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    Advances in Root System Architecture: Functionality, Plasticity, and Research Methods
    ZHANG Zhiyong, FAN Baomin, SONG Chao, ZHANG Xiaoxian, ZHAO Qingwen, YE Bing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 15-24.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.002
    Abstract600)   HTML42)    PDF (1555KB)(313)      

    Root system architecture (RSA) refers to the spatial distribution and extended morphology of plant root systems in soil. RSA not only determines the ability of plants to obtain water and nutrients but also affects other ecological functions. Hence, it plays a dominant role in the overall health of plants. The study of RSA can provide insight into plant absorption of water and fertilizers, the relationship between above- and belowground plant parts, and the physiological health and ecological functions of plants. Therefore, this paper summarizes research on the morphology, functionality, plasticity and research methods of RSA. We first review the basic structure, physiology, and ecological functions of root systems. Then the soil factors that shape RSA—including soil moisture, nutrients, temperature, aeration, and others—are summarized. After that, research methods for studying RSA are described in detail, including harvesting, two-dimensional morphological observation, and three-dimensional image reconstruction. Finally, future research developments and innovations are discussed to provide a theoretical basis for further investigations in this field.

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    Effects of Prosopis juliflora Invasion on Native Species Diversity and Woody Species Regenerations in Rangelands of Afar National Regional State, Northeast Ethiopia
    Wakshum SHIFERAW, Sebsebe DEMISSEW, Tamrat BEKELE, Ermias AYNEKULU
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 35-45.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.004
    Abstract331)   HTML0)    PDF (3783KB)(212)      

    Investigation of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora and its effects on indigenous plant species are important for the control of the species. The study aimed to assess: (1) the effects of Prosopis juliflora invasion on the diversity of plant species in Awash Fentale and Amibara Woredas; (2) the effects of Prosopis juliflora invasion on the regeneration potential of native woody species. Sample collection was performed in habitats of Prosopis juliflora thicket, Prosopis juliflora mixed with native species stands, non-invaded woodlands, and open grazing lands. The vegetation was stratified into invasion levels of Prosopis juliflora and then a random sampling technique for data collection. Among species of plants, the highest proportion of species, 75 (47.8%), was recorded under non-invaded woodlands, but the lowest proportion of species, 22 (14%), was recorded under open grazing lands. The invasion of Prosopis juliflora reduced the Shannon diversity index. The mean values of the Shannon diversity index and species richness under Prosopis juliflora mixed with native species (H′=2.22, R=14) and non-invaded woodlands (H′=2.23, R=13) were significantly higher than Prosopis juliflora thicket (H′=1.96, R=12) and open grazing lands (H′=1.84, R=10). The highest total density (358 stems ha?1) of seedlings was recorded under Prosopis juliflora mixed with native species. But, the lowest total density (153 stems ha?1) of seedlings was recorded under Prosopis juliflora thickets. Moreover, 102 trees ha?1 native woody species were recorded under Prosopis juliflora thicket, but 1252 trees ha?1 native species were recorded under non-invaded woodlands. If the invasion of Prosopis juliflora and its effects on native species diversity continue coupled with a drier climate, plant diversity of the Afar flora region will be highly affected and its ecosystem services will be under question. Thus, the participation of all stakeholders and multidisciplinary research approaches should be designed for the management of the species and rehabilitation of the rangelands in the region.

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    Mushrooms in the Mountains: Assessing the Role of Fungi on the Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) Practices in Nepal Himalaya
    DEVKOTA Shiva, SHRESTHA Uttam Babu, POUDEL Sanjeev, CHAUDHARY Ram Prasad
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1030-1036.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.008
    Abstract285)   HTML5)    PDF (1435KB)(290)      

    To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), thereby meet the post 2020 global biodiversity targets and increase resilience to climate change, nature-based approaches such as ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is suggested as a promising and integrated adaptation strategy. EbA comprises adaptation strategies that value the role of ecosystems in reducing social vulnerability to climate change. Among the different biological groups on earth, fungi play not only an important role to maintain the biogeochemical cycle/nutrient cycle in ecosystems (supporting and regulating services), but also contribute to the socio-economic and cultural benefits of societies (provisioning and cultural services). Here, we present our knowledge and scientific understanding on how these neglected groups of biodiversity-fungi are crucial for ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) approach based on our field experience, review and associated expertise on caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis), and other wild mushrooms found in Nepal. Several species of fungi are used by local communities as food, medicines, and environmental income. Fungi are important sources of household income for mountain communities in Nepal providing a cushion during shocks and disasters and supporting food security, health care, education and building shelter. For the holistic EbA approach, it is essential to strengthen local institutions as well as indigenous local knowledge which could be an important policy intervention for the identification, conservation, and sustainable management of ecologically, socially and economically useful fungal species.

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    Spatial and Temporal Changes and Influencing Factors of Tourism Resilience in China’s Provinces under the Impact of COVID-19
    YU Jinyan, ZHANG Yingnan, ZHANG Yahui, JIANG Yixuan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (2): 217-229.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.02.001
    Abstract282)   HTML22)    PDF (1281KB)(181)      

    COVID-19 has led to the interruption of personnel flow, and the tourism industry has become one of the most seriously affected industries. With the gradual improvement of the domestic epidemic situation, the tourism industry has recovered in various provinces and regions, but that recovery shows the characteristics of temporal and spatial heterogeneity. From the perspective of “resilience”, this study characterizes the resistance and recovery of the tourism industry in the face of the epidemic impact, analyzes the trends of change, spatial pattern and phased characteristics of tourism resilience, and explores the factors influencing the differences in tourism resilience. The results indicate that China's tourism industry shows obvious resilience characteristics, and the trend of tourism resilience in most provinces and regions fluctuates and rises. For example, Gansu, Hainan, Guizhou, Hebei and Shandong have a high level of comprehensive toughness, while Tibet, Ningxia, Shanxi and Beijing have a very low level of comprehensive toughness, and most other provinces and regions show the characteristic pattern of “weak in the north and strong in the south”. This study shows that China's tourism resilience has experienced three stages: hard resistance, accelerated recovery and increasing with fluctuation. The resistance of the tourism industry to the impact of the epidemic is generally weak, and the ability to recover is significantly variable. The severity of the epidemic, the strictness of prevention and control policies, the joint influences of tourist source-destination, tourism foundation, geographical location and other factors will have a certain impact on tourism resilience.

