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    Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling with IBIS: Progress and Future Vision
    LIU Jinxun, LU Xuehe, ZHU Qiuan, YUAN Wenping, YUAN Quanzhi, ZHANG Zhen, GUO Qingxi, DEERING Carol
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (1): 2-16.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.001
    Abstract301)   HTML31)    PDF (771KB)(208)      

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM) are powerful tools for studying complicated ecosystem processes and global changes. This review article synthesizes the developments and applications of the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), a DGVM, over the past two decades. IBIS has been used to evaluate carbon, nitrogen, and water cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, vegetation changes, land-atmosphere interactions, land-aquatic system integration, and climate change impacts. Here we summarize model development work since IBIS v2.5, covering hydrology (evapotranspiration, groundwater, lateral routing), vegetation dynamics (plant functional type, land cover change), plant physiology (phenology, photosynthesis, carbon allocation, growth), biogeochemistry (soil carbon and nitrogen processes, greenhouse gas emissions), impacts of natural disturbances (drought, insect damage, fire) and human induced land use changes, and computational improvements. We also summarize IBIS model applications around the world in evaluating ecosystem productivity, carbon and water budgets, water use efficiency, natural disturbance effects, and impacts of climate change and land use change on the carbon cycle. Based on this review, visions of future cross-scale, cross-landscape and cross-system model development and applications are discussed.

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    The Concept, Connotation and Significance of Cultural Keystone Species in Agricultural Heritage Systems
    MIN Qingwen, YANG Xiao, DING Lubin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (1): 51-60.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.006
    Abstract291)   HTML4)    PDF (630KB)(98)      

    As a new type of heritage, Agricultural Heritage Systems (AHS), represented by Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) designated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (NIAHS) designated by some countries’ Ministry of Agriculture, are typical Social-Ecological Systems (SES), which usually are rich in biodiversity, traditional knowledge, resource utilization technology and outstanding cultural landscapes. Cultural Keystone Species (CKS) are defined as the culturally salient species that shape the cultural identity of a people in a major way. CKS can be used as a prominent tool for the synergistic conservation of SES biology and culture, and to promote the overall enhancement of system functions. This paper summarizes a review of the definition of the CKS and its application in SES conservation. According to the characteristics and protection needs of AHS, this paper defined the CKS in AHS as: “Composites of biological resources and cultural practices, which have a significant impact on the stability of local society and culture systems, contribute to the achievement of AHS’ conservation goals.” Based on this definition, we analyzed the significance of the identification of CKS in AHS. First of all, CKS help to quickly identify the key elements of AHS. Secondly, CKS can promote community participation in the conservation and development of AHS. In addition, the identification of CKS has a significant role in food and livelihood security, biodiversity conservation, traditional knowledge and technology transmission, social organization maintenance, and cultural landscape maintenance in AHS, which helps to achieve the conservation goals of GIAHS and/or NIAHS.

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    A Review of the Contemporary Eco-Agricultural Technologies in China
    YANG Lun, LIU Moucheng, YANG Xiao, MIN Qingwen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 511-517.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.015
    Abstract262)   HTML20)    PDF (338KB)(70)      

    Eco-agriculture is the principal measure for addressing the environmental issues caused by agriculture and an essential direction for agriculture in the future. Meanwhile, the development of eco-agriculture is inseparable from its technical support. At present, the eco-agricultural technologies commonly used in China can be divided into three categories according to their theoretical basis and practical types: the technologies used to realize the precision input of material resources, the technologies used to improve material circulation efficiency, and the technologies that use the principle of species symbiosis. Although these technologies provide essential support for developing eco-agriculture in China, there are also problems associated with their implementation, such as poor technical application and a low level of industrialization. Therefore, in the future development of eco-agriculture technology in China, the technologies producers should take the actual problems as guide and pay attention to the popularization, industrialization, and application of the technologies.

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    Research on the Integrated Planning of Blue-Green Space towards Urban-Rural Resilience: Conceptual Framework and Practicable Approach
    YU Qiao, DU Mengjiao, LI Haochen, TANG Xizi, LI Xiaoyan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 347-359.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.001
    Abstract257)   HTML25)    PDF (11768KB)(291)      

    Facing the impacts of climate change and the ecological environmental problems caused by urbanization, urban-rural resilience is a new value goal of territorial space development. Blue-green space is an interconnected network system of natural and artificial green space and water bodies, which can dissolve the internal and external pressures of the system by way of mitigatory acceptance and adaptive interaction, reduce the impact of climate change and artificial construction disturbances, and provide diversified composite functions. By recognizing the connotation of the concept of blue-green space, its composite ecological functionality and its relationship with the value of urban-rural resilience, this paper constructs a conceptual framework for the integrated planning of blue-green space in urban and rural areas with “resilient objectives, resource identification, integrated configuration, differentiated regulation”. The paper proposes an integrated and coordinated multi-scale practicable approach of blue-green space planning (i.e., the construction of the blue-green corridor network, the configuration of blue-green open space, the allocation of blue-green infrastructure) and the regulation-based urban-rural transect, with the aim of improving the hydroecological performance and composite functional services in order to realize urban and rural resilience.

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    The Development Process, Current Situation and Prospects of the Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses Project in China
    LI Shidong, LIU Moucheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (1): 120-128.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.014
    Abstract228)   HTML10)    PDF (481KB)(257)      

    The Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses Project is the most symbolic and globally important ecological engineering effort to build the human and natural life community. After the call and mobilization stage since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the first round of Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses occurred at the end of the 20th century. With the second round of Conversion of Farmland to Forests And Grasses launched in 2014, the central government has invested 535.3 billion yuan altogether by 2020, and 34.83 million ha have been returned to forest and grassland in 25 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) (2435 counties included). Among them, 14.23 million ha were returned from farmland; barren hills and wasteland afforestation accounted for 17.53 million ha; and sealed mountain forest cultivation represented 3.07 million ha, accounting for 40% of the total afforestation area of national key projects in the same period, and 41 million households and 158 million farmers benefited directly. The project construction has made great achievements. The total value of ecological benefits has reached 1.42 trillion yuan, plus economic benefits of 0.26 trillion yuan, and social benefits of 0.73 trillion yuan, for a total amount of 2.41 trillion yuan. This effort has made outstanding contributions toward building an ecological civilization and a beautiful China. Looking forward to the future, the Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses will embark on a new stage of high-quality development, which will strive to achieve high-quality construction, high efficiency and a high level of management. China will promote the third round of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland from 2021 to 2035, and it is expected to return 6.67 million ha to forests and grasses.

