the environmental issues caused by agriculture and an essential direction for agriculture in the future. Meanwhile, the development of eco-agriculture is inseparable from its technical support. At present, the eco-agricultural technologies commonly used in China can be divided into three categories according to their theoretical basis and practical types: the technologies used to realize the precision input of material resources, the technologies used to improve material circulation efficiency, and the technologies that use the principle of species symbiosis. Although these technologies provide essential support for developing eco-agriculture in China, there are also problems associated with their implementation, such as poor technical application and a low level of industrialization. Therefore, in the future development of eco-agriculture technology in China, the technologies producers should take the actual problems as guide and pay attention to the popularization, industrialization, and application of the technologies.

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    Research on the Integrated Planning of Blue-Green Space towards Urban-Rural Resilience: Conceptual Framework and Practicable Approach
    YU Qiao, DU Mengjiao, LI Haochen, TANG Xizi, LI Xiaoyan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 347-359.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.001
    Abstract323)   HTML31)    PDF (11768KB)(318)      

    Facing the impacts of climate change and the ecological environmental problems caused by urbanization, urban-rural resilience is a new value goal of territorial space development. Blue-green space is an interconnected network system of natural and artificial green space and water bodies, which can dissolve the internal and external pressures of the system by way of mitigatory acceptance and adaptive interaction, reduce the impact of climate change and artificial construction disturbances, and provide diversified composite functions. By recognizing the connotation of the concept of blue-green space, its composite ecological functionality and its relationship with the value of urban-rural resilience, this paper constructs a conceptual framework for the integrated planning of blue-green space in urban and rural areas with “resilient objectives, resource identification, integrated configuration, differentiated regulation”. The paper proposes an integrated and coordinated multi-scale practicable approach of blue-green space planning (i.e., the construction of the blue-green corridor network, the configuration of blue-green open space, the allocation of blue-green infrastructure) and the regulation-based urban-rural transect, with the aim of improving the hydroecological performance and composite functional services in order to realize urban and rural resilience.

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    Life Cycle Assessment of Biodegradable Polylactic Acid (PLA) Plastic Packaging Products—Taking Tianjin, China as a Case Study
    ZHAO Menglei, YANG Zeng, ZHAO Jingnan, WANG Yan, MA Xiaolei, GUO Jian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 428-441.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.008
    Abstract312)   HTML28)    PDF (747KB)(245)      

    In this paper, the life cycle assessment (LCA) method is used to evaluate and quantify the energy consumption and environmental impacts of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) plastic packaging from the five stages of raw material acquisition, raw material transportation, product production, products use and final disposal. Seven impact categories were selected for the impact analysis: abiotic depletion potential fossil fuels (ADP), global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), photochemical ozone formation potential (POCP), human toxicity potential (HTP), and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential (TETP). The results of the LCA are discussed and the results show that production of products is the highest stage of the environmental impact. Meanwhile, in the entire life cycle, the top three environmental impact categories are GWP, ADP and HTP, which account for 32.63%, 24.83% and 14.01%, respectively. The LCA results show that the environmental impact can be reduced in several ways: reducing the consumption of electricity, increasing the input of new energy, increasing the conversion rate of materials in the production process, using organic and water-soluble fertilizers instead of conventional fertilizers, using environment-friendly fuels and establishing a sound recycling system.

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    Advances in Root System Architecture: Functionality, Plasticity, and Research Methods
    ZHANG Zhiyong, FAN Baomin, SONG Chao, ZHANG Xiaoxian, ZHAO Qingwen, YE Bing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 15-24.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.002
    Abstract225)   HTML11)    PDF (1555KB)(114)      

    Root system architecture (RSA) refers to the spatial distribution and extended morphology of plant root systems in soil. RSA not only determines the ability of plants to obtain water and nutrients but also affects other ecological functions. Hence, it plays a dominant role in the overall health of plants. The study of RSA can provide insight into plant absorption of water and fertilizers, the relationship between above- and belowground plant parts, and the physiological health and ecological functions of plants. Therefore, this paper summarizes research on the morphology, functionality, plasticity and research methods of RSA. We first review the basic structure, physiology, and ecological functions of root systems. Then the soil factors that shape RSA—including soil moisture, nutrients, temperature, aeration, and others—are summarized. After that, research methods for studying RSA are described in detail, including harvesting, two-dimensional morphological observation, and three-dimensional image reconstruction. Finally, future research developments and innovations are discussed to provide a theoretical basis for further investigations in this field.

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    High-quality Development Paths of Ice-snow Tourism in China from the Perspective of the Winter Olympics
    TANG Chengcai, ZENG Rui, YANG Yuanyuan, XU Shiyi, WANG Xin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 552-563.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.002
    Abstract223)   HTML112)    PDF (785KB)(342)      

    Preparations for the Beijing Winter Olympics have promoted the rapid development of ice-snow tourism in China, which contributes to achieving the goal of having “300 million people participate in ice-snow sports”. This paper analyzes the status quo and problems associated with the growth of ice-snow tourism in China based on the methods of documentation and field investigation. The results indicate that China’s efforts have born abundant fruits. Notwithstanding, there are still some problems due to the limited time and hastened process of ice-snow tourism development, including unreasonable exploitation, low-quality products and services, imperfect investment and financing system, inadequate management, a single marketing mode, and insufficient talent teams. Compared with developed countries in Europe and the United States, ice-snow tourism in China is in the stage of rapid development. To achieve the high-quality development of ice-snow tourism in China, this paper proposes actions from eight aspects which involve policy, products and services, marketing, safety management and control, talent teams, standardization construction, science and technology, and community participation. This study can provide references for the high-quality development of ice-snow tourism in China, as well as perfecting Chinese theoretical research on ice-snow tourism.