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    Attitude of People towards Relief Fund as Human-Wildlife Conflict Management Strategy: A Case Study of Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, Nepal
    RAI Pratap, JOSHI Rajeev, NEUPANE Bijaya, POUDEL Bishow, KHANAL Sujan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 604-615.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.015
    Abstract278)   HTML5)    PDF (842KB)(279)      

    The present study aimed to assess if the people are satisfied with the relief fund scheme in the three different user committees belonging to 10 Buffer Zone User Group (BZUG) of Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park (SNNP) in the situation with the higher incidents of conflict on those areas. Differences in local people’s attitudes and the effect of socio-economic factors like age, education, economic status, the quantity of crop damage, and their influence on the satisfaction level of people towards the prevailing relief scheme were mainly captured using a semi-structured questionnaire survey of the households. A total of 162 households (HHs), comprising 40.5% of the total 377 households, were surveyed using a purposive sampling method. People’s attitude towards relief schemes was measured at three levels (positive, negative, or neutral) while the Chi-square test at 5% level of significance was used to determine whether people’s attitudes and relief schemes were dependent or not. Similarly, Chi-square test was used to determine the dependency of different socioeconomic factors and people’s attitudes towards the relief scheme. The results showed that the majority of respondents i.e. 56% were not satisfied (negative attitude) with the relief scheme, 26% were neutral and only 18% of respondents were positive towards the relief fund (satisfied). A mere 41.93 USD was provided as relief against the crop loss of 101 USD at an average in the study area. Similarly, 73 USD was the relief amount for livestock loss (goat) of 124 USD per case. Owing to inadequate and delayed payment, the relief fund scheme was unable to bring a satisfactory change in the attitudes of people. Thus, the regular amendments of relief guidelines to address insufficient and delayed payment are recommended. Additionally, further studies on the wildlife damage relief schemes and its cost-effectiveness and appropriate measures to manage the drawback of this scheme are required.

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    Current Situation and Future Development Trend of Global Skiing Tourism Market
    Laurent VANAT, LI Yu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 207-216.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.020
    Abstract272)   HTML5)    PDF (744KB)(290)      

    The global ski tourism market has been in a relatively mature period. However, passenger flows are stagnating in many countries and the growth perspectives are not very appealing. This change of the tourism market troubled the entire ski industry with new challenges, leading to the ski tourism industry model established in the 20th century failing to meet the current development needs. According to multiple data sources, including relevant industry reports and the latest data from internetm, this article based on a variety of these reports and the latest data from website, analyzed the ski tourism market’s both sides of supply and demand, systematically summarized the evolution of ski tourism industry since the 21st century, discussed the process of the ski tourism industry’s development and the economy’s growth, and revealed the relationship between the influencing factors of ski tourism market’s potentials. Meanwhile, the main problems and challenges in the ski market were also summarized. The results showed that global ski tourism had entered a mature stage since the beginning of 2000. Moreover, there was a specific correlation between skiing participation rate and GDP, which varied with the regional economic level and the maturity degree of skiing industry. Despite some impacts from COVID-19, the ski industry in most regions exhibited signs of recovery in 2021. The Winter Olympic Games in China have brought new opportunities to the skiing industry and have been expected to encourage global participation in skiing. However, some existing ski resorts in different countries and regions may not significantly contribute to the future development of global ski tourism, and the potential growth of ski tourism market might be small and mainly concentrated in China. At present, the biggest threat to the ski market is baby boomers having long been the bulk of ski resort visitors. The ski market is faced with this aging problem and the widespread phenomenon of ski culture fault. How to meet the needs of this new generation of customers who lack ski backgrounds or cultures is a severe challenge for all emerging and existing ski resorts around the world. Besides, public transport accessibility, service quality and resorts operation capacity have also been the improvement direction of the ski market in dire need.

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    Evaluation of the Land Use Benefit of Rapidly Expanding Cities based on Coupling Coordination and a Transfer Matrix
    NIU Wentao, SHEN Qinghui, XU Zhenzhen, SHANG Wenwen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 542-555.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.010
    Abstract263)   HTML6)    PDF (2146KB)(91)      

    The efficient use of urban land is one of the key factors for high-quality urban development, especially in large cities that lack land resources. By constructing an analysis framework of the land use benefit system and the transfer matrix of land use type, this study identified the evolutionary law governing the land use benefit system and its dynamic coupling coordination relationship with the rapidly expanding city by taking Zhengzhou, a national central city in China, as a case study. The results show that the urban land use (ULU) benefit system of Zhengzhou gradually shifted from the eco-environmental benefit type (1998-2005) to the socio-economic benefit type (2006-2019), with the coupling degree presenting a typical inverted U-shaped evolutionary process. In the same period, the urban area of Zhengzhou expanded by about 461 square kilometers. A further transfer matrix analysis shows that the main source of expansion has been the conversion of arable land, grassland, woodland and water areas to construction land. Therefore, the local government should implement a differentiated land use strategy according to the characteristics of the land use benefit system and the evolution of the coupling and coordination relationship, exploit the opportunity of urban boundary delimitation, and promote urban transformation and upgrading as well as eco-city construction.

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    Spatial and Temporal Differentiation Trends and Attributions of High-quality Development in the Huaihe Eco-economic Belt
    CHENG Yongsheng, ZHANG Deyuan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 517-532.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.008
    Abstract260)   HTML167)    PDF (2326KB)(197)      

    The Huaihe River Basin is one of the typical large river basin economies, promoting its ecological protection and high-quality development is a strategic choice to improve the quality of China’s economic development and narrow the regional development gap, which has far-reaching strategic value for the region and the country in the new era. Based on the theoretical connotation of watershed ecological protection and high-quality economic development, starting from the special characteristics and practical features of the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt, the panel data of 28 prefecture-level cities in the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt from 2003-2018 are used as the research samples, the improved entropy method, Dagum Gini coefficient method and panel Tobit model investigate and analyze the time and space of ecological protection and high-quality development in the Huaihe Eco-economic Belt Evolution characteristics and promotion drivers. The results show that the overall ecological protection and high-quality development level of the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt is 1.4824, showing an overall upward trend, with obvious periodic fluctuations; the high-value areas are mainly located in the lower and middle reaches of the basin, with the spatial agglomeration characteristic of “double core leading”, while the upper reaches are always in the stage of “low level and stable growth trap”; the hypervariable density is the main cause of the regional disparity; per capita output, opening to the outside world, human capital and government intervention drive the improvement of ecological protection and high-quality development. There are significant differences in the driving factors of ecological protection and high-quality development in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the city. The study of the development status of the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt and its evolution law are of great theoretical significance, practical value for analyzing the synergistic enhancement path of urban ecological protection and high-quality development, promoting the ecological protection and high-quality economic development of the entire Huaihe River Basin.