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    Alpine Grassland Aboveground Biomass and Theoretical Livestock Carrying Capacity on the Tibetan Plateau
    ZHANG Xianzhou, LI Meng, WU Jianshuang, HE Yongtao, NIU Ben
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (1): 129-141.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.015
    Abstract167)   HTML8)    PDF (7676KB)(47)      

    The accurate simulation and prediction of grassland aboveground biomass (AGB) and theoretical livestock carrying capacity are key steps for maintaining ecosystem balance and sustainable grassland management. The AGB in fenced grassland is not affected by grazing and its variability is only driven by climate change, which can be regarded as the grassland potential AGB (AGBp). In this study, we compiled the data for 345 AGB field observations in fenced grasslands and their corresponding climate data, soil data, and topographical data on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (TP). We further simulated and predicted grassland AGBp and theoretical livestock carrying capacity under the climate conditions of the past (2000-2018) and future two decades (2021-2040) based on a random forest (RF) algorithm. The results showed that simulated AGBp matched well with observed values in the field (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001) in the past two decades. The average grassland AGBp on the Tibetan Plateau was 102.4 g m-2, and the inter-annual changes in AGBp during this period showed a non-significant increasing trend. AGBp fluctuation was positively correlated with growing season precipitation (R2 = 0.57, P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with the growing season diurnal temperature range (R2 = 0.51, P < 0.001). The average theoretical livestock carrying capacity was 0.94 standardized sheep units (SSU) ha-1 on the TP, in which about 54.1% of the areas showed an increasing trend during the past two decades. Compared with the past two decades, the theoretical livestock carrying capacity showed a decreasing trend in the future, which was mainly distributed in the central and northern TP. This study suggested that targeted planning and management should be carried out to alleviate the forage-livestock contradiction in grazing systems on the Tibetan Plateau.

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    A Review on the Driving Mechanisms of Ecosystem Services Change
    ZHANG Biao, SHI Yunting, WANG Shuang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (1): 68-79.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.008
    Abstract163)   HTML26)    PDF (1706KB)(118)      

    Ecosystem services have rapidly changed at the global and regional scales in recent years. Exploring the driving mechanisms of ecosystem services change and projecting future change are of increasing importance to inform policy and decision-making options for ecosystem conservation and sustainable use. Although some research has analyzed the influences of land use or climate changes on ecosystem services, a systematic review on the mechanisms of ecosystem services change has not been carried out so far. This work elaborated on the mechanisms of ecosystem services change based on a literature review, and reached four main conclusions. (1) Climate change and land use jointly determine the ecosystem services change through complex and interacting pathways. (2) Whereas the present research progresses mainly focus on the identification of a single influencing factor, they fail in the determination of multiple influencing factors. (3) Although multi-scenario simulations based on remote sensing and climate models are the main means used to predict future changes in ecosystem services, clarifying the interactive mechanisms of multiple factors is the precondition for future projection of ecosystem services change; (4) Therefore, future research should strengthen the analysis and simulation of the effects of human activities on ecosystem services, especially the development of technology to detect the dynamic responses of ecosystem services to major ecological projects, which is crucial to the selection of restoration measures and the regional arrangement of ecosystem conservation projects.

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    High-quality Development Paths of Ice-snow Tourism in China from the Perspective of the Winter Olympics
    TANG Chengcai, ZENG Rui, YANG Yuanyuan, XU Shiyi, WANG Xin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 552-563.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.002
    Abstract163)   HTML111)    PDF (785KB)(179)      

    Preparations for the Beijing Winter Olympics have promoted the rapid development of ice-snow tourism in China, which contributes to achieving the goal of having “300 million people participate in ice-snow sports”. This paper analyzes the status quo and problems associated with the growth of ice-snow tourism in China based on the methods of documentation and field investigation. The results indicate that China’s efforts have born abundant fruits. Notwithstanding, there are still some problems due to the limited time and hastened process of ice-snow tourism development, including unreasonable exploitation, low-quality products and services, imperfect investment and financing system, inadequate management, a single marketing mode, and insufficient talent teams. Compared with developed countries in Europe and the United States, ice-snow tourism in China is in the stage of rapid development. To achieve the high-quality development of ice-snow tourism in China, this paper proposes actions from eight aspects which involve policy, products and services, marketing, safety management and control, talent teams, standardization construction, science and technology, and community participation. This study can provide references for the high-quality development of ice-snow tourism in China, as well as perfecting Chinese theoretical research on ice-snow tourism.

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    Predicting the Impact of Climate Change on Vulnerable Species in Gandaki River Basin, Central Himalayas
    Raju RAI, ZHANG Yili, LIU Linshan, Paras Bikram SINGH, Basanta PAUDEL, Bipin Kumar ACHARYA, Narendra Raj KHANAL
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (2): 173-185.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.02.001
    Abstract158)   HTML19)    PDF (4543KB)(88)      