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    A Review on the Supply-Demand Relationship and Spatial Flows of Ecosystem Services
    HUANG Mengdong, XIAO Yu, XU Jie, LIU Jingya, WANG Yangyang, GAN Shuang, LV Shixuan, XIE Gaodi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 925-935.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.016
    Abstract205)   HTML19)    PDF (1256KB)(177)      

    Research on spatial flow as it relates to the relationship between the supply and demand of ecosystem services supports a significant connection between the supply of ecosystem services and human well-being. Understanding the entire process of the production and flow, as well as the use of ecosystem services, accurately assessing the balance of supply and demand of ecosystem services, and establishing a two-way feedback relationship between supply and demand are vital for the scientific management of the ecosystem and ensuring the sustainable development of regional resources. Based on a large number of relevant publications, this paper comprehensively summarizes the concepts and assessment methods of ecosystem service supply and demand from the perspective of ecosystem service supply and demand, and discusses the impacts of land use and climate change on the temporal and spatial changes of ecosystem services under the background of global change. Then, an analysis of the research progress in the ecosystem services spatial flow indicated that there are still deficiencies in the quantification of cultural services, the dynamics of ecosystem service flow and the driving mechanism of ecosystem services. We also propose that clarifying the driving mechanism and transfer process of ecosystem services, and realizing the mutual conversion between different spatial-temporal scales of ecosystem services, is an important approach for improving the application of ecosystem services research in practice in the future.

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    Spatial Distribution and Tourism Activation of Traditional Villages in Yunnan Province
    XU Shaohui, DONG Liping
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 851-859.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.009
    Abstract205)   HTML80)    PDF (2284KB)(16715)      

    Using ArcGIS to analyze the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province in combination with the actual local conditions of traditional villages, the purpose of this study is to determine the development model suitable for their characteristics. The results show several important features of traditional village distribution. (1) The traditional villages in Yunnan Province have spatial structural characteristics of unbalanced cohesive distribution, and they are mainly distributed in the higher-level cities and prefectures such as northwest Yunnan, west Yunnan and south Yunnan. Among them, the traditional villages of Baoshan City have the highest distribution density of 66.33 per 10000 km2. This is followed by Dali Prefecture and Honghe Prefecture, where the densities of traditional villages are 44.13 per 10000 km2 and 37.66 per 10000 km2, respectively. (2) The factors affecting the spatial distribution structure of traditional villages in Yunnan Province are natural geographical factors, humanistic historical factors and transportation factors. Among them, the natural geographical conditions with a large vertical gap in Yunnan Province gave birth to the human settlement environment of traditional villages. The history of a farming civilization that has been passed down from generation to generation has laid a brilliant and splendid humanistic foundation for traditional villages, and the high-altitude areas are relatively primitive. The transportation conditions have delayed the destruction of traditional villages by urbanization and industrialization. In summary, these factors have affected the spatial distribution pattern of traditional villages in Yunnan Province to some extent. (3) According to the law of the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province, it is necessary to explore the activation path of traditional village tourism with regional characteristics and ethnic characteristics, and also to carry out differentiated development according to the different endowment characteristics of local resources, that is to develop a series of activation modes including agricultural tourism, cultural tourism and ecological tourism.

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    Mushrooms in the Mountains: Assessing the Role of Fungi on the Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) Practices in Nepal Himalaya
    DEVKOTA Shiva, SHRESTHA Uttam Babu, POUDEL Sanjeev, CHAUDHARY Ram Prasad
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1030-1036.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.008
    Abstract200)   HTML2)    PDF (1435KB)(199)      

    To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), thereby meet the post 2020 global biodiversity targets and increase resilience to climate change, nature-based approaches such as ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is suggested as a promising and integrated adaptation strategy. EbA comprises adaptation strategies that value the role of ecosystems in reducing social vulnerability to climate change. Among the different biological groups on earth, fungi play not only an important role to maintain the biogeochemical cycle/nutrient cycle in ecosystems (supporting and regulating services), but also contribute to the socio-economic and cultural benefits of societies (provisioning and cultural services). Here, we present our knowledge and scientific understanding on how these neglected groups of biodiversity-fungi are crucial for ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) approach based on our field experience, review and associated expertise on caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis), and other wild mushrooms found in Nepal. Several species of fungi are used by local communities as food, medicines, and environmental income. Fungi are important sources of household income for mountain communities in Nepal providing a cushion during shocks and disasters and supporting food security, health care, education and building shelter. For the holistic EbA approach, it is essential to strengthen local institutions as well as indigenous local knowledge which could be an important policy intervention for the identification, conservation, and sustainable management of ecologically, socially and economically useful fungal species.

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    Spatial and Temporal Pattern Changes and Driving Forces: Analysis of Salinization in the Yellow River Delta from 2015 to 2020
    HONG Mengmeng, WANG Juanle, HAN Baomin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 786-796.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.004
    Abstract194)   HTML15)    PDF (11637KB)(132)      

    China’s Yellow River Delta represents a typical area with moist semi-humid soil salinization, and its salinization has seriously affected the sustainable use of local resources. The use of remote sensing technology to understand changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of salinization is key to combating regional land degradation. In this study, a feature space model was constructed for remote sensing and monitoring land salinization using Landsat 8 OIL multi-spectral images. The feature parameters were paired to construct a feature space model; a total of eight feature space models were obtained. An accuracy analysis was conducted by combining salt-loving vegetation data with measured data, and the model demonstrating the highest accuracy was selected to develop salinization inversion maps for 2015 and 2020. The results showed that: (1) The total salinization area of the Yellow River Delta displayed a slight upward trend, increasing from 4244 km2 in 2015 to 4629 km2 in 2020. However, the area’s salting degree reduced substantially, and the areas of saline soil and severe salinization were reduced in size; (2) The areas with reduced salinization severity were mainly concentrated in areas surrounding cities, and primarily comprised wetlands and some regions around the Bohai Sea; (3) Numerous factors such as the implementation of the “Bohai Granary” cultivation engagement plan, increase in human activities to greening local residential living environments, and seawater intrusion caused by the reduction of sediment contents have impacted the distribution of salinization areas in the Yellow River Delta; (4) The characteristic space method of salinization monitoring has better applicability and can be promoted in humid-sub humid regions.