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    Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Paschim Kusaha Village of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Sunsari District, Nepal
    Deepa KARKI, Nabin POUDEL, Sweta DIXIT, Sijar BHATTA, Bharat GOTAME, Man Kumar DHAMALA, Dipak KHADKA
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1022-1029.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.007
    Abstract255)   HTML2)    PDF (4744KB)(154)      

    Human-wildlife conflict has been one of the most trouble-causing issues in many areas of Nepal including Eastern Nepal. This study assessed the human-wildlife conflict status in Paschim Kusaha Village of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (KTWR), Sunsari District, Nepal. Data were collected from 47 respondents of different households through questionnaire surveys and formal and informal interviews. Results revealed that the most destructive wild animals were wild elephants, wild boar, and wild water buffalo and the most raided crops were paddy (63.83 %), maize (19.15%), and potato (17.02%). Most of the encounters between humans and wildlife were recorded at night (after dusk and before dawn) (78.72%). Local people were suffering from damage of physical properties, human harassment or nuisance, and depredation of cropland due to wild animals. A total of 70% of respondents had a positive attitude towards conservation despite disturbing human mortality records (22 deaths in the last five years) from the reserve area and surrounding. Awareness of wildlife behavior together with conservation and easy access to compensation schemes were suggested to minimize conflicts in the area.

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    Spatial Distribution and Cultural Features of Traditional Villages in Beijing and Influencing Factors
    XIAO Xiaoyue, TANG Chengcai, LIANG Wenqi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1074-1086.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.012
    Abstract252)   HTML5)    PDF (1782KB)(128)      

    Traditional villages are important part of Beijing, an internationally famous historic and cultural city. Exploring the spatial distribution and cultural features of traditional villages, and the factors that have shaped them, will help promote the protection and utilization of traditional villages in Beijing. ArcGIS spatial analysis, literature analysis, fieldwork and in-depth interviews were mainly carried out to analyze the spatial distribution and cultural features of traditional villages in Beijing and their influencing factors. The results show three main features. (1) The overall distribution of traditional villages in Beijing is random, although there are more traditional villages in the southwest and northeast and less in the southeast and northwest. Most of them are distributed along the higher piedmont plains or intermountain basins, and most of them are backed by hills and surrounded by rivers or along the ancient road. (2) There are some cultural commonalities among the traditional villages in Beijing, and nine typical traditional village cultures have been formed, including traditional residential culture, traditional folklore culture, the Great Wall garrison culture, mausoleum guarding culture, etc. (3) The formation of the spatial distribution and cultural features of traditional villages in Beijing is influenced by natural environmental factors like terrain, climate, and rivers, as well as human activities such as royal life, capital construction, ancient military defense, transportation, trade, etc. This study can provide a reference for the scientific protection and effective utilization of traditional villages in Beijing and all over the country.

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    Effects of Simulated Diurnal Asymmetrical Warming on the Growth Characteristics and Grain Yield of Winter Highland Barley in Tibet
    QIN Yong, FU Gang, SHEN Zhenxi, ZHONG Zhiming
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.001
    Abstract224)   HTML9)    PDF (1129KB)(75)      

    There has been an obvious diurnal asymmetrical warming effect as a result of the overall climate warming in the Tibetan Plateau. To reduce the uncertainty caused by the diurnal asymmetrical warming effect on future food security predictions in the Tibetan Plateau, this study used winter highland barley (var. Dongqing No. 1) for the experimental materials, and the FATI (Free Air Temperature Increase) field open heating system to carry out a simulated diurnal asymmetrical warming experiment (AW: All-day warming, DW: Daytime warming, NW: Nighttime warming, CK: Control) for two growing seasons (2018-2019 and 2019-2020) at the Lhasa Agroecosystem Research Station. The growth characteristics and yield of Tibetan winter highland barley were investigated in this study. Compared to the control, all the AW, DW and NW treatments had significant effects on the phenological period of winter highland barley, with the advancement of the phenological phase and shortening of the whole growth period. The degree of influence was AW>NW>DW, and all the AW, DW and NW treatments shortened the interval from sowing to heading of winter highland barley and increased the interval from heading to maturity. The effect on the phenological phase was the most obvious for AW and reached a statistically significant level (P<0.05). During the generative growth phase, the biomass above-ground and plant height of winter highland barley had an increasing tendency under the different warming conditions. In the late growth period, the biomass above-ground and plant height of the NW treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. In addition, the warming caused a decrease in the dry matter distribution proportions of leaves and stems at the mature stage, and an increase in the distribution ratios of roots and spikes; and the AW, NW and DW treatments increased grain yields by 16.4%, 24.6% and 9.5%, respectively, on average in the two years. The increasing effect on grain yields of the NW treatment reached a significant level compared with the control in 2019-2020 (t=-2.541, P=0.026). In terms of yield composition, the effective spike number and 1000-grain weight tended to increase. The grain number per spike tended to increase, except for the AW treatment, while panicle length and seed setting rate tended to decrease, except for the NW treatment. Therefore, the effects of different simulated diurnal asymmetrical warming treatments on the growth characteristics and yield of winter highland barley were variable in the Tibetan Plateau.