    Gandaki River Basin (GRB) is an important part of the central Himalayan region, which provides habitat for numerous wild species. However, climatic changes are making the habitat in this basin more vulnerable. This paper aims to assess the potential impacts of climate change on the spatial distributions of habitat changes for two vulnerable species, Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus laniger) and common leopard (Panthera pardus fusca), using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) species distribution model. Species occurrence locations were used along with several bioclimatic and topographic variables (elevation, slope and aspect) to fit the model and predict the potential distributions (current and future) of the species. The results show that the highly suitable area of Himalayan black bear within the GRB currently encompasses around 1642 km2 (5.01% area of the basin), which is predicted to increase by 51 km2 in the future (2050). Similarly, the habitat of common leopard is estimated as 3999 km2 (12.19% of the GRB area), which is likely to increase to 4806 km2 in 2050. Spatially, the habitat of Himalayan black bear is predicted to increase in the eastern part (Baseri, Tatopani and north from Bhainse) and to decrease in the eastern (Somdang, Chhekampar), western (Burtibang and Bobang) and northern (Sangboche, Manang, Chhekampar) parts of the study area. Similarly, the habitat of common leopard is projected to decrease particularly in the eastern, western and southern parts of the basin, although it is estimated to be extended in the southeastern (Bhainse), western (Harichaur and northern Sandhikhark) and north-western (Sangboche) parts of the basin. To determine the habitat impact, the environmental variables such as elevation, Bio 15 (precipitation seasonality) and Bio 16 (precipitation of wettest quarter) highly contribute to habitat change of Himalayan black bear; while Bio 13 (precipitation of wettest month) and Bio 15 are the main contributors for common leopard. Overall, this study predicted that the suitable habitat areas of both species are likely to be impacted by climate change at different altitudes in the future, and these are the areas that need more attention in order to protect these species.

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    Spatial and Temporal Pattern Changes and Driving Forces: Analysis of Salinization in the Yellow River Delta from 2015 to 2020
    HONG Mengmeng, WANG Juanle, HAN Baomin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 786-796.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.004
    Abstract155)   HTML12)    PDF (11637KB)(99)      

    China’s Yellow River Delta represents a typical area with moist semi-humid soil salinization, and its salinization has seriously affected the sustainable use of local resources. The use of remote sensing technology to understand changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of salinization is key to combating regional land degradation. In this study, a feature space model was constructed for remote sensing and monitoring land salinization using Landsat 8 OIL multi-spectral images. The feature parameters were paired to construct a feature space model; a total of eight feature space models were obtained. An accuracy analysis was conducted by combining salt-loving vegetation data with measured data, and the model demonstrating the highest accuracy was selected to develop salinization inversion maps for 2015 and 2020. The results showed that: (1) The total salinization area of the Yellow River Delta displayed a slight upward trend, increasing from 4244 km2 in 2015 to 4629 km2 in 2020. However, the area’s salting degree reduced substantially, and the areas of saline soil and severe salinization were reduced in size; (2) The areas with reduced salinization severity were mainly concentrated in areas surrounding cities, and primarily comprised wetlands and some regions around the Bohai Sea; (3) Numerous factors such as the implementation of the “Bohai Granary” cultivation engagement plan, increase in human activities to greening local residential living environments, and seawater intrusion caused by the reduction of sediment contents have impacted the distribution of salinization areas in the Yellow River Delta; (4) The characteristic space method of salinization monitoring has better applicability and can be promoted in humid-sub humid regions.

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    Mushrooms in the Mountains: Assessing the Role of Fungi on the Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) Practices in Nepal Himalaya
    DEVKOTA Shiva, SHRESTHA Uttam Babu, POUDEL Sanjeev, CHAUDHARY Ram Prasad
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (6): 1030-1036.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.06.008
    Abstract154)   HTML2)    PDF (1435KB)(155)      

    To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), thereby meet the post 2020 global biodiversity targets and increase resilience to climate change, nature-based approaches such as ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is suggested as a promising and integrated adaptation strategy. EbA comprises adaptation strategies that value the role of ecosystems in reducing social vulnerability to climate change. Among the different biological groups on earth, fungi play not only an important role to maintain the biogeochemical cycle/nutrient cycle in ecosystems (supporting and regulating services), but also contribute to the socio-economic and cultural benefits of societies (provisioning and cultural services). Here, we present our knowledge and scientific understanding on how these neglected groups of biodiversity-fungi are crucial for ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) approach based on our field experience, review and associated expertise on caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis), and other wild mushrooms found in Nepal. Several species of fungi are used by local communities as food, medicines, and environmental income. Fungi are important sources of household income for mountain communities in Nepal providing a cushion during shocks and disasters and supporting food security, health care, education and building shelter. For the holistic EbA approach, it is essential to strengthen local institutions as well as indigenous local knowledge which could be an important policy intervention for the identification, conservation, and sustainable management of ecologically, socially and economically useful fungal species.

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    Life Cycle Assessment of Biodegradable Polylactic Acid (PLA) Plastic Packaging Products—Taking Tianjin, China as a Case Study
    ZHAO Menglei, YANG Zeng, ZHAO Jingnan, WANG Yan, MA Xiaolei, GUO Jian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 428-441.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.008
    Abstract153)   HTML18)    PDF (747KB)(99)      

    In this paper, the life cycle assessment (LCA) method is used to evaluate and quantify the energy consumption and environmental impacts of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) plastic packaging from the five stages of raw material acquisition, raw material transportation, product production, products use and final disposal. Seven impact categories were selected for the impact analysis: abiotic depletion potential fossil fuels (ADP), global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), photochemical ozone formation potential (POCP), human toxicity potential (HTP), and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential (TETP). The results of the LCA are discussed and the results show that production of products is the highest stage of the environmental impact. Meanwhile, in the entire life cycle, the top three environmental impact categories are GWP, ADP and HTP, which account for 32.63%, 24.83% and 14.01%, respectively. The LCA results show that the environmental impact can be reduced in several ways: reducing the consumption of electricity, increasing the input of new energy, increasing the conversion rate of materials in the production process, using organic and water-soluble fertilizers instead of conventional fertilizers, using environment-friendly fuels and establishing a sound recycling system.