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    Evaluation of Inner Mongolia Wind Erosion Prevention Service based on Land Use and the RWEQ Model
    WANG Yangyang, XIAO Yu, XU Jie, XIE Gaodi, QIN Keyu, LIU Jingya, NIU Yingnan, GAN Shuang, HUANG Mengdong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 763-774.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.002
    Abstract184)   HTML27)    PDF (9096KB)(100)      

    Inner Mongolia is the important ecological barrier zone in northern China, which plays an important role in the prevention and control of wind in the regional ecosystem. Based on the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) model and the cost-recovery method, this study simulated the wind erosion prevention service (WEPS) in Inner Mongolia in 2010 and 2015, investigated the spatial pattern of material and monetary value of WEPS, and analyzed the differences among various cities and various ecosystems. The results indicated that the total WEPS of Inner Mongolia was estimated to be 73.87×108 t in 2015, which was 4.61×108 t less than in 2010, while the monetary value of WEPS was calculated to be 738.66×108 yuan in 2015, which was 46.16×108 yuan less than in 2010. Among all the leagues and cities, Xilin Gol League supported the highest WEPS, reaching 18.65×108 t in 2015, while Wuhai provided the lowest. The WEPS of Hulunbeier increased the most, by 4.37×108 t from 2010 to 2015. The WEPS in the grassland ecosystem was the highest among the different ecosystems, accounting for more than 55% of the total WEPS in Inner Mongolia, but it was reduced by 1.05×108 t during the same period. The WEPS in the forest ecosystem increased the most, reaching 0.19×108 t. This study found that the implementation of projects such as returning farmland to forests and grasses and sand control effectively increased the WEPS by increasing the forest area. However, unsuitable land use increased the desertification of ecosystems which resulted in a reduction of WEPS in Inner Mongolia.

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    Sustainable Development of Ice and Snow Tourism—Theory & Empirical Studies: Preface
    TANG Chengcai, XU Shiyi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 547-551.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.001
    Abstract184)   HTML122)    PDF (370KB)(219)      

    The Beijing Winter Olympics brought a historical miracle to the development of China’s ice and snow tourism. It is both an opportunity and a challenge to reap the extra dividends of the times and to develop China’s ice and snow tourism. By selecting 18 academic papers, this special issue deeply discusses the status quo and the future measures of ice and snow tourism in China from three aspects: ice and snow tourism development and management, the ice and snow tourism experience and its influencing factors, and ice and snow tourism impact assessment. Moreover, one part entitled “Tourism Culture and Ecotourism” has been set up to emphasize those cutting-edge research topics. It is worth mentioning that this issue is in-depth and has profound connotations. First of all, the research area ranges from national to regional to the city-level, including both longitudinal and horizontal research. In additon, the research methods are practical, innovative, and at the frontier of scientific research, and include industrial correlation analysis methods, kernel density, spatial autocorrelation and other geospatial analysis methods, content analysis methods, sentiment analysis methods, structural equation models, Delphi methods, spatial statistics methods, geographic detector method and many others. In general, this special issue combines qualitative research with quantitative research, provides a variety of theoretical perspectives such as perceived value theory, institutional evolution theory, etc., and builds various useful models like the pre-competition evaluation model for ice and snow tourism heritage, the consumption skill-travel radius decision-making influence model under the moderating effect of the ski resort comprehensive leisure environment, the evaluation model of the suitability of glacier tourism resource development, the model of the relationship between tourists’ experience value and loyalty in the context of ice and snow tourism, among others. These studies are expected to provide theoretical and practical guidance for the development of ice and snow tourism in the post-Winter Olympics era, and help ice and snow tourism develop in a sustainable and high-quality direction.

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    Dynamics of the Alpine Treeline Ecotone under Global Warming: A Review
    XU Dandan, AN Deshuai, ZHU Jianqin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 476-482.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.012
    Abstract183)   HTML13)    PDF (528KB)(282)      

    The alpine treeline ecotone is defined as a forest-grassland or forest-tundra transition boundary either between subalpine forest and treeless grassland, or between subalpine forest and treeless tundra. The alpine treeline ecotone serves irreplaceable ecological functions and provides various ecosystem services. There are three lines associated with the alpine treeline ecotone, the tree species line (i.e., the highest elevational limit of individual tree establishment and growth), the treeline (i.e., the transition line between tree islands and isolated individual trees) and the timber line (i.e., the upper boundary of the closed subalpine forest). The alpine treeline ecotone is the belt region between the tree species line and the timber line of the closed forest. The treeline is very sensitive to climate change and is often used as an indicator for the response of vegetation to global warming. However, there is currently no comprehensive review in the field of alpine treeline advance under global warming. Therefore, this review summarizes the literature and discusses the theoretical bases and challenges in the study of alpine treeline dynamics from the following four aspects: (1) Ecological functions and issues of treeline dynamics; (2) Methodology for monitoring treeline dynamics; (3) Treeline shifts in different climate zones; (4) Driving factors for treeline upward shifting.

