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    Changes in China’s Grain Production Pattern and the Effects of Urbanization and Dietary Structure
    LU Chunxia, LIU Aimin, XIAO Yu, LIU Xiaojie, XIE Gaodi, CHENG Shengkui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 358-365.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.004
    Abstract297)   HTML4)    PDF (533KB)(88)      

    Grain production patterns are the basis of a nation’s food security. Since China’s reform and opening-up began in 1978, China’s urbanization process, driven by rapid social and economic development, has accelerated steadily. During this time, the dietary structure of urban and rural Chinese has also changed significantly. Accordingly, grain production patterns have undergone major changes. First, traditional grain production patterns in the north and the south have changed, and the food production center has shifted toward the north. In 1980, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 60% of China’s total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 40%. In 2015, the grain yield of southern provinces accounted for 56% of the total, while that of northern provinces accounted for 44%. Second, grain production by regions of the country is “shrinking in the east but expanding in the central regions,” meaning that grain production in eastern coastal provinces has decreased significantly, while that in the central region has expanded. The proportions of the nation’s total grain production from the eastern, central and western regions were 38%, 36% and 26%, respectively, in 1980. These had changed to 27%, 46%, and 27%, respectively, in 2015. Third, the spatial centralization of grain production has increased. The total grain yield of 13 major grain-producing provinces and regions in the country accounted for 69.27% of nation’s total in 1980, and it had reached 76.18% in 2015, showing that the impact of major grain-producing areas on national food security has increased. The influence of rapid urbanization on grain production areas shows remarkable regional differences. As the level of urbanization has increased, build-up land occupies a large number of high-quality farmland, especially in east coastal provinces and thus the grain planting area decreased obviously. The effect of dietary structure changes on grain production patterns was evident in two ways. On the one hand, as dietary diversity has increased, total grain consumption has decreased. The reduction in the proportion of planting area for grain crops to total crop planting area dropped from 82% in 1980 to 68% in 2015, making this change in total grain consumption evident. On the other hand, the ratio of grain for human consumption declined as the ratio of grain consumed by animals increased. The reduction in the proportion of rice and wheat grown and an increase in the proportion of feed grain production (mostly maize) from 20% in the 1980s to 36% in 2015 makes this change in grain production and consumption evident. In the future, with the establishment of national functional areas for grain production, the spatial pattern of grain production will return, while the demand for feed grains will continue to increase but with the space for expansion limited.

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    Analysis of the Causes of Cyanobacteria Bloom: A Review
    ZHOU Bing, CAI Xiaoli, WANG Sen, YANG Xinxin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 405-413.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.009
    Abstract197)   HTML1)    PDF (680KB)(16)      

    Among water blooms, cyanobacteria bloom occurs over the widest range and is much more harmful than other blooms. Its occurrence in inland water bodies is affected by many factors, such as meteorology, hydrology, and human activities. Therefore, the study of the causes of cyanobacterial bloom has become a major focus of scholars. The China Knowledge Network Journal Database contains 143 papers from China and abroad from the years 2004 to 2019 that are relevant to the study of cyanobacteria bloom. We begin by analyzing keywords in these studies and creating a keyword distribution map which indicates the factors related to the blooms. Based on parameters such as the frequency of words appearing in the text, the full text of each of the 143 papers is analyzed to form a word cloud created by a program written in Python language. After irrelevant terms are eliminated, the word cloud map can reveal potential factors that were not identified by keywords alone. After completing this macro analysis, we examined approximately 100 related papers from the China Knowledge Network Journal Database and Web of Science Database published from 2014 to 2019. Finally, we summarize the main reasons for the outbreak of water blooms. The factors causing blooms can be divided into natural factors and human factors. Among the natural factors are illumination, water temperature and nutrient salt conditions. The human factors are generally related to large-scale water conservancy projects. This paper analyzes and summarizes these factors, and provides a reference to aid in the prevention and treatment of algal blooms. The information in the paper has a certain practical significance for the protection of water environments.