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    Sustainable Development of Ice and Snow Tourism—Theory & Empirical Studies: Preface
    TANG Chengcai, XU Shiyi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 547-551.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.001
    Abstract138)   HTML120)    PDF (370KB)(151)      

    The Beijing Winter Olympics brought a historical miracle to the development of China’s ice and snow tourism. It is both an opportunity and a challenge to reap the extra dividends of the times and to develop China’s ice and snow tourism. By selecting 18 academic papers, this special issue deeply discusses the status quo and the future measures of ice and snow tourism in China from three aspects: ice and snow tourism development and management, the ice and snow tourism experience and its influencing factors, and ice and snow tourism impact assessment. Moreover, one part entitled “Tourism Culture and Ecotourism” has been set up to emphasize those cutting-edge research topics. It is worth mentioning that this issue is in-depth and has profound connotations. First of all, the research area ranges from national to regional to the city-level, including both longitudinal and horizontal research. In additon, the research methods are practical, innovative, and at the frontier of scientific research, and include industrial correlation analysis methods, kernel density, spatial autocorrelation and other geospatial analysis methods, content analysis methods, sentiment analysis methods, structural equation models, Delphi methods, spatial statistics methods, geographic detector method and many others. In general, this special issue combines qualitative research with quantitative research, provides a variety of theoretical perspectives such as perceived value theory, institutional evolution theory, etc., and builds various useful models like the pre-competition evaluation model for ice and snow tourism heritage, the consumption skill-travel radius decision-making influence model under the moderating effect of the ski resort comprehensive leisure environment, the evaluation model of the suitability of glacier tourism resource development, the model of the relationship between tourists’ experience value and loyalty in the context of ice and snow tourism, among others. These studies are expected to provide theoretical and practical guidance for the development of ice and snow tourism in the post-Winter Olympics era, and help ice and snow tourism develop in a sustainable and high-quality direction.

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    Evaluation of Inner Mongolia Wind Erosion Prevention Service based on Land Use and the RWEQ Model
    WANG Yangyang, XIAO Yu, XU Jie, XIE Gaodi, QIN Keyu, LIU Jingya, NIU Yingnan, GAN Shuang, HUANG Mengdong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 763-774.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.002
    Abstract135)   HTML24)    PDF (9096KB)(71)      

    Inner Mongolia is the important ecological barrier zone in northern China, which plays an important role in the prevention and control of wind in the regional ecosystem. Based on the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) model and the cost-recovery method, this study simulated the wind erosion prevention service (WEPS) in Inner Mongolia in 2010 and 2015, investigated the spatial pattern of material and monetary value of WEPS, and analyzed the differences among various cities and various ecosystems. The results indicated that the total WEPS of Inner Mongolia was estimated to be 73.87×108 t in 2015, which was 4.61×108 t less than in 2010, while the monetary value of WEPS was calculated to be 738.66×108 yuan in 2015, which was 46.16×108 yuan less than in 2010. Among all the leagues and cities, Xilin Gol League supported the highest WEPS, reaching 18.65×108 t in 2015, while Wuhai provided the lowest. The WEPS of Hulunbeier increased the most, by 4.37×108 t from 2010 to 2015. The WEPS in the grassland ecosystem was the highest among the different ecosystems, accounting for more than 55% of the total WEPS in Inner Mongolia, but it was reduced by 1.05×108 t during the same period. The WEPS in the forest ecosystem increased the most, reaching 0.19×108 t. This study found that the implementation of projects such as returning farmland to forests and grasses and sand control effectively increased the WEPS by increasing the forest area. However, unsuitable land use increased the desertification of ecosystems which resulted in a reduction of WEPS in Inner Mongolia.

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    Dynamics of the Alpine Treeline Ecotone under Global Warming: A Review
    XU Dandan, AN Deshuai, ZHU Jianqin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 476-482.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.012
    Abstract131)   HTML10)    PDF (528KB)(149)      

    The alpine treeline ecotone is defined as a forest-grassland or forest-tundra transition boundary either between subalpine forest and treeless grassland, or between subalpine forest and treeless tundra. The alpine treeline ecotone serves irreplaceable ecological functions and provides various ecosystem services. There are three lines associated with the alpine treeline ecotone, the tree species line (i.e., the highest elevational limit of individual tree establishment and growth), the treeline (i.e., the transition line between tree islands and isolated individual trees) and the timber line (i.e., the upper boundary of the closed subalpine forest). The alpine treeline ecotone is the belt region between the tree species line and the timber line of the closed forest. The treeline is very sensitive to climate change and is often used as an indicator for the response of vegetation to global warming. However, there is currently no comprehensive review in the field of alpine treeline advance under global warming. Therefore, this review summarizes the literature and discusses the theoretical bases and challenges in the study of alpine treeline dynamics from the following four aspects: (1) Ecological functions and issues of treeline dynamics; (2) Methodology for monitoring treeline dynamics; (3) Treeline shifts in different climate zones; (4) Driving factors for treeline upward shifting.

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    Analysis of the Driving Factors of Carbon Emissions and Countermeasures for Carbon Emission Reduction in Hebei Province
    WANG Bo, WANG Limao, XIANG Ning, QU Qiushi, XIONG Chenran
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (2): 220-230.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.02.005
    Abstract131)   HTML10)    PDF (1245KB)(74)      

    In this paper, the quadratic polynomial and cubic polynomial functions were applied to analyze the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of carbon emissions in Hebei Province. The improved STIRPAT model was also applied to assess the driving factors and reduction paths for carbon emissions in Hebei Province. The results lead to three main conclusions. Firstly, carbon emissions and economic growth in Hebei Province are in a positive cor-relation stage which has not formed the EKC curve, and the “decoupling” stage between carbon emissions and economic growth has not arrived yet. Secondly, the industrial structure, per capita GDP, fixed assets investment, population size and urbanization rate account for the highest proportion of carbon emissions. Carbon emissions can be reduced greatly by changing the energy structure, in which the proportion of coal is decreased year by year. Environmental regulation also has an obvious effect on the reduction of carbon emissions. Thirdly, it is suggested that the reduction of carbon emissions in Hebei Province should focus on four tasks: controlling the development of heavy industry, avoiding overcapacity, optimizing the industrial structure and accelerating the development of clean energy.