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    Patterns and Driving Forces of Cropland Abandonment in Mountainous Areas
    CHEN Shuanglong, SONG Wei, LI Han, LI Han
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 394-406.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.005
    Abstract172)   HTML9)    PDF (7650KB)(41)      

    Cropland abandonment is spreading from developed countries to developing countries such as China. Cropland abandonment in China commonly occurs in mountainous areas due to their specific natural and geographical conditions. However, due to the lack of dependable monitoring methods via medium-high-resolution remote sensing images, the scale of abandoned cropland in many mountainous areas of China is unclear, and the mechanisms driving cropland abandonment have not been clearly identified. To overcome these limitations, we took Zhong County of Chongqing in China as an example, and used Landsat 8 OLI_TIRS remote sensing image data to develop a method for mapping abandoned cropland in mountainous areas based on annual land use change monitoring. At the same time, the ridge regression method was adopted to analyze the factors influencing cropland abandonment. These analyses showed that the cropland abandonment rate in Zhong County of Chongqing was as high as 7.86%, while the overall accuracy of identifying abandoned cropland was as high as 90.82%. Among the social and economic factors that affect cropland abandonment, the rural population, economic development, and livestock husbandry development were the most important ones. At the land parcel scale, large-scale cropland abandonment occurred in areas at elevations above 650 m or with slopes of more than 15°.

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    Basic Principles of Gross Ecosystem Product (GEP) Accounting
    ZHANG Linbo, HAO Chaozhi, SONG Yang, WANG Yiyao, ZHANG Wentao, HUANG Yuhua, LIANG Tian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 501-510.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.014
    Abstract171)   HTML8)    PDF (426KB)(1362)      

    Gross ecosystem product (GEP) is the gross value of all ecosystem products and services provided by ecosystems for human society. In practice, GEP measures the ecosystems' contributions to human well-being and constitutes one of the core issues in the construction of ecological civilization systems. Currently, GEP accounting faces a series of problems, such as the inconsistency of accounting subjects and a lack of accounting standards, the result of which is the non-reproducibility and weak applicability of accounting results. In this paper, mainstream models for ecosystem service valuation are summarized in a systematic manner. On this basis, eight basic principles are established for screening accounting indicators: biological productivity, human benefits, production territoriality, current increment, actual effectiveness, physical metrizability, data availability, and harmlessness. Next, a series of ecosystem service subjects are identified that need to be excluded from accounting, and the detailed reasons for their exclusion are presented. Finally, three ideas for improving GEP accounting are offered from the perspectives of the relationship between biological production and human production, the circulation-transport relationship and spatial differences, and harms to the ecosystem carrying capacity. The purpose is to provide positive considerations aimed at promoting the socio-economic applications of accounting and to contribute to the scientific quantification of the values of ecological products.

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    Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Paschim Kusaha Village of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Sunsari District, Nepal
    Deepa KARKI, Nabin POUDEL, Sweta DIXIT, Sijar BHATTA, Bharat GOTAME, Man Kumar DHAMALA, Dipak KHADKA
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1022-1029.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.007
    Abstract158)   HTML0)    PDF (4744KB)(99)      

    Human-wildlife conflict has been one of the most trouble-causing issues in many areas of Nepal including Eastern Nepal. This study assessed the human-wildlife conflict status in Paschim Kusaha Village of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (KTWR), Sunsari District, Nepal. Data were collected from 47 respondents of different households through questionnaire surveys and formal and informal interviews. Results revealed that the most destructive wild animals were wild elephants, wild boar, and wild water buffalo and the most raided crops were paddy (63.83 %), maize (19.15%), and potato (17.02%). Most of the encounters between humans and wildlife were recorded at night (after dusk and before dawn) (78.72%). Local people were suffering from damage of physical properties, human harassment or nuisance, and depredation of cropland due to wild animals. A total of 70% of respondents had a positive attitude towards conservation despite disturbing human mortality records (22 deaths in the last five years) from the reserve area and surrounding. Awareness of wildlife behavior together with conservation and easy access to compensation schemes were suggested to minimize conflicts in the area.

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    Effects of Prosopis juliflora Invasion on Native Species Diversity and Woody Species Regenerations in Rangelands of Afar National Regional State, Northeast Ethiopia
    Wakshum SHIFERAW, Sebsebe DEMISSEW, Tamrat BEKELE, Ermias AYNEKULU
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 35-45.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.004
    Abstract157)   HTML0)    PDF (3783KB)(53)      

    Investigation of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora and its effects on indigenous plant species are important for the control of the species. The study aimed to assess: (1) the effects of Prosopis juliflora invasion on the diversity of plant species in Awash Fentale and Amibara Woredas; (2) the effects of Prosopis juliflora invasion on the regeneration potential of native woody species. Sample collection was performed in habitats of Prosopis juliflora thicket, Prosopis juliflora mixed with native species stands, non-invaded woodlands, and open grazing lands. The vegetation was stratified into invasion levels of Prosopis juliflora and then a random sampling technique for data collection. Among species of plants, the highest proportion of species, 75 (47.8%), was recorded under non-invaded woodlands, but the lowest proportion of species, 22 (14%), was recorded under open grazing lands. The invasion of Prosopis juliflora reduced the Shannon diversity index. The mean values of the Shannon diversity index and species richness under Prosopis juliflora mixed with native species (H′=2.22, R=14) and non-invaded woodlands (H′=2.23, R=13) were significantly higher than Prosopis juliflora thicket (H′=1.96, R=12) and open grazing lands (H′=1.84, R=10). The highest total density (358 stems ha?1) of seedlings was recorded under Prosopis juliflora mixed with native species. But, the lowest total density (153 stems ha?1) of seedlings was recorded under Prosopis juliflora thickets. Moreover, 102 trees ha?1 native woody species were recorded under Prosopis juliflora thicket, but 1252 trees ha?1 native species were recorded under non-invaded woodlands. If the invasion of Prosopis juliflora and its effects on native species diversity continue coupled with a drier climate, plant diversity of the Afar flora region will be highly affected and its ecosystem services will be under question. Thus, the participation of all stakeholders and multidisciplinary research approaches should be designed for the management of the species and rehabilitation of the rangelands in the region.