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    Industrial Upgrading, Total Factor Energy Efficiency and Regional Carbon Emission Reduction in China
    ZHU Meifeng, HAN Zeyu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 445-453.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.002
    Abstract224)   HTML20)    PDF (591KB)(99)      

    Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2000 to 2018, the mutual relationships and mechanisms of influence between industrial upgrading, total factor energy efficiency and regional carbon emission were investigated. The results show that the sophistication of industrial structure has a significant inhibitory effect on carbon emissions in all regions. The intensity of inhibition in different regions shows a sequence of “western > central > eastern”. The inhibitory effect of the rationalization of industrial structure on carbon emissions varies greatly among the different regions, with a significant restraining influence in the central and western regions, but much less influence in the eastern region. The inhibition of carbon emissions through the improvement of total factor energy efficiency is significant in all regions, and the inhibition intensity shows the sequence of “western > eastern > central”. Furthermore, the mediating effect test shows that the total factor energy efficiency in different regions has either a partial or complete mediating effect on the influence of industrial upgrading on carbon emission, so it can promote and strengthen the inhibitory effect of industrial upgrading on carbon emissions. Therefore, upgrading the industrial structure and improving the total factor energy efficiency are effective means to promote carbon emission reduction. Reducing carbon emissions by relying solely on industrial upgrading is not ideal, and it needs to be combined with improvements in the total factor energy efficiency to effectively promote carbon emission reduction.

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    Ecosystem Service Value Evolution and Security Pattern Optimization in Huaihai Economic Zone
    CAO Yuhong, CAO Yuandan, CHEN Zhiyu, YU Dailiang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 977-985.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.003
    Abstract219)   HTML8)    PDF (1257KB)(137)      

    The ecological and environmental effects caused by land use change have attracted global attention. Huaihai Economic Zone, as the core of the Huaihe River ecological economic belt, has experienced a reciprocal evolution of land use, ecological security and regional economic development. Based on multi-stage land use data extracted by Google Earth Engine (GEE), the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of ecosystem service value (ESV) evolution in Huaihai Economic Zone from 1998 to 2018 were analyzed with the help of ESV assessment and a minimum accumulated resistance model (MCR), and the regional ecological security pattern (ESP) was optimized. The results show that ESV intensity has obvious spatial differentiation, which is higher in northeastern China and lower in southwestern China. The median ESV area accounted for the largest proportion, while the high and low ESV areas accounted for a small proportion. The characteristics of EVS temporal and spatial differentiation show decreasing and increasing grades. From the perspective of development period, the ESV grade changes show a positive trend. In the optimization of the ecological security pattern, 26 important ecological sources, 22 main landscape ecological corridors, and 65 ecological strategic nodes were optimized and identified, and the middle-level ecological security zone accounted for the largest proportion. The main reasons for the changes in the ESV and ESP are closely related to the changes in local natural resources and the changes and adjustments in government protection policies. These research results can provide a reference for inter-provincial territorial space protection and the formulation of a sustainable development strategy.

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    Spatial Structure and Development of Tourism Resources based on Point Pattern Analysis: A Case Study in Hainan Island, China
    ZHANG Tongyan, WANG Yingjie, WANG Yingying, ZHANG Shengrui, YU Hu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1058-1073.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.011
    Abstract209)   HTML3)    PDF (8684KB)(117)      

    Tourism resources are the basic materials of tourism development, and they also provide the support for regional tourism spatial competition. The development of tourism depends on the degree to which tourism resources are utilized, and it is of great guiding significance for their development and utilization to study their spatial structure. Based on a large sample of data on tourism resources, and starting from the characteristics of multi-type, multi-level and multi-combination, this paper puts forward a framework and method for analyzing the spatial structure of tourism resources. Taking Hainan Island as an example, this paper describes the spatial structure of tourism resources in Hainan Island by using the method of point pattern analysis, identifies the tourism resource development zones, and puts forward some suggestions for the development of tourism resources. The results are as follows: (1) The characteristic scale of the spatial structure of tourism resources in Hainan Island is 30.5 km, and there are significant differences in the distributions of all kinds of tourism resources. (2) Through the spatial structure map of tourism resources, the tourism resource development zones are identified, including three tourist central city levels, “one horizontal and three vertical” tourist belts and four tourist combination areas. (3) By combing the distribution of tourism resources and the development zones in Hainan Island, the cross-border characteristics of the tourism resources and development zones are obvious. In order to give full play to the spatial combination and superposition effect of tourism resources, a change from a single isolated development mode to the overall combined development between regions is suggested. On the provincial scale, it is relatively accurate to describe the spatial structure of tourism resources for point data with a large sample size. However, the method of point pattern analysis can not only accurately describe the spatial structure of tourism resources, but it can also provide reference for other types of regional spatial analyses. The research results provide a scientific basis for the spatial planning of regional tourism resources and have practical significance for the development of regional tourism.

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    The Spatial-temporal Characteristics of PM 2.5 Concentrations in Chinese Cities and the Influencing Factors
    LIU Qingqing, YU Hu, ZHANG Pengfei, LUO Qing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 433-444.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.001
    Abstract203)   HTML33)    PDF (2849KB)(185)      

    Based on the scientific identification of urban built-up areas, the spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations in Chinese cities during 2000-2015, and the factors influencing them, were analyzed by exploratory spatial analysis and spatial econometric models. The results showed that the concentration of PM2.5 in Chinese cities increased in an inverted “L” pattern during 2000-2015. However, the cities with high PM2.5 concentrations are characterized by large-scale agglomeration, and urban agglomeration is an urban agglomeration area with a high PM2.5 concentration. Specifically, the areas with high PM2.5 concentrations are affected by natural factors, social and economic factors and urban form factors which all work together. From 2000 to 2005, the annual average concentration of PM2.5 across all Chinese cities increased from 31.19 μg m-³ to 46.00 μg m-³, and small-scale high concentrations were densely concentrated at the intersection of Hebei, Shandong and Henan. From 2005 to 2010 and from 2010 to 2015, the annual average growth rate of the PM2.5 concentration in urban areas slowed down, with average levels of 47.67 μg m-³ in 2010 and 48.72 μg m-³ in 2015, representing increases of only 3.63% and 2.20%, respectively. In 2010, the high-concentration agglomeration areas expanded to include the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Central Yangtze River, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Chengdu Plain; while in 2015 they further expanded to the entire North China Plain, the Central Yangtze River, and the Harbin-Changchun region.