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    A Spatial Analysis of Urban Color Harmony in Five Global Metropolises
    CHEN Naige, XU Xiaofan, TAN Minghong, WANG Xianming
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (2): 238-246.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.02.007
    Abstract129)   HTML5)    PDF (3983KB)(53)      

    Harmonious urban color can reduce urban light pollution, relieve the urban heat island effect, improve the living quality and form a distinctive style. However, due to the manifold architectural styles, urban color in metropolises typically becomes complicated, which may destroy the color harmony of metropolises. Up to now, there has not been enough research on the quantitative expression of the degree of color harmony, and the research on comparing the urban color characteristics of different metropolises is also relatively insufficient. This paper firstly developed a method to quantitatively measure the degrees of color harmony (DCHs) of five metropolises in 2020: London, Tokyo, Chicago, Paris, and Beijing, by writing a Python program and using the Sentinel-2A remote sensing data. GIS buffers were then used to analyze the spatial distribution of the DCHs within each metropolis. In addition, 20 typical samples were selected to analyze the differences of the DCHs between residential and industrial areas. The results showed that: (1) The values of the DCHs of London and Tokyo were the highest, followed by Chicago and Paris, while Beijing was the lowest. (2) The values of the DCHs were increasing from the inside out in Chicago, Paris, and London, while those in Beijing and Tokyo were decreasing. (3) The values of the DCHs in industrial areas were much lower than in residential areas. Based on the above results, policy implications are provided for color management of these metropolises. Lastly, this study may provide a method for the rapid analysis the DCHs for other metropolises.

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    Considerations of Forest Distribution and Native Tree Species for Afforestation in the High Altitudes on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau
    SHI Peili, ZHENG Lili, ZHOU Tiancai, HOU Ge, ZHAO Guangshuai
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (1): 100-106.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.011
    Abstract129)   HTML4)    PDF (2401KB)(44)      

    Forests are the main components of terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in the protection and construction of the national ecological security barrier. For a long time, China's large-scale afforestation had been practiced in areas with rainfall higher than the 400 mm threshold, but the issue of afforestation in high altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau remains elusive in both practical experience and theoretical exploration. It is worth thinking further about what principles should be followed in the selection of tree species and suitable altitudes for afforestation in high-altitude areas, as well as what experiences and lessons of previous afforestation efforts should be applied in high-altitude areas. As per the law of vegetation zonal distribution, this paper argues that afforestation at high altitudes should comply with the principle of vegetation zonal distribution and the low temperature limitation, and points out that afforestation is feasible only within the forest distribution area and below the altitudes of climate timberlines. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential spatial areas of afforestation, and determine the local tree species that may be used for afforestation based on the existing problems of afforestation in eastern Tibet. In summary, afforestation in high-altitude areas of the eastern Tibetan Plateau must comply with the law of zonal vegetation distribution, focus on the upper limit of altitude and the selection of suitable tree species, and adopt only suitable native tree species.

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    A Community Resilience Evaluation and Optimization Strategy based on Stormwater Management
    ZHANG Quan, XUE Shanshan, ZOU Chengdong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 360-370.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.002
    Abstract128)   HTML22)    PDF (3340KB)(97)      

    In the context of disaster normalization, the concept of “resilience” has been gradually introduced into the field of disaster prevention and mitigation in urban communities. In order to resist the increasingly frequent disasters caused by extreme weather, it is necessary to shift the focus of building resilient urban communities to the level of stormwater management. Community resilience is a disaster prevention and mitigation capability based on community resources. In order to solve the deficiency of storm and flood management in the current construction of resilient communities in China, it is necessary to establish a quantitative evaluation system to evaluate it. This paper uses the analytic hierarchy process and Delphi method to establish a community resilience evaluation system from the perspectives of community material space level, community management level and individual level. Then three communities in Hefei City, Anhui Province are selected for practical application of the system, and corresponding optimization and transformation strategies are proposed. The results show that: (1) The resilience of community stormwater management is closely related to the integrated environment of the community, the allocation of flood control facilities and the daily disaster prevention and mitigation management; (2) The ability of disaster prevention and mitigation and the awareness of public participation of the residents in all communities are relatively weak, and the communities invest less in the popularization of stormwater management wisdom; and (3) Resilient communities should not only pay attention to the construction of non-engineering disaster prevention measures, but also to the application of small-scale green infrastructure oriented toward stormwater management.

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    Characteristics and Determinants of China’s Ice-and-Snow Tourism Industrial Cluster
    SONG Changyao, YIN Tingting, LI Xinjian, CHEN Wei, LI Shan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 564-577.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.003
    Abstract128)   HTML112)    PDF (2812KB)(145)      

    Ice-and-snow tourism (IST) is a booming industry, and the development of its industrial clusters reflects its regional development quality. Taking 1985-2021 data for China’s IST enterprises, this study used industrial cluster identification and industrial correlation analysis to explore the development of IST industrial clusters. The following results were obtained: (1) China’s IST initially formed hotspot industrial clusters in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Northeast, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, Chengdu-Chongqing, and Xinjiang regions. (2) Multiple industry forms failed to become deeply integrated into development, indicating a need to optimize the structure of the IST industrial chain. (3) The development environment of IST industrial clusters in each province showed differentiated characteristics. (4) IST industrial clustering was affected by both internal and external factors. External factors were grouped into climate and ice-and-snow resources, government policies and sports events, and economic fundamentals and market conditions. Internal factors included industrial association and industrial integration in the IST industrial cluster. Based on this study’s identification of the characteristics of China’s IST industrial clusters, countermeasures are proposed for their optimal development.