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    Spatial Distribution and Cultural Features of Traditional Villages in Beijing and Influencing Factors
    XIAO Xiaoyue, TANG Chengcai, LIANG Wenqi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1074-1086.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.012
    Abstract155)   HTML3)    PDF (1782KB)(105)      

    Traditional villages are important part of Beijing, an internationally famous historic and cultural city. Exploring the spatial distribution and cultural features of traditional villages, and the factors that have shaped them, will help promote the protection and utilization of traditional villages in Beijing. ArcGIS spatial analysis, literature analysis, fieldwork and in-depth interviews were mainly carried out to analyze the spatial distribution and cultural features of traditional villages in Beijing and their influencing factors. The results show three main features. (1) The overall distribution of traditional villages in Beijing is random, although there are more traditional villages in the southwest and northeast and less in the southeast and northwest. Most of them are distributed along the higher piedmont plains or intermountain basins, and most of them are backed by hills and surrounded by rivers or along the ancient road. (2) There are some cultural commonalities among the traditional villages in Beijing, and nine typical traditional village cultures have been formed, including traditional residential culture, traditional folklore culture, the Great Wall garrison culture, mausoleum guarding culture, etc. (3) The formation of the spatial distribution and cultural features of traditional villages in Beijing is influenced by natural environmental factors like terrain, climate, and rivers, as well as human activities such as royal life, capital construction, ancient military defense, transportation, trade, etc. This study can provide a reference for the scientific protection and effective utilization of traditional villages in Beijing and all over the country.

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    Characteristics and Carbon Storage of a Typical Mangrove Island Ecosystem in Beibu Gulf, South China Sea
    WU Bin, ZHANG Wenzhu, TIAN Yichao, LIANG Mingzhong, XU Jun, GU Guanhai
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 458-465.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.010
    Abstract155)   HTML11)    PDF (731KB)(103)      

    By studying the structural characteristics and carbon storage of the mangrove island ecosystem in the Beibu Gulf, this study provides a scientific basis for mangrove ecological compensation in the coastal areas of Guangxi, South China Sea. On the basis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing images and a sample plot survey, the object-oriented multi-scale segmentation algorithm is used to extract the mangrove community type information, and one-way analysis of variance is conducted to analyse the structural characteristics of the mangrove community. The carbon storage and carbon density of different mangrove ecosystems were obtained based on the allometric growth equation of mangrove plants. The analysis yielded four main results. (1) The island group covers about 27.10 ha, 41.32% (11.20 ha) of which represents mangrove areas. The mangrove forest is widely distributed in the tidal flats around the islands. (2) The main mangrove types were Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia obovata + Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina + Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina communities. (3) Amongst the mangrove plants, Avicennia marina had the highest biomass (18.52 kg plant-1), followed by Kandelia obovata (7.84 kg plant-1) and Aegiceras corniculatum (3.85 kg plant-1). (4) The mangrove carbon density difference was significant. Kandelia obovata had the highest carbon density (148.03 t ha-1), followed by Avicennia marina (104.79 t ha-1) and Aegiceras corniculatum (99.24 t ha-1). The carbon storage of the mangrove island ecosystem was 1194.70 t, which was higher than in other areas with the same latitude. The carbon sequestration capacity of the mangrove was relatively strong.

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    Assessment of Climate Suitability for Human Settlements in Tibet, China
    LIN Yumei, ZHU Fuxin, LI Wenjun, LIU Xiaona
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 880-887.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.012
    Abstract153)   HTML6)    PDF (3662KB)(153)      

    Climate is an important factor that affects the livability of a region. The climate suitability of a region’s environment for human settlement profoundly affects the regional socio-economic development and the population distribution. Tibet is an area that is sensitive to climate change. Given the impact of global climate change, the climate suitability of Tibet has undergone significant changes. In this study, the temperature humidity index (THI) values for Tibet were calculated, and the relationships between the population distribution and the THI were analyzed quantitatively. In this way, the zoning standards for climate suitability in Tibet were determined such that the climate suitability could be evaluated. The results show that the average annual temperature in the southeast of Tibet, where the population was densely distributed, was relatively high. The mean annual relative humidity showed a trend of gradually decreasing from south to north. Regions with a suitable climate, including the high suitability areas (HSAs), the moderately suitable areas (MSAs) and the low suitability areas (LSAs), accounted for only 7.90% of the total area but accommodated over 40% of the total population. The critically suitable areas (CSAs) accounted for 37.81% of the land area and 48.24% of the total population. Non-suitable areas (NSAs) were widely distributed in Tibet and accounted for 54.29% of the total area and 11.33% of the total population. The results of this study may provide a reference for guiding the reasonable distribution of population and promoting the optimization of the spatial planning in Tibet.