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    Economic Development Status of the Countries along the Belt and Road and Their Correlations with Population and Carbon Emissions
    ZHONG Yang, LIN Aiwen, ZHOU Zhigao, HE Lijie, YUAN Moxi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 539-548.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.001
    Abstract188)   HTML18)    PDF (452KB)(98)      

    The construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road are important measures for allowing China to expand its opening up to the outside world under the background of economic globalization. Based on this consideration, and from the perspective of geo-economics, this study uses a variety of mathematical statistical methods to analyze the economic development status and differences among the 30 countries along the Belt and Road. In addition, the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions in these countries are also analyzed. The results show that the current economic development levels of the countries along the Belt and Road are quite variable; the gaps between the indicators of the economic development of the countries along the Belt and Road are convergent; the GDP, population, and carbon emissions of the countries along the Belt and Road each showed an overall upward trend during the study period, and the changes in these three values showed significant correlations. Across all countries, the correlation coefficients between GDP and population (0.989), between GDP and carbon emissions (0.995), and between population and carbon emissions (0.993), all indicate that the correlations between GDP, population and carbon emissions are very high. Among them, GDP has the highest correlation with carbon emissions, reaching 0.995. Regression analysis shows that the value of R2 reached 0.995, indicating that the regression fitting effect is very good and the calculation result is highly reliable. Based on these results, this paper proposes the following two suggestions: (1) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should handle the relationship between developing and developed countries; and (2) Promoting the Belt and Road initiative should also be linked to China's domestic regional development strategy.

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    Spatial Distribution Pattern of the Catering Industry in A Tourist City: Taking Lhasa City as A Case
    LI Yunyun, LIU Haiyang, WANG Ling-en
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (2): 191-205.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.02.007
    Abstract186)      PDF (1036KB)(21)      
    Affected by factors such as the city’s functional orientation and tourism consumption, the spatial layout of the catering industry in a tourism city has its own distinctive characteristics. The spatial distribution characteristics of the catering industry and the factors impacting it (from the perspectives of transportation, tourism resources and population) in the main city area of Lhasa, Tibet were analysed through point of interest data mining, average nearest neighbour analysis, a standard deviational ellipse, kernel density estimation, and buffer analysis in ArcGIS software. As a result, the spatial distribution pattern showed catering providers are mainly aggregated in the vicinity of areas with either developed transportation or rich tourism resources. The resident population has an important but inconclusive influence on the distribution, while the distribution of its concentration is highly consistent with that of the instant population. Considering the spatial structure, functional orientation, and tourism development of the area, measures are proposed for optimizing the spatial layout of the catering industry in this tourism-heavy plateau city.
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    Nitrogen Addition Decreases Soil Respiration without Changing the Temperature Sensitivity in a Semiarid Grassland
    DU Wei, LI Yue, HE Pei, ZHANG Jiaqi, JING Haichao, NIE Cheng, LIU Yinghui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (2): 129-139.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.02.001
    Abstract181)      PDF (829KB)(62)      
    The mechanisms underlying the response of soil respiration (Rs) to nitrogen (N) addition remain to be explored in semiarid ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine the effect of N addition on soil microbial composition, Rs and the temperature sensitivity of Rs (Q10). The N addition experiment was carried out in a semiarid grassland in China, with N fertilizer application rates of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 g N m-2 yr-1. Microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), Rs and Q10 were measured, and their relationships with soil properties were determined for three growing seasons. The results showed that N addition significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (IN), and decreased soil pH. With respect to soil microbes, N addition reduced soil PLFAs, reduced the fungi to bacteria ratio (F:B) and increased the gram-positive bacteria to gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+:G-). Rs under the N2, N4, N8, N16 and N32 treatments decreased by 2.58%, 14.86%, 22.62%, 23.97% and 19.87%, respectively, compared to the N0 (control) treatment. The results of structural equation models showed that N addition reduced Rs by lowering soil PLFAs and altering the microbial composition. However, N addition had no significant effect on either Q10, soil total organic carbon (TOC) or total nitrogen (TN), indicating that N addition alleviated soil carbon loss and was unlikely to change the potential for a bigger loss under global warming.
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    Safety Evaluation of Sustainable Uranium Development in China Combined with an Analytical GAN Framework
    LIU Liangyan, CHENG Ming
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 394-404.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.008
    Abstract176)   HTML0)    PDF (622KB)(7)      