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    Characteristics and Carbon Storage of a Typical Mangrove Island Ecosystem in Beibu Gulf, South China Sea
    WU Bin, ZHANG Wenzhu, TIAN Yichao, LIANG Mingzhong, XU Jun, GU Guanhai
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 458-465.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.010
    Abstract124)   HTML11)    PDF (731KB)(77)      

    By studying the structural characteristics and carbon storage of the mangrove island ecosystem in the Beibu Gulf, this study provides a scientific basis for mangrove ecological compensation in the coastal areas of Guangxi, South China Sea. On the basis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing images and a sample plot survey, the object-oriented multi-scale segmentation algorithm is used to extract the mangrove community type information, and one-way analysis of variance is conducted to analyse the structural characteristics of the mangrove community. The carbon storage and carbon density of different mangrove ecosystems were obtained based on the allometric growth equation of mangrove plants. The analysis yielded four main results. (1) The island group covers about 27.10 ha, 41.32% (11.20 ha) of which represents mangrove areas. The mangrove forest is widely distributed in the tidal flats around the islands. (2) The main mangrove types were Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia obovata + Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina + Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina communities. (3) Amongst the mangrove plants, Avicennia marina had the highest biomass (18.52 kg plant-1), followed by Kandelia obovata (7.84 kg plant-1) and Aegiceras corniculatum (3.85 kg plant-1). (4) The mangrove carbon density difference was significant. Kandelia obovata had the highest carbon density (148.03 t ha-1), followed by Avicennia marina (104.79 t ha-1) and Aegiceras corniculatum (99.24 t ha-1). The carbon storage of the mangrove island ecosystem was 1194.70 t, which was higher than in other areas with the same latitude. The carbon sequestration capacity of the mangrove was relatively strong.

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    Patterns and Driving Forces of Cropland Abandonment in Mountainous Areas
    CHEN Shuanglong, SONG Wei, LI Han, LI Han
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 394-406.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.005
    Abstract124)   HTML5)    PDF (7650KB)(20)      

    Cropland abandonment is spreading from developed countries to developing countries such as China. Cropland abandonment in China commonly occurs in mountainous areas due to their specific natural and geographical conditions. However, due to the lack of dependable monitoring methods via medium-high-resolution remote sensing images, the scale of abandoned cropland in many mountainous areas of China is unclear, and the mechanisms driving cropland abandonment have not been clearly identified. To overcome these limitations, we took Zhong County of Chongqing in China as an example, and used Landsat 8 OLI_TIRS remote sensing image data to develop a method for mapping abandoned cropland in mountainous areas based on annual land use change monitoring. At the same time, the ridge regression method was adopted to analyze the factors influencing cropland abandonment. These analyses showed that the cropland abandonment rate in Zhong County of Chongqing was as high as 7.86%, while the overall accuracy of identifying abandoned cropland was as high as 90.82%. Among the social and economic factors that affect cropland abandonment, the rural population, economic development, and livestock husbandry development were the most important ones. At the land parcel scale, large-scale cropland abandonment occurred in areas at elevations above 650 m or with slopes of more than 15°.

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    Changes in the Ecological Characteristics of Key Biodiversity Areas in the BRI Region
    WANG Boyu, YAN Huimin, FENG Zhiming, YANG Yanzhao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (2): 328-337.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.02.015
    Abstract116)   HTML11)    PDF (3790KB)(56)      

    Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are ecological conservation priorities proposed by IUCN and widely recognized by most countries. Evaluating the changes in the ecological characteristics in KBAs is important for biodiversity conservation and the construction of Protected Areas (PAs). There are various ecosystem types in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) region, which has an extremely high value of biodiversity conservation, and the KBAs should be the prime targets of ecological protection efforts. Using the data of land cover, NDVI and Nighttime Light (NTL), we analyzed the ecological conditions of the KBAs in the BRI region, and their temporal and spatial variations, from the perspectives of vegetation coverage and human activities. The conclusions are: (1) There is generally no significant difference in the land cover of the KBAs, among which forest, wilderness and grassland are the main types; (2) The NDVI of the KBAs showed an increase, indicating that the vegetation was gradually improving, while a few KBAs presenting vegetation degradation were mainly distributed in the Indochina Peninsula, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Central and Western Asia; and (3) The NTL in the KBAs was very low, indicating that the human pressure on the natural ecosystems was limited, and only a few KBAs distributed in Central and Eastern Europe, India, and the Indochina Peninsula have high human activity intensity which also showed an increase. This study emphasizes that we should make full use of the biome succession law, and limit the interference of human activities on natural ecosystems for ecological protection of the KBAs, so as to continuously make new breakthroughs in the construction of Protected Areas (PA) in the BRI region.

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    Spatial Distribution and Tourism Activation of Traditional Villages in Yunnan Province
    XU Shaohui, DONG Liping
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 851-859.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.009
    Abstract115)   HTML45)    PDF (2284KB)(2111)      

    Using ArcGIS to analyze the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province in combination with the actual local conditions of traditional villages, the purpose of this study is to determine the development model suitable for their characteristics. The results show several important features of traditional village distribution. (1) The traditional villages in Yunnan Province have spatial structural characteristics of unbalanced cohesive distribution, and they are mainly distributed in the higher-level cities and prefectures such as northwest Yunnan, west Yunnan and south Yunnan. Among them, the traditional villages of Baoshan City have the highest distribution density of 66.33 per 10000 km2. This is followed by Dali Prefecture and Honghe Prefecture, where the densities of traditional villages are 44.13 per 10000 km2 and 37.66 per 10000 km2, respectively. (2) The factors affecting the spatial distribution structure of traditional villages in Yunnan Province are natural geographical factors, humanistic historical factors and transportation factors. Among them, the natural geographical conditions with a large vertical gap in Yunnan Province gave birth to the human settlement environment of traditional villages. The history of a farming civilization that has been passed down from generation to generation has laid a brilliant and splendid humanistic foundation for traditional villages, and the high-altitude areas are relatively primitive. The transportation conditions have delayed the destruction of traditional villages by urbanization and industrialization. In summary, these factors have affected the spatial distribution pattern of traditional villages in Yunnan Province to some extent. (3) According to the law of the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province, it is necessary to explore the activation path of traditional village tourism with regional characteristics and ethnic characteristics, and also to carry out differentiated development according to the different endowment characteristics of local resources, that is to develop a series of activation modes including agricultural tourism, cultural tourism and ecological tourism.