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    Practices, Problems and Suggestions Regarding the Management of State-owned Natural Resource Assets in Guizhou Province— From the Perspective of the Owner
    LIN Yumei, LI Fangzhou, ZHAN Qingqing, LIU Xiaona, LUO Guofeng, YAN Mengqi, YANG Yanzhao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (2): 364-371.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.02.014
    Abstract200)   HTML3)    PDF (552KB)(72)      

    Improving the management system of state-owned natural resource assets (SONRAs) plays an important role in the institutional reform of ecological civilization in China. It is of great significance for promoting the protection of natural resources and effectively safeguarding the owner’s equity in their SONRAs. Guizhou Province is one of the first ecological civilization pilot sites in China. In this study, we used field investigation methods and the method of historical documents to obtain materials and data about the management of SONRAs in Guizhou Province, and then systematically analyzed the practices in SONRAs management. On this basis, some remaining problems were identified, such as the uncertainty regarding the amount of SONRAs, poorly-defined ownership of property rights and an imperfect revenue system. In response to these problems, countermeasures and suggestions are proposed for the effective maintenance of the owner’s equity in their SONRAs, including establishing an inventory and statistics system to complete the task of comprehensive inventory, establishing an evaluation and accounting system and exploring the path for value realization of ecological products, establishing the principal-agent system and figuring out the asset management listing and agency system, perfecting the income management system to standardize asset income management and improving the asset allocation system to promote the efficiency of resource allocation. The results of this study will provide a reference for strengthening and improving the management of SONRAs in Guizhou Province.

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    Spatio-temporal Dynamic Evolution and the Factors Impacting Eco-efficiency in Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle
    LI Hongli, CHEN Yunping
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 986-998.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.004
    Abstract197)   HTML7)    PDF (9618KB)(95)      

    In response to the 14th National Five-year Plan of China and to better explore new strategies for promoting regional coordinated green development, the eco-efficiency values of Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle and the corresponding temporal analysis from 2004 to 2018 were assessed in this paper using the super-SBM model and Markov chain. Meanwhile, the spatial analysis of eco-efficiency was conducted by a geographically weighted regression model. Although eco-efficiency has risen at an increasing rate, the economic development of Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle was still ecologically ineffective. This means there is an urgent need to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and promote technological innovation. During the study period, the evolution of the eco-efficiency presented as a “π” shape, and was accompanied by the phenomenon of “club convergence”. There was also a strong tendency for eco-efficiency to maintain the original status quo, which indicates that it lacked sufficient momentum for improvement, so it was difficult to achieve a leapfrog transfer. Spatially, the eco-efficiency was distributed from northwest to southeast in a high-low-high manner. The spatial-temporal differences of eco-efficiency narrowed but the effect of agglomeration was relatively weak and there was a polarization trend. Further investigation suggests that the differences in the development level of urbanization, opening, technology, environmental regulation and advancement of industrial structure led to the spatial differences of eco-efficiency. Each city in the Economic Circle should make every effort to improve eco-efficiency accordingly, and thus to promote the green development of the whole region, so as to lay a foundation for driving the green and coordinated development of the central and western regions.

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    A Comparison of Local- and Foreign-funded Hydropower Station Construction in Nepal based on Remote Sensing
    TIMSINA Ritu Raj, WU Mingquan, NIU Zheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1009-1021.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.006
    Abstract196)   HTML3)    PDF (16742KB)(127)      

    International investors in large infrastructure projects face numerous risks. To explore this issue, this paper compares the development of two hydropower stations in Rasuwa District, Nepal: Upper Trishuli 3A, which is fully funded by a Chinese government bank, and Rasuwagadhi, which is fully funded by local government banks. The construction of these two plants was compared between 2012 and 2020 using a visual interpretation method to extract data on roads, buildings, dams, and vehicles from 1-m-resolution remote sensing imagery. Two methods were used to compare the environmental impacts of each plant. Landsat 7/8 30-m imagery was used to monitor changes in the normalized difference vegetation index around the Upper Trishuli 3A hydropower station from 2012 to 2020 and around the Rasuwagadhi hydropower station from 2014 to 2020. Then, 1-m-resolution imagery was used to observe land-cover differences in these areas and time periods. The results indicate that: (1) despite various challenges, such as geological disasters, the COVID-19 pandemic, and a blockade by the Indian government, there was no difference in construction progress between the two hydropower stations. (2) The Upper Trishuli 3A Hydropower Station was associated with better environmental protection work, as there were continuous declines in vegetation growth near Rasuwagadhi and increased overall vegetation growth near Upper Trishuli 3A. (3) Energy projects funded by the Belt and Road Initiative have benefited developing countries enormously. Finally, local conditions should be thoroughly investigated during the construction of foreign-funded power stations.

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    Evaluation of Rural Tourism Resources based on the Tourists Perspective: A Case Study of Lanzhou City, China
    PU Lili, LU Chengpeng, CHEN Xingpeng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1087-1097.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.013
    Abstract196)   HTML4)    PDF (1711KB)(139)      

    Rural tourism has become a hot spot in China's tourism development. Based on the AHP model and the comprehensive evaluation method of fuzzy cognition, this paper builds an evaluation system for the evaluation of rural tourism resources, including resource value, environmental factors, reception conditions with three criterion layers, and 25 evaluation factors. We recovered 574 valid questionnaires through two online forms and field research in Lanzhou city, and then used them to complete the empirical analysis. The results show four main aspects of the tourists' perspective on rural tourism resources. Firstly, rural tourists are concerned about higher service facilities. The evaluation of rural tourism resources pays more attention to the reception conditions, and tourists pay more attention to the facilities of the reception conditions. In addition, the reception condition value accounts for a more concentrated 8-10 points (61.4%), which is higher than environmental elements (58.87%) and the value of the resource itself (54.26%). Secondly, tourists' attention to rural tourism resources mainly focuses on the pleasurable (0.1152), tour line design (0.1014), experience (0.0765), ornamental (0.0747) and other aspects. Thirdly, the degree of cognition mainly focuses on nature (4508), environmental safety (4469), pleasantness (4387), accommodation conditions (4367), tour line design (4363) and other aspects of the rural tourism resources. Fourthly, the cognition of rural tourism resources is basically given priority with 6-9 points, and environmental factors accounted for the highest portion. However, rural tourists have higher expectations for the popularization and education of rural tourism resources, but the sense of acquisition is relatively low. Through the further improvement and improvement of the naturalness of environmental resources, environmental safety of reception conditions, and the enjoyment of external traffic and resource value, the overall benefit of rural tourism resources is maximized. The results of this study can provide reference for the theoretical foundation of rural tourism resources.