    Uranium is the basic raw material for nuclear energy and is quite highly regarded. Developing a safe supply of uranium is important for safeguarding sustainable nuclear development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sustainability of uranium development in China based on dynamic system modeling combined with GAN (Generative Adversarial Network) analysis. We considered eight essential indicators and 42 sub-indicators as part of a detailed quantitative description, and then developed a framework to evaluate and rank China-specific sustainability in light of the quantitative performance of five options for fuel cycle transition scenarios. We began by using KMO sample measurements and the Bartlett Test of Sphericity to determine the suitability of factor analysis and the fitness of the corrected model map and observation data. We then analyzed the roles of different representatives of the decision makers and their impacts on the overall ranking by applying GAN methods from a weighted perspective. Five transition scenarios identified are 1) Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors, 2) Mixed Light Water Reactor + Fast Reactor, 3) Mixed LWR+FR fuel cycle scheme with heterogeneous irradiation, 4) Mixed Pressurized Water Reactor + FR fuel cycle scheme with plutonium recycled directly and repeatedly, and 5) Sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor power plant. The results showed that scenario 1 is the most unsustainable and highly confrontational scenario with a high demand for uranium resources, the lowest sustainability and a high level of antagonism among departments. On the other hand, Scenario 5 requires more advanced technology but exhibits less antagonism among the departments, and thus it largely satisfies the basic requirements for uranium sustainability and low levels of antagonism. In this paper, a safety assessment index system for the uranium supply is computed using a GAN framework. This system plays a crucial role in the sustainable supply and development of uranium, and provides flexibility for coping with the evolution and inherent uncertainties of the necessary technological developments.

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    Variations in the Drought Severity Index in Response to Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau
    WANG Xiangtao, ZHANG Xianzhou, WANG Junhao, NIU Ben
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 304-314.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.008
    Abstract172)   HTML1)    PDF (1520KB)(47)      

    Quantifying the relationship between the drought severity index and climate factors is crucial for predicting drought risk in situations characterized by climate change. However, variations in drought risk are not readily discernible under conditions of climate change, and this is particularly the case on the Tibetan Plateau. This study examines the correlations between the annual drought severity index (DSI) and 14 climate factors (including temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, and hours of sunshine factors), on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2011. Spatial average DSI increased with precipitation and minimum relative humidity, while it decreased as the hours of sunshine increased. The correlation between DSI and climate factors varied with vegetation types. In alpine meadows, the correlation of the spatial DSI average with the percentage of sunshine and hours of sunshine (P<0.001) was higher compared to that in alpine steppes (P<0.05). Similarly, average vapor pressure and minimum relative humidity had significant positive effects on spatial DSI in alpine meadows, but had insignificant effects in alpine steppes. The magnitude of DSI change correlated negatively with temperature, precipitation, and vapor pressure, and positively with wind speed and sunshine. This demonstrates that the correlation between drought and climate change on the Tibetan Plateau is dependent on the type of ecosystem.

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    The Distribution Patterns of Timberline and Its Response to Climate Change in the Himalayas
    SHI Peili, WU Ning, Gopal S. RAWAT
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 342-348.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.002
    Abstract170)   HTML1)    PDF (516KB)(13)      

    Himalayan region represents the highest and most diverse treeline over the world. As one of the most conspicuous boundaries between montane forests and alpine vegetation, the alpine timberline attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. However, timberline in the Himalayas is understudied compared with European counterparts due to remoteness. Here we review the distribution pattern of timberline and its climatic condition, the carbon and nutrient supply mechanism for treeline formation, and treeline shift and treeline tree recruitment under climate change scenarios. Growth limitation, rather than carbon source limitation is the physiological cause of timberline under the low temperature condition. Nutrient limitation and water stress are not the direct cause of timberline formation. However, more clear local limitation factors are need to integrate in order to enable us to predict the potential impacts and changes caused by human activity and related global change in this sensitive region.