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    Preliminary Estimation of Soil Carbon Sequestration of China’s Forests during 1999-2008
    WANG Bin, LIU Moucheng, ZHOU Zhichun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (1): 17-26.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.002
    Abstract114)   HTML23)    PDF (800KB)(92)      

    The National Forest Inventory (NFI) is an important resource for estimating the national carbon balance (These data were unpublished data, and we could only obtain the data before 2008 through data search by now). Based on the data from sample plots, the literature, and NFI, as well as the relationships between volume, biomass, annual litterfall and soil respiration of different forest types, the net ecosystem production (NEP), changes in forest biomass carbon storage (△Cbiomass) and non-respiratory losses (NR) of China’s forests during 1999-2008 were estimated, and the forest soil carbon sequestration (△Csoil) was assessed according to the carbon balance principle of the forest ecosystem (△Csoil = NEP - NR - Cbiomass). The results showed that the total NEP, Cbiomass, NR and △Csoil values for China’s forests were 157.530, 48.704, 31.033 and 77.793 Tg C yr-1 respectively, and average NEP, △Cbiomass, NR, and △Csoil values were 101.247, 31.303, 19.945 and 49.999 g C m-2 yr-1 respectively. There were large spatial differences in forest soil carbon sequestration in different parts of China. The forest soil in Jiangxi, Hunan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Anhui, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Guangxi and Liaoning served as carbon sources and the carbon released was about 25.507 Tg C yr-1. The other 22 provinces served as carbon sinks and the average carbon sequestration by forest soil came to 103.300 Tg C yr-1. This research established a method for evaluating soil carbon sequestration by China’s forests based on the NFI, which is a useful supplement to current statistical data-based studies on the forest ecosystem carbon cycle, and can promote comparable studies on forest soil carbon sequestration with consistent research methods at the regional scale.

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    Père David’s Deer ( Elaphurus davidianus) in China: Population Dynamics and Challenges
    XUE Dayuan, ZHANG Yuanyuan, CHENG Zhibin, ZHONG Zhenyu, CAO Ming, FU Mengdi, BAI Jiade, YUAN Xuejiao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (1): 41-50.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.005
    Abstract113)   HTML6)    PDF (1922KB)(54)      

    The reintroduction of rare and endangered species is one of the most important approaches to conservation and ecosystem restoration, but it has still proven to be an adventurous undertaking and most reintroduction programmes fail, so successful demonstrations are needed. Père David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus, Milu in Chinese) could be considered one of conservation’s great success stories, as this species’ path on the road to extinction has been reversed by a combination of ex-situ conservation and successful re-introduction in China. The species had been consigned to an imperial hunting ground when the last Chinese herds were exterminated during the fall of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912). Fortunately, a few of the last remaining individuals were sent to European zoos. From these animals, a herd was bred on the 14th Duke of Bedford’s estate, Woburn Abbey, and between 1985 and 1987, and 38 Milu were donated back to China for re-introduction in Beijing Milu Park (BMP), the former imperial hunting ground. An additional 39 deer were released at Dafeng National Nature Reserve (DFNNR), Jiangsu Province in 1986. In both of these safe and protected locations, the Milu thrived allowing for over 700 Milu to be sent to a further 82 sites throughout the species’ original Chinese range over the last 36 years. As a result, the Milu population totaled 9136 by 2021, with 2855 individuals now living back in the wild; while another 5681 individuals inhabit the DFNNR, and 186 reside in BMP. Wild Milu, however, still face significant conservation challenges. The population lacks genetic diversity, leading to severe inbreeding depression and carrying multiple risks, such as high miscarriage rates, a reduced lifespan, and susceptibility to disease. Environmental constraints such as pollution and habitat fragmentation further result in small, fragmented wild populations. Moreover, the species currently lacks a national level conservation master plan, the associated coordinated monitoring platforms, and breeding plans for China’s captive populations. Finally, there is now a lack of international cooperation in the conservation of this species. We therefore call for both a national-level conservation master plan in China and international cooperation to develop a shared database and germplasm databank covering Milu across all countries with ex-situ populations, as crucial steps for securing the long-term conservation of Milu and preventing it from ever becoming “extinct in the wild” again.

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    The Ecological Water Demand of Different Vegetation Types in the Bashang Area, Northwest Hebei Province
    XU Zhongqi, ZHANG Naixuan, WANG Ran, YANG Xin, SUN Shoujia, YAN Tengfei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (1): 113-119.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.013
    Abstract111)   HTML1)    PDF (621KB)(28)      

    In order to construct stable vegetation for reducing wind and sand disasters and soil erosion in the Bashang Area of Northwest Hebei Province in China, it is very important to understand the ecological water demand of different vegetation types in this area. Based on observed data and the Irmak-Allen formula, we investigated the ecological water demand and ecological water shortage of arbor, shrub and grassland in Bashang Area of northwestern Hebei province. The results showed that the actual evapotranspiration values of the three vegetation types in the growing seasons in the study area from high to low were arbor forest (401.81 mm), shrub (358.78 mm) and grassland (346.02 mm). The minimum ecological water requirements of arbor forest, shrub and grassland in the growing season were 243.96 mm, 218.35 mm and 211.36 mm, respectively, and the optimal ecological water requirements were 472.99 mm, 423.34 mm and 409.77 mm, respectively. In addition, the optimal ecological water shortage values were 198.56 mm for arbor forest, 148.91 mm for shrub and 135.34 mm for grassland. The ecological water shortage of vegetation has obvious seasonality, with the largest water shortage in May and June, and a lower and steady water surplus in July to October. Therefore, an artificial water supplementation in May and June would alleviate the drought stress of the vegetation. The rainfall in Bashang Area of Northwest Hebei Province can meet the requirements of minimum ecological water demand for arbor forest, but the gap between the rainfall and the optimal ecological water requirement is too large to support good growth of an arbor forest, which could explain why the degradation of poplar protective forests has occurred in Bashang Area.