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    Ecosystem Services Valuation and Payment for Livelihood Sustainability in the Indian Central Himalayan Region
    Vishwambhar Prasad SATI
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 468-478.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.004
    Abstract193)   HTML86)    PDF (4133KB)(174)      

    This article examines the valuation and payment of ecosystem services for livelihood sustainability in the Indian Central Himalayan Region (ICHR). Data were gathered from both primary and secondary sources on biodiversity resources-tangible (goods) and intangible (services) as the Himalaya is a repository of these resources, also called ecosystem services. The ecosystem services are interlinked with the highlands (providers) and the lowlands (beneficiaries) and providing livelihoods to the large populations. Forests cover about 63% of the total geographical area with rich biodiversity. Water resources are abundant as about 42% of the national water need is met by the Ganga River and its tributaries that originate and flow through the region. The hydroelectricity generating capacity is about 30000 MW. The environmental sustainability index is high due to the clean and pollution-free environment. Agro-biodiversity is substantially high and therefore, several crop races/cultivars grow here, although, arable land is only 18%. However, the people of the highlands are unable to use these biodiversity resources optimally because of the rugged terrain, remoteness, and adverse situation. As a result, the people of the highlands are poor, facing acute malnutrition and food scarcity problems. Valuation of both tangible and intangible ecosystem services can be done and payment can be made. Taxes can be levied on the intangible resources mainly used by the downstream people and green bonuses can be paid to the upstream people.

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    Research on Forest Phenology Prediction based on LSTM and GRU Model
    GUAN Peng, ZHENG Yili
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 25-34.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.003
    Abstract182)   HTML3)    PDF (1907KB)(149)      

    Research on forest phenology is an important parameter related to climate and environmental changes. An optical camera was used as a near-earth remote sensing satellite device to obtain forest images, and the data of Green excess index (GEI) in the images were calculated, which was fitted with the seasonal variation curve of GEI data by double Logistic method and normalization method. LSTM and GRU deep learning models were introduced to train and test the GEI data. Moreover, the rationality and performance evaluation of the deep learning model were verified, and finally the model predicted the trend of GEI data in the next 60 days. Results showed: In the aspects of forest phenology training and prediction, GRU and LSTM models were verified by histograms and autocorrelation graphs, indicating that the distribution of predicted data was consistent with the trend of real data, LSTM and GRU model data were feasible and the model was stable. The differences of MSE, RMSE, MAE and MAPE between LSTM model and GRU model were 0.0014, 0.013, 0.008 and 5.26%, respectively. GRU had higher performance than LSTM. The prediction of LSTM and GRU models about GEI data for the next 60 days both showed a trend chart consistent with the change trend of GEI data in the first half of the year. GRU and LSTM were used to predict GEI data by deep learning model, and the response of LSTM and GRU deep learning models in forest phenology prediction was realized, and the performance of GRU was better than that of LSTM model. It could further reveal the growth and climate change of forest phenology in the future, and provide a theoretical basis for the application of forest phenology prediction.

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    Fundamental Strategic Shift Required by the Expensive Ecological Policy in Chinese Grasslands
    ZHU Jiapei, XU Xingliang, LI Tong, LIU Yali, YANG Yaqian, CUI Xiaoyong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 955-963.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.001
    Abstract178)   HTML13)    PDF (1373KB)(160)      

    Grasslands have critically important ecological and economic values while most of them have been suffering from various degrees of degradation in China due to overgrazing. The “Forage-Livestock Balance” (FLB) policy has been implemented for more than a decade, aims to balance the relationship between forage productivity and grazing consumption of grasslands by livestock. According to the review of statistical data and literatures on policy evaluation, FLB-dominated subsidies for grassland ecological conservation policies are ineffective on grassland restoration, livestock reduction in some overloaded areas and improvement on herdsmen livelihood. To deal with the dilemma, we suggest a fundamental shift of strategy from controlling livestock numbers to maintaining and improving grassland health (MIGH) based on ecological theories, and promote the sustainable development of grassland in China. The results show that, FLB policy failed to obtain expected benefits mainly because it interfered with the herders' autonomous use of contracted grasslands along with the defects of its underlying theory and methodologies. Implementing reward and punishment based on ecosystem health will not only motivate herders to manage their grassland autonomously, but also be more scientific and feasible than FLB.

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    The Effects of Plateau Pika ( Ochotona curzoniae) Presence and Population Control on the Structure of an Alpine Grassland Bird Community
    Joseph P. LAMBERT, Johanna V. HARTMANN, SHI Kun, Philip RIORDAN
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 46-56.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.005
    Abstract178)   HTML0)    PDF (923KB)(127)      

    China’s Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is an important area for bird conservation, with many endemic and Threatened species. Colonial burrowing mammals play an important role in structuring bird communities in arid grasslands around the world. On the QTP, the plateau pika Ocho tona curzoniae builds colonies which provide a dense source of resources for many bird species. However, pikas are regarded as a pest by local pastoralists, and they are the target of a population reduction campaign which could have a significant impact on the bird communities. We surveyed bird communities at Gansu Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve to investigate the differences in community structure between sites with pika colonies (on colony) and sites without them (off colony), and between pika colonies which had been poisoned and those which had not. Using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) combined with permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, we found that there was no significant difference in bird community composition or abundance between the poisoned and untreated colonies. However, there was a very large and statistically significant difference in bird community structures between on- and off-colony sites. Only horned lark Eremophila alpestris was consistently observed at sites without pika colonies, while ten bird species were observed on colonies. Six species were significantly more abundant on colony than off. While we could not claim that the poisoning campaign at Yanchiwan is altering bird communities, the presence of pika colonies seems to be an indispensable resource for the resident birds.