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    Characteristics and Determinants of China’s Ice-and-Snow Tourism Industrial Cluster
    SONG Changyao, YIN Tingting, LI Xinjian, CHEN Wei, LI Shan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 564-577.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.003
    Abstract152)   HTML113)    PDF (2812KB)(194)      

    Ice-and-snow tourism (IST) is a booming industry, and the development of its industrial clusters reflects its regional development quality. Taking 1985-2021 data for China’s IST enterprises, this study used industrial cluster identification and industrial correlation analysis to explore the development of IST industrial clusters. The following results were obtained: (1) China’s IST initially formed hotspot industrial clusters in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Northeast, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, Chengdu-Chongqing, and Xinjiang regions. (2) Multiple industry forms failed to become deeply integrated into development, indicating a need to optimize the structure of the IST industrial chain. (3) The development environment of IST industrial clusters in each province showed differentiated characteristics. (4) IST industrial clustering was affected by both internal and external factors. External factors were grouped into climate and ice-and-snow resources, government policies and sports events, and economic fundamentals and market conditions. Internal factors included industrial association and industrial integration in the IST industrial cluster. Based on this study’s identification of the characteristics of China’s IST industrial clusters, countermeasures are proposed for their optimal development.

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    A Community Resilience Evaluation and Optimization Strategy based on Stormwater Management
    ZHANG Quan, XUE Shanshan, ZOU Chengdong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 360-370.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.002
    Abstract151)   HTML24)    PDF (3340KB)(119)      

    In the context of disaster normalization, the concept of “resilience” has been gradually introduced into the field of disaster prevention and mitigation in urban communities. In order to resist the increasingly frequent disasters caused by extreme weather, it is necessary to shift the focus of building resilient urban communities to the level of stormwater management. Community resilience is a disaster prevention and mitigation capability based on community resources. In order to solve the deficiency of storm and flood management in the current construction of resilient communities in China, it is necessary to establish a quantitative evaluation system to evaluate it. This paper uses the analytic hierarchy process and Delphi method to establish a community resilience evaluation system from the perspectives of community material space level, community management level and individual level. Then three communities in Hefei City, Anhui Province are selected for practical application of the system, and corresponding optimization and transformation strategies are proposed. The results show that: (1) The resilience of community stormwater management is closely related to the integrated environment of the community, the allocation of flood control facilities and the daily disaster prevention and mitigation management; (2) The ability of disaster prevention and mitigation and the awareness of public participation of the residents in all communities are relatively weak, and the communities invest less in the popularization of stormwater management wisdom; and (3) Resilient communities should not only pay attention to the construction of non-engineering disaster prevention measures, but also to the application of small-scale green infrastructure oriented toward stormwater management.

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    A Pre-game Evaluation of the Tourism Legacy of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games
    WANG Ning, JIANG Yiyi, XU Haibin, FANG Yan, ZHANG Yue, WANG Zhe
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 578-591.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.004
    Abstract149)   HTML16)    PDF (1093KB)(327)      

    The role of tourism in social and economic development and stabilizing the Olympic legacy has been widely discussed. Beijing is the first “Dual-Olympic City”. For the first time, the Beijing Winter Olympics has adopted a model of three competition areas, which has attracted much attention to the study of its tourism legacy. In the legacy plan, the construction of the “Beijing-Zhangjiakou Sports Culture and Tourism Belt” was proposed. The development of ice and snow tourism and the cultivation of the ice and snow tourism market is also reflected in many policy documents and government actions. The scientific planning before the competition laid a good foundation for the sustainable development of its ice and snow tourism heritage. This research combines Olympic legacy research with tourism destination theory, and focuses on ice and snow tourism directly related to the Winter Olympics and the significance of pre-event planning for legacy protection. At the same time, the improvement of the quality of ice and snow tourism destinations is embedded in the pre-Olympic legacy, and opinions and suggestions on how to ensure the stability of the legacy after the games are given. This study uses the literature review method and the second-hand materials survey research method, then through establishing a tourism legacy pre-game evaluation model and the use of geographic information, government reports, policies, publicly released statistics and news reports, etc.. It explores the legacy of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics and Paralympics, aiming to lay the foundation for preserving the continuous value of the ice and snow tourism legacy during and after the Olympics. The results indicate that the Beijing Winter Olympics has made relatively complete plans and reliable progress in both tangible and intangible legacy. Complete tourism infrastructure, an optimistic sport and cultural atmosphere, and the improvement of residents’ health concept and sports awareness have become boosters for the development of ice and snow tourism in the Beijing-Zhangjiakou region.

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    The Impacts of Relocation on the Livelihoods among Different Agro-pastoralist Groups in an Immigrated Village in Tibet
    ZHU Jin, PAN Ying, ZHAO Zhongxu, LI Zhennan, WU Junxi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 888-896.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.013
    Abstract143)   HTML4)    PDF (2254KB)(85)      

    China has achieved a comprehensive victory in poverty eradication. Relocation has been the major measure of the poverty alleviation strategy, and 10 million poor people have successfully been relocated in the ‘Thirteenth Five-Year’ period (from 2016 to 2020). This paper established an integrated evaluation index system for the livelihoods of relocated groups and the sustainability of the village, based on the framework of United Nation 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and using the data from questionnaire surveys in Bailang Village, Tibet. The indicator system quantitatively analyzed the changes in the livelihoods of different agro-pastoralist groups before and after relocation from the three aspects of living standards, livelihood assets, and livelihood strategies. The results showed that relocation led to the improvement of the livelihoods of immigrated households. As the duration after relocation increases, the living standards rise steadily, especially in poverty eradication (SDG1), which increased nearly 100%. Relocation affects the livelihood strategies of the relocated groups, in that the original pure farmers chose more diverse livelihood strategies and the non-farm employment ratio (SDG8) of the village increased. The total SDG score increased from the perspective of the sustainable development of the village. The data also showed that relocation had limited impacts on the livelihoods of the aborigines. The results implied that the relocation policy for poverty alleviation has been implemented successfully in this area. This research could support policy optimization for improving the sustainability of the village and the livelihoods of the immigrants.