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    Impact of Grazing Exclusion on the Surface Heat Balance in North Tibet
    FENG Yunfei, DI Yingwei, ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Xianzhou, SHI Peili, Niu Ben
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 283-289.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.005
    Abstract168)   HTML0)    PDF (786KB)(50)      

    The grazing exclusion program used by the Tibetan government to protect the ecological environment has changed the vegetation and impacted the surface heat balance in North Tibet. However, little information is available to describe the in?uences of the current grazing exclusion program on local surface heat balance. This study uses the records of fenced grassland patch locations to identify the impact of grazing exclusion on surface heat balance in North Tibet. The records of fenced grassland patch locations, including the longitude, latitude, and elevation of the vertices of each fenced patch (polygon shapes), were provided by the agriculture and animal husbandry bureaus of the counties where the patches were located. ArcGIS 10.2 was used to create polygon shapes based on patch location records. Based on satellite data and the surface heat balance system determined by the model, values for changes in land surface temperature (LST), albedo and evapotranspiration (ET) induced by grazing exclusion were obtained. All of these can influence surface heat balance and alter the fluctuation of LST in the northern Tibetan Plateau. The LST trends for day and night showed an asymmetric diurnal variation, with a larger magnitude of warming in the day than cooling at night. The maximum decrease in absorbed shortwave of LST (-0.5 - -0.4 ℃ per decade) occurred in the central region, while the minimum decrease (-0.2 - -0.1 ℃ per decade) occurred in the eastern region. The decreased latent heat lead to the LST increased maximum (>1 ℃ per decade) occurred in the central region, The eastern region increased at a rate of 0.2-0.5 ℃ per decade, while the minimum increase (0-0.1 ℃ per decade) occurred in the northwestern region.

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    Rural Poverty Patterns and Influencing Factors in Yunnan Province, China: Based on County Level Dataset
    SHANG Xiaowen, CHEN Yufu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 366-377.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.005
    Abstract161)   HTML2)    PDF (2674KB)(14)      

    The identification of poverty at the county level is the precondition for poverty alleviation by formulating accurate strategies that are targeted for a certain area. Yunnan Province has the largest number of poverty counties in China. The vast number of people living under the poverty-line, and the deep degree of poverty across a wide distribution range, pose major challenges. Based on the rural poverty incidence data, this paper describes the rural poverty patterns in Yunnan Province in 2010 and 2015, and then it explores the main factors which influence the incidence and changes in rural poverty at the county level in Yunnan Province using a stepwise regression analysis method. This study found that the rural poverty in counties of Yunnan Province was deeply affected by natural conditions and the geographical environment. In 2010 and 2015, the rural poverty situation in the middle region of Yunnan Province was relatively light, while it was more serious in the northwest, northeast and south regions. The pattern of county poverty is in good agreement with the topography and landforms of Yunnan Province and the poverty-stricken areas. There are strong correlations between the incidence of rural poverty in Yunnan Province with both the annual per capita net income of rural residents and the degree of agricultural mechanization. These factors are related to the living standards and agricultural production necessary for the peasantry to sustain their livelihood. The change in the incidence of rural poverty at the county level in Yunnan Province from 2010 to 2015 is significantly correlated with changes in the value-added of the primary industries and the degree of agricultural mechanization. These correlations indicate that the development of primary industry plays a key role in the process of lifting rural residents in Yunnan Province out of poverty so they can achieve prosperity. Therefore, improving the annual per capita net income of rural residents and the degree of agricultural mechanization for rural areas in Yunnan Province are still the main points for focused efforts. In the current phase of poverty alleviation, Yunnan Province should emphasize increasing rural residents' income and agricultural production and management in order to formulate effective policies and measures for poverty alleviation.

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    Effects of Enclosure on Plant and Soil Nutrients in Different Types of Alpine Grassland
    WANG Fang, HE Yongtao, FU Gang, NIU Ben, ZHANG Haorui, LI Meng, WANG Zhipeng, WANG Xiangtao, ZHANG Xianzhou
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 290-297.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.006
    Abstract157)   HTML0)    PDF (802KB)(31)      

    Enclosure is one of the most widely used management tools for degraded alpine grassland on the northern Tibetan Plateau, but the responses of different types of grassland to enclosure may vary, and research on these responses can provide a scientific basis for improving ecological conservation. This study took one site for each of three grassland types (alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert) on the northern Tibetan Plateau as examples, and explored the effects of enclosure on plant and soil nutrients by comparing differences in plant community biomass, leaf-soil nutrient content and their stoichiometry between samples from inside and outside the fence. The results showed that enclosure can significantly increase all aboveground biomass in these three grassland types, but it only increased the 10-20 cm underground biomass in the alpine desert. Enclosure also significantly increased the leaf nutrient content of the dominant plants and contents of total nitrogen (N), total potassium (K), and organic carbon (C) in 10-20 cm soil in alpine desert, thus changing the stoichiometry between C, N and P (phosphorus). However, enclosure significantly increased only the N content of dominant plant leaves in alpine steppe, while other nutrients and stoichiometries of both plant leaves and soil did not show significant differences in alpine meadow and alpine steppe. These results suggested that enclosure has differential effects on these three types of alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau, and the alpine desert showed the most active ecological conservation in the responses of its soil and plant nutrients.