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    Frequency and Causes of Oil Spill Accidents from Ships and Storage Tanks in Quanzhou, China
    SHI Jing, TIAN Yujun, REN Lili
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (2): 391-398.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.02.017
    Abstract174)   HTML3)    PDF (714KB)(97)      

    With the rapid development of Quanzhou, the risk of offshore oil spill accidents has increased. Once a spill accident takes place, the spilled oil causes decades or even hundreds of years of continuous pollution to the marine environment. The direct economic loss may be as high as hundreds of millions of yuan, while the natural resources that are almost impossible to fully recover after such pollution may generate inestimable indirect economic losses in the long term. Therefore, predicting the accident probability, analyzing the causes of risk and putting forward suggestions for improvement have important practical guiding significance for reducing the risk and improving the emergency prevention and ability to control offshore oil spill accidents. Based on the statistical data of cargo throughput, the number of ships entering and leaving the port, and maritime pollution accidents in Quanzhou from 2011 to 2020, the frequency of oil spills during the 14th Five-Year Plan could be predicted by using the direct calculation method and fault tree analysis (FAT). The results show that the frequency of operational and average oil spills from ships are once in 4.92 years and once in 2.41 years, respectively, while the frequency of oil spills from storage tanks is once in 7.28 years. The main causes are anthropic factors, which are manifested as irregular operation, misoperation, unfamiliar equipment, disorganization of the emergency response and failure of the emergency facilities. Therefore, the suggestions put forward for reducing accidents in the future include enhancing the inspection of crew member qualifications as well as the offshore supervision of engineering operation vessels and fishing vessels, increasing the proportion of terminal emergency equipment and personnel and participation in emergency actions, clarifying the division of responsibilities between the terminal and cleanup company, and revising the relevant standards for the evaluation of the terminal’s ability to cope with the emergency of offshore oil spill accidents.

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    The Spatio-temporal Patterns of Macro Benthos Functional Groups and the Associated Factors Affecting Them after Wetland Restoration
    WANG Maoqiu, HU Yang, HE Ning, WU Mingxuan, WU Pengling, WANG Qinyi, ZHANG Bolun, ZHANG Shengle, GAO Meihua, FANG Shubo
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1152-1164.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.019
    Abstract170)   HTML5)    PDF (3338KB)(149)      

    This study examines how the spatiotemporal patterns of functional groups of macro benthos responded to coastal wetland restoration projects. Compared with the traditional single-species approach, methods for identifying functional groups of macro benthos more comprehensively reflect the states of the wetland, i.e., spatiotemporal patterns and the related influencing factors. In this study, the macro benthos samples, soil samples, and plant samples were collected at each same sample site in April, July, and October of 2017 and January of 2018. After classification of the macro benthos functional groups according to some traits, the factors influencing the functional groups were examined by a linear stepwise regression. The results showed that all macro benthos were classified into 11 different functional groups based on their traits of forms of locomotion, feeding habits, and food gathering methods. The semi-mobile suspensivores (FDX), semi-mobile surface detritivores (SDX), and Jawed mobile carnivores (CMJ) were the main groups observed in a year. Regression analysis showed that particle size, moisture content, and plant height were important common factors influencing most groups. The main influencing factor of FDX was particle size (P=0.020). Moisture content (P=0.004), plant cover degree (P=0.008), and particle size (P=0.032) comprised the main restrictions of SDX in summer. Soil salinity (P=0.040) and plant height (P=0.011) were the factors influencing CMJ in autumn and winter. This study shows the changing characteristics of macro benthos functional groups to promote coastal wetland restoration and future biogeomorphological studies.

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    Spatial Differentiation of the Coupling Characteristics of Soil Carbon and Nitrogen on Mulberry Plantations in China
    WANG Xie, HU Yang, GUO Haixia, ZHANG Jianhua, TANG Tian, ZENG Qiguo
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (1): 84-91.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.01.008
    Abstract168)   HTML3)    PDF (649KB)(55)      

    Soil is the most important carbon pool of the mulberry plantation ecosystem, so understanding the characteristics of the soil carbon pool in mulberry plantations provides an important basis for the research of carbon sinks in economic forest ecosystems and farmland ecosystems. In order to explore the spatial differentiation pattern of the relationship between carbon and nitrogen in mulberry plantation soil, this study analyzed the organic carbon content and total nitrogen content of the surface soil layer (0-20 cm) and the subsurface soil layer (20-40 cm) of 475 mulberry plantations in five major regions of China, Southwest China (SWC), Central South China (CSC), East China (EC), North China (NC), and Northwest China (NWC). The research showed seven key aspects of this system. (1) The soil organic carbon of mulberry plantations was significantly different at the two soil depths. The average content of organic carbon in the surface layer of mulberry plantation soil was 10.71±7.01g kg?1, which was 37.13% higher than that of the subsurface layer. (2) The soil organic carbon of mulberry plantations had significant differences in spatial differentiation, which was manifested as SWC>CSC>EC>NC>NWC. (3) The total nitrogen content in mulberry plantation soil had significant responses to the region, the soil layer depth, and the interaction between the region and soil layer depth. Among the regions, NWC had no significant difference between the surface layer and subsurface layer of the soil. EC had the maximum difference in total nitrogen content, with the total nitrogen content in the surface soil layer being 56.68% higher than that of the subsurface soil layer. The total nitrogen contents of the surface soil layers in the SWC and NC were 34.27% and 20.79% higher than those of the respective subsurface soil layers. (4) The mulberry plantation soil C/N ratios had a significant response to regional differences, as NWC>SWC> EC>CSC>NC, but this ratio had no significant response to soil depth. (5) Soil pH had significant spatial differentiation in relation to soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content in mulberry plantations. NWC had no significant correlation between pH and organic carbon or total nitrogen content, while CSC had a significant positive correlation between pH and both soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. Other regions showed significant negative correlations between pH and both organic carbon and total nitrogen content. (6) There was a significant negative correlation between the C/N ratio of the surface soil layer and pH in mulberry plantations, which was mainly contributed by SWC, while the other regions’ surface soil layers had no significant correlations between C/N ratio and pH. (7) There was no significant correlation between the C/N ratio and pH in the subsurface soil layer in mulberry plantations. These results reveal that in either the research on mulberry plantation carbon pools or the innovation of green and low-carbon planting technology in mulberry plantations, the spatial differentiation characteristics of soil must be considered. Furthermore, the spatial differentiation of soil organic carbon can be used as the basic foundation for the planning and design of mulberry afforestation or ecological restoration projects.