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    The Evaluation of Urban Green Space Landscape Changes and Ecosystem Services in Beijing
    XIAO Yu, GAN Shuang, HUANG Mengdong, LIU Jia, MAO Hui, ZHANG Changshun, QIN Keyu, XIE Gaodi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 897-911.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.014
    Abstract142)   HTML10)    PDF (6005KB)(110)      

    As a very important part of the urban ecosystem, the urban green space system plays an active role in maintaining the urban ecosystem stability, providing ecosystem services, and improving the quality of the urban environment. In order to deal with the problems brought about by the deterioration of the urban ecological environment, it is necessary to study and analyze the spatial distribution pattern, evolutionary characteristics and ecosystem services of urban green space to maximize its ecological benefits and comprehensive functions. In this study, we took Beijing urban area as an example, and based on the spatial distribution data of urban green space and remote sensing data, we first calculated the urban green space type transition matrix, landscape pattern index and ecosystem services. Then, we analyzed the changes in urban green space landscape patterns, ecosystem services and their spatial distributions from 2000 to 2020, and studied the interactive relationships between landscape changes and changes in ecosystem services. The results showed three key findings. (1) Beijing’s urban green space construction has achieved remarkable results from 2000 to 2020. The area of green space has increased by 77.41%, mainly from cultivated land and construction land. (2) From 2000 to 2020, the amounts of dust retention, SO2 absorption, NO2 absorption, cooling and humidification, carbon fixation and oxygen release, and rainwater runoff reduction in Beijing's urban green space have shown continuous increases in general. (3) There is a close relationship between urban green space landscape changes and green space ecosystem services, and total area (TA) has the highest correlation with ecosystem services. Except for rainwater runoff reduction, the correlation coefficients between TA and ecosystem services are all higher than 0.85. This research can provide theoretical guidance for optimizing Beijing's green space and determining how to maximize the effect of green space for improving the ecological environment, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the construction of Beijing's ecological environment.

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    Research Progress on Farmers’ Livelihood Transformation and Its Ecological Effects—A Review
    WANG Ding, WANG Xin, HAO Haiguang, LIN Dayi, XIAO Rui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 912-924.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.015
    Abstract142)   HTML3)    PDF (1469KB)(62)      

    Farmers’ livelihoods and their impacts on the ecosystem are important indicators of human-land relationships. Appropriate livelihood strategies for farmers can meet the needs of human well-being and promote the sustainable use of natural resources, thereby maintaining the health and stability of natural ecosystems. Scholars have carried out a great deal of research on the changes in farmers’ livelihoods, as well as the driving mechanisms and ecological effects, but there are still many controversial issues about the ecological effects of farmers’ livelihood transformation. On the basis of collecting and sorting out the relevant literature, this paper analyzes the previous research results on the transformation mechanism and ecological effects of farmers’ livelihoods, and further explores the coupling relationship. Through the analysis and summary, we find that the choice of farmers’ livelihoods is affected by natural factors, subjective willingness and social policies. The transformation of farmers’ livelihood changes the ways of production, consumption and resource utilization, which in turn profoundly affects the evolutionary process of the natural ecosystems. This paper establishes a research framework for the livelihood transformation mechanism of farmers and its ecological effect, and finally summarizes two directions that need to be studied further in the future: (1) Exploring the interactions between the driving factors of farmers’ livelihood transformation; and (2) Exploring a win-win sustainable mechanism for farmers’ livelihood needs and natural resource utilization.

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    Spatio-temporal Dynamic Evolution and the Factors Impacting Eco-efficiency in Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle
    LI Hongli, CHEN Yunping
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 986-998.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.004
    Abstract141)   HTML6)    PDF (9618KB)(71)      

    In response to the 14th National Five-year Plan of China and to better explore new strategies for promoting regional coordinated green development, the eco-efficiency values of Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle and the corresponding temporal analysis from 2004 to 2018 were assessed in this paper using the super-SBM model and Markov chain. Meanwhile, the spatial analysis of eco-efficiency was conducted by a geographically weighted regression model. Although eco-efficiency has risen at an increasing rate, the economic development of Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle was still ecologically ineffective. This means there is an urgent need to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and promote technological innovation. During the study period, the evolution of the eco-efficiency presented as a “π” shape, and was accompanied by the phenomenon of “club convergence”. There was also a strong tendency for eco-efficiency to maintain the original status quo, which indicates that it lacked sufficient momentum for improvement, so it was difficult to achieve a leapfrog transfer. Spatially, the eco-efficiency was distributed from northwest to southeast in a high-low-high manner. The spatial-temporal differences of eco-efficiency narrowed but the effect of agglomeration was relatively weak and there was a polarization trend. Further investigation suggests that the differences in the development level of urbanization, opening, technology, environmental regulation and advancement of industrial structure led to the spatial differences of eco-efficiency. Each city in the Economic Circle should make every effort to improve eco-efficiency accordingly, and thus to promote the green development of the whole region, so as to lay a foundation for driving the green and coordinated development of the central and western regions.