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    Are There Differences in the Response of Natural Stand and Plantation Biomass to Changes in Temperature and Precipitation? A Case for Two-needled Pines in Eurasia
    USOLTSEV Vladimir Andreevich, SHOBAIRI Seyed Omid Reza, TSEPORDEY Ivan Stepanovich, AHRARI Amirhossein, ZHANG Meng, SHOAIB Ahmad Anees, CHASOVSKIKH Viktor Petrovich
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 331-341.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.001
    Abstract152)   HTML3)    PDF (1562KB)(25)      

    A comparative discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of natural stands and plantations, including in terms of their productivity and stability, began from the moment of the first forest plantings and continues to this day. In the context of the progressive replacement of natural forests by plantations due to deforestation, the question of how will change the carbon storage capacity of forest cover when replacing natural forests with artificial ones in a changing climate becomes extremely relevant. This article presents the first attempt to answer this question at the transcontinental level on a special case for two-needled pine trees (subgenus Pinus L.). The research was carried out using the database compiled by the authors on the single-tree biomass structure of forest-forming species of Eurasia, in particular, data of 1880 and 1967 of natural and plantation trees, respectively. Multi-factor regression models are calculated after combining the matrix of initial data on the structure of tree biomass with the mean January temperature and mean annual precipitation, and their adequacy indices allow us to consider them reproducible. It is found that the aboveground and stem biomass of equal-sized and equal-aged natural and plantation trees increases as the January temperature and precipitation rise. This pattern is only partially valid for the branches biomass, and it has a specific character for the foliage one. The biomass of all components of plantation trees is higher than that of natural trees, but the percent of this excess varies among different components and depends on the level of January temperatures, but does not depend at all on the level of annual precipitation. A number of uncertainties that arose during the modeling process, as well as the preliminary nature of the obtained regularities, are noted.

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    Towards Regional Synergy: Reconciling Rangeland Ecological Functioning with Forage Production of Cultivated Pasture
    SHI Peili, ZHANG Xianzhou
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 247-252.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.001
    Abstract144)   HTML12)    PDF (383KB)(44)      

    Animal husbandry and crop farming are specialized for development in separate areas on the Tibetan Plateau. Such a pattern of isolation has led to current concerns of rangeland and farming system degradation due to intensive land use. The crop-livestock integration, however, has been proven to increase food and feed productivity thorough niche complementarity, and is thereby especially effective for promoting ecosystem resilience. Regional synergy has emerged as an integrated approach to reconcile rangeland livestock with forage crop production. It moves beyond the specialized sectors of animal husbandry and intensive agriculture to coordinate them through regional coupling. Therefore, crop-livestock integration (CLI) has been suggested as one of the effective solutions to forage deficit and livestock production in grazing systems. But it is imperative that CLI moves forward from the farm level to the regional scale, in order to secure regional synergism during agro-pastoral development. The national key R & D program, Technology and Demonstration of Recovery and Restoration of Degraded Alpine Ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau, aims to solve the problems of alpine grassland degradation by building up a grass-based animal husbandry technology system that includes synergizing forage production and ecological functioning, reconciling the relationship between ecology, forage production and animal husbandry, and achieving the win-win goals of curbing grassland degradation and changing the development mode of animal husbandry. It is imperative to call for regional synergy through integrating ecological functioning with ecosystem services, given the alarming threat of rangeland degradation on the Tibetan Plateau. The series of papers in this issue, together with those published previously, provide a collection of rangeland ecology and management studies in an effort to ensure the sustainable use and management of the alpine ecosystems.

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    Measurement and Comparison of Urban Haze Governance Level and Efficiency based on the DPSIR Model: A Case Study of 