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    Variation of Water Conservation Function and Its Influencing Factors of Alpine Grasslands in Northern Tibet from 2000 to 2020
    SONG Qian, HE Yongtao, HUANG Fengrong, LI Meng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 493-501.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.006
    Abstract168)   HTML10)    PDF (4039KB)(139)      

    With an average elevation of more than 4500 m, northern Tibet, known as the “roof of the world roof”, serves as the main body of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau’s ecological security barrier. However, the alpine grassland ecosystem in northern Tibet has suffered considerable alterations as a result of both climate change and overgrazing, and there is a degradation trend in some regions. In 2009, one ecological engineering, the Protection and Construction Project of Ecological Security Barrier in Tibet (hereafter referred to as the “Project”) was implemented to preserve the alpine ecosystem and restore service functions in the plateau. Water conservation is one of the most important service functions in alpine grassland ecosystem in northern Tibet, where is one part of the Asian Water Tower. To clarify the specific ecological benefits of the Project, this paper utilized the InVEST model to evaluate the variation trend of the water conservation function of alpine grasslands in northern Tibet before and after the implementation of the Project from 2000 to 2020, and contribution rate of climate change and the Project was also quantified. Results showed that: (1) Although the water conservation capacity of different grassland types in northern Tibet were varied, their water conservation function all altered dramatically after implementation of the Project. Specifically, the water yield has increased by 10.07%, and the water source supply service has increased by 8.86%. Among these grasslands, the alpine meadow had the highest increasing rate, water conservation capacity increased from -1.84 mm yr-1 to 2.24 mm yr-1 Followed by the alpine desert steppe and the alpine steppe, the rate of water conservation function were decreased significantly due to the Project. (2) Although climate is still the primary factor affecting the water conservation function of alpine grasslands in northern Tibet, the Project has effectively promoted the local water conservation function, with contribution rates of 13.99%, 8.75%, and 3.71% in the alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert steppe regions respectively.

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    Multi-scenario Analysis and the Construction of the Revitalization Model of Green Development in Tourism Traditional Villages
    LIU Yaru, TANG Chengcai, WAN Ziwei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (2): 239-251.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.02.003
    Abstract165)   HTML3)    PDF (849KB)(209)      

    Implementing the concept of green development would help the tourism traditional villages to solve problems such as the deterioration of the ecological environment, the changing of traditional culture, the loss of original landscape, and others. Taking the six tourism traditional villages in Beijing as a case study, this study explored the best green scenario by considering the perceptions of stakeholders and constructed the green revitalization mode of tourism traditional villages by the scenario analysis method and other methods. The results show three key aspects of tourism traditional village development scenarios. (1) From the perspective of future development scenarios, the specific characteristics and objective functions of the basic development scenario are different in the economic revitalization scenario and the green revitalization scenario, the economic revitalization scenario and the green revitalization scenario are different. (2) From the perspective of the stakeholders’ perceptions of different scenario plans, the future development of the case villages will change to varying degrees under the different scenario plans. However, no matter where the traditional villages are in the tourism life cycle, the green development scenario is the best choice. (3) Finally, this article constructed a five-in-one model of the green revitalization of tourism traditional villages with green economy as the key, traditional culture as the core, ecological civilization as the basis, village communities as the agent, and external policies as the guarantee. The research results aim to enrich the theory of green development and rural tourism, and provide theoretical reference and scientific guidance for the green revitalization of tourism traditional villages.

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    Projections of the Emission Reductions of Carbon Dioxide and Conventional Pollutants in the Major Transport Sectors of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China
    GUO Xiurui, GONG Xiaoqian, LIU Yao, ZHANG Yiling
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (2): 372-382.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.02.015
    Abstract164)   HTML11)    PDF (2028KB)(62)      

    Many stakeholders recognize that the transport sector should be a major focus for reducing the emissions of carbon and air pollutants since it is the third largest sector for energy consumption in China. This study analyzed and projected the energy consumption and emissions of CO2 and conventional air pollutants (CO, NOX, SO2, and PM2.5) from four transport sectors (highway, waterway, railway and aviation) based on the LEAP model, compared the emission reduction potentials of different transport sectors under different scenarios in 2020-2060, and finally explored the co-reduction effect for CO2 and the four pollutants under different control measures. The results showed that the CO2 emissions from the transportation sectors in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region would increase greatly under the baseline scenario. Estimates indicate that the CO2 emissions of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province would increase by 263.72%, 225.87% and 405.43% in 2060, respectively. Under the comprehensive policy scenario, the emission reductions would be 88.78%, 76.86% and 83.20% respectively, and the maximum emission reduction rate of pollutants is expected to reach 78.73%-99.34%. The sectors with major reduction potentials for CO2 and conventional pollutants are the aviation and road transport sectors, which contribute 38.19%-99.85% of the total, respectively. The co-reduction achieved by optimizing the energy structure in the road transport and aviation sectors would be the best. The results of this study can provide a basis for the formulation of low-carbon reduction strategies for the transport sectors in the BTH region.

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    Dataset of Inland Waters Nitrogen Deposition in China (1990s-2010s)
    LI Zhaoxi, ZHOU Feng, MIAO Chiyuan, SHI Kun, GAO Yang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2023, 14 (3): 675-680.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.021
    Abstract160)   HTML4)    PDF (2631KB)(78)      

    Dramatic increases in global atmospheric N deposition have had adverse effects on inland water ecosystems. China is one of the three hot spots of N deposition in the world. In order to fully understand the impact of N deposition on inland waters in China and formulate a reasonable water pollution treatment plan, we need to clearly quantify the N deposition flux in inland water. Therefore, using the LMDZ-OR-INCA model combined with inland water area data, we obtained the dataset of inland water N deposition in China from the 1990s to the 2010s, which lays a foundation for further understanding the spatial-temporal pattern of inland water N deposition and its impact mechanisms. At the same time, we publicly share this dataset and provide online access and download services at

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