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    How Snow Leopards Share the Same Landscape with Tibetan Agro-pastoral Communities in the Chinese Himalayas
    XIAO Changxi, BAI Defeng, Joseph P. LAMBERT, LI Yibin, Lhaba CERING, GONG Ziling, Philip RIORDAN, SHI Kun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 483-500.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.013
    Abstract141)   HTML13)    PDF (13837KB)(61)      

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits a human-altered alpine landscape and is often tolerated by residents in regions where the dominant religion is Tibetan Buddhism, including in Qomolangma NNR on the northern side of the Chinese Himalayas. Despite these positive attitudes, many decades of rapid economic development and population growth can cause increasing disturbance to the snow leopards, altering their habitat use patterns and ultimately impacting their conservation. We adopted a dynamic landscape ecology perspective and used multi- scale technique and occupancy model to better understand snow leopard habitat use and coexistence with humans in an 825 km2 communal landscape. We ranked eight hypothetical models containing potential natural and anthropogenic drivers of habitat use and compared them between summer and winter seasons within a year. HABITAT was the optimal model in winter, whereas ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCE was the top ranking in summer (AICcw≤2). Overall, model performance was better in the winter than in the summer, suggesting that perhaps some latent summer covariates were not measured. Among the individual variables, terrain ruggedness strongly affected snow leopard habitat use in the winter, but not in the summer. Univariate modeling suggested snow leopards prefer to use rugged land in winter with a broad scale (4000 m focal radius) but with a lesser scale in summer (30 m); Snow leopards preferred habitat with a slope of 22° at a scale of 1000 m throughout both seasons, which is possibly correlated with prey occurrence. Furthermore, all covariates mentioned above showed inextricable ties with human activities (presence of settlements and grazing intensity). Our findings show that multiple sources of anthropogenic activity have complex connections with snow leopard habitat use, even under low human density when anthropogenic activities are sparsely distributed across a vast landscape. This study is also valuable for habitat use research in the future, especially regarding covariate selection for finite sample sizes in inaccessible terrain.

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    Analysis of Food Consumption and Its Characteristics in Uzbekistan based on the Emergy Method
    JIA Mengmeng, ZHEN Lin, ZHANG Changshun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 842-850.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.008
    Abstract135)   HTML4)    PDF (1020KB)(98)      

    Food resources play a great role in human livelihood, so it is meaningful to investigate their utilization and structural evolution, especially in developing countries. This study takes data from FAOSTAT and the World Bank, and applies the emergy method to analyze Uzbek food consumption changes and characteristics from 1992 to 2019. Two main results were obtained: (1) National food consumption showed a persistent increase and had a remarkable change in stages, with the first stage of low-level repetition, the second stage of speeding up and the third stage of high development. The increase of animal-based food consumption was more notable than that of plant-based food consumption. (2) Per capita annual food consumption had a tendency of change that was similar to that of national food consumption. The proportion of animal-based food in the total per capita annual food consumption usually remained about 2-fold higher than that of plant-based food consumption. The main food consumption pattern was the combination of crops such as wheat and rice with meat such as beef. The fruit and vegetable consumption also increased. With the growing population, various changes in food demand will inevitably happen, so it is necessary to take sustainable measures in time to satisfy the new demand and to protect resources and the environment.

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    Ski Tourism Experience and Market Segmentation from the Perspective of Perceived Value: A Case Study on Chongli District of Zhangjiakou
    XU Xiao, LI Yaping, LI Yanqin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 655-666.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.011
    Abstract133)   HTML10)    PDF (612KB)(404)      

    As an emerging mountain vacation tourism product, ski tourism is becoming increasingly important in the domestic tourism market. As an important theory for studying the quality of consumer experience, perceived value has been widely employed in tourism research in recent years, and improving the ski tourism experience value has become the focus of competition among ski tourism destinations. Taking the ski tourists in Chongli District of Zhangjiakou as an example, 305 valid questionnaires were collected by using online and offline methods. Based on the theory of perceived value, this paper adopted principal component analysis and cluster analysis to conduct a preliminary study of ski tourism experience and market segmentation. In addition, this paper examined the differences in demographic and behavioral characteristics of different types of ski tourists. This study finds that: (1) The perceived value of ski tourism experience includes four dimensions: facility value, perceived price, safety value and service value. (2) Using the perceived value to segment ski tourists, three different customer segments are identified: comfort-pursuant, price-sensitive and safety-oriented. (3) There are significant differences in key metrics, such as number of visits and stay time, among different types of ski tourists according to their demographic characteristics such as gender, age, monthly income, and behavioral characteristics. These results reveal the different dimensions of the perceived value of ski tourism experience and determine the market segments and characteristics of ski tourists. Developing a corresponding marketing strategy based on the different market segments can better promote the perceived value of ski tourists, and ultimately strengthen the competitiveness of the enterprises.

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    Ecosystem Service Value Evolution and Security Pattern Optimization in Huaihai Economic Zone
    CAO Yuhong, CAO Yuandan, CHEN Zhiyu, YU Dailiang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 977-985.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.003
    Abstract128)   HTML8)    PDF (1257KB)(84)      

    The ecological and environmental effects caused by land use change have attracted global attention. Huaihai Economic Zone, as the core of the Huaihe River ecological economic belt, has experienced a reciprocal evolution of land use, ecological security and regional economic development. Based on multi-stage land use data extracted by Google Earth Engine (GEE), the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of ecosystem service value (ESV) evolution in Huaihai Economic Zone from 1998 to 2018 were analyzed with the help of ESV assessment and a minimum accumulated resistance model (MCR), and the regional ecological security pattern (ESP) was optimized. The results show that ESV intensity has obvious spatial differentiation, which is higher in northeastern China and lower in southwestern China. The median ESV area accounted for the largest proportion, while the high and low ESV areas accounted for a small proportion. The characteristics of EVS temporal and spatial differentiation show decreasing and increasing grades. From the perspective of development period, the ESV grade changes show a positive trend. In the optimization of the ecological security pattern, 26 important ecological sources, 22 main landscape ecological corridors, and 65 ecological strategic nodes were optimized and identified, and the middle-level ecological security zone accounted for the largest proportion. The main reasons for the changes in the ESV and ESP are closely related to the changes in local natural resources and the changes and adjustments in government protection policies. These research results can provide a reference for inter-provincial territorial space protection and the formulation of a sustainable development strategy.

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