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    Basic Principles of Gross Ecosystem Product (GEP) Accounting
    ZHANG Linbo, HAO Chaozhi, SONG Yang, WANG Yiyao, ZHANG Wentao, HUANG Yuhua, LIANG Tian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 501-510.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.014
    Abstract111)   HTML8)    PDF (426KB)(1291)      

    Gross ecosystem product (GEP) is the gross value of all ecosystem products and services provided by ecosystems for human society. In practice, GEP measures the ecosystems' contributions to human well-being and constitutes one of the core issues in the construction of ecological civilization systems. Currently, GEP accounting faces a series of problems, such as the inconsistency of accounting subjects and a lack of accounting standards, the result of which is the non-reproducibility and weak applicability of accounting results. In this paper, mainstream models for ecosystem service valuation are summarized in a systematic manner. On this basis, eight basic principles are established for screening accounting indicators: biological productivity, human benefits, production territoriality, current increment, actual effectiveness, physical metrizability, data availability, and harmlessness. Next, a series of ecosystem service subjects are identified that need to be excluded from accounting, and the detailed reasons for their exclusion are presented. Finally, three ideas for improving GEP accounting are offered from the perspectives of the relationship between biological production and human production, the circulation-transport relationship and spatial differences, and harms to the ecosystem carrying capacity. The purpose is to provide positive considerations aimed at promoting the socio-economic applications of accounting and to contribute to the scientific quantification of the values of ecological products.

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    The Evolution Pattern and Simulation of Land Use in the Beijing Municipal Administrative Center (Tongzhou District)
    LIU Yujie, SHI Jinlian, ZHENG Yaomin, HUANG Xiankai
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (2): 270-284.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.02.010
    Abstract108)   HTML2)    PDF (2604KB)(37)      

    Beijing Municipal Administrative Center (Beijing MC) in Tongzhou District has inherited the non-capital core functions of Beijing’s central urban area, and its rapid construction and development urgently require a scientific understanding of the pattern of land use evolution in the region. This paper analyzes the pattern of land use evolution in Tongzhou District over the past 40 years, from 1980 to 2020. According to the historical evolutionary characteristics of land use and urban development planning goals, combined with the driving factors of cultural tourism development, the Future Land-use Simulation (FLUS) model is used to simulate the spatial distribution of land use in Beijing MC (Tongzhou District) in 2035 under three scenarios of urbanization acceleration, deceleration and sustainable development. The results show three major trends. (1) Beijing MC (Tongzhou District) is dominated by urban development and construction. During the high-speed urbanization stage from 1980 to 2010, the urban expansion pattern of “along the Sixth Ring Road and along the Grand Canal” was formed. During the low-speed urbanization stage from 2010 to 2020, the land distribution was stable, and Tongzhou District formed a pattern of urban-rural differentiation and land intensification from northwest to southeast. As a typical area of ??Tongzhou District’s urbanization, Beijing MC has the same characteristics of the temporal and spatial evolution as Tongzhou as a whole. (2) By 2035, there are significant differences in land use among the three scenarios with respect to the magnitude of change and spatial distribution. The area and distribution of ecological land under the urban sustainable development scenario are optimal, which is conducive to the realization of sustainable urban development. In analyzing the degree of conformity with the three Beijing MC zoning plans, the prediction simulation under the sustainable development scenario is highly consistent with the land use of the “Beijing Municipal Administrative Center Regulatory Detailed Planning (Block Level) (2016-2035)” (hereinafter referred to as “Planning”) issued by the municipal government. However, there are certain deviations between the simulation predictions in the cultural tourism function area and the livable living scenery area and the corresponding “Planning” expectations. During the urban construction process, the internal ecological land area still needs to be increased. (3) Tongzhou District may lack a close connection between the urban and rural areas in the southeast. Potential risks such as the imbalance in the development of northern and southern townships require further attention in the development process. The prediction and simulation results of the model can provide certain data and methodological support for the construction of a harmonious and livable city in Beijing MC (Tongzhou District).

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    The 30m-NDVI-based Alpine Grassland Changes and Climate Impacts in the Three-River Headwaters Region on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1990 to 2018
    SUN Ziyu, WANG Junbang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (2): 186-195.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.02.002
    Abstract107)   HTML10)    PDF (6202KB)(60)      

    The response of long-term vegetation changes and climate change has been a hot topic in recent research. Previously, a Landsat-based fusion model was developed and used to produce a dataset of normalized vegetation index (NDVI) for the Three-River Headwater region on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a spatial resolution of 30 m and the time spanning the nearly 30 years from 1990 to 2018. In this study, the NDVI was applied to an analysis of the spatial and temporal changes in the alpine grassland and the impacts from climate change using the Theil-Sen Median method and linear regression. The results showed that: (1) The regional mean NDVI was 0.39 and showed a spatial pattern of decreasing from the southeast to the northwest in the recent three decades. Among the three parks, the Lancang River Park had the highest NDVI (0.43), followed by the Yellow River Park (0.38) and Yangtze River Park (0.23). (2) An upward trending was found in the NDVI time series at a rate of 0.0031 yr-1 (R2 =0.62, P < 0.01) over the whole period of 1990-2018. The increasing rate (0.00649 yr-1, R2 =0.71, P < 0.01) in the latter period of 2005-2018 was nearly 2.3 times of that (0.00284 yr-1, R2 =0.31, P < 0.01) in the previous period of 1990-2005. In the latest periods, the three parks experienced rates that were 2.3 to 63 times the corresponding values in the early period. (3) The NDVI is correlated more positively with temperature than precipitation. The impacts of climate change decreased along with the coverage fraction from the higher, median and then lower levels. The climate change can explain 34% of the variability in the NDVI time series of the areas with a higher fraction of grassland coverage, while it was 31% for the median fraction and 20% for the lower fraction. This study is the first to use the 30 m NDVI dataset spanning nearly 30 years to analyze the spatial and temporal variability and climate impacts in the alpine grasslands of the Three-River Headwater region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results provide a basis for assessments on the ecological management effects and ecological quality based on long-term baseline data with a higher spatial resolution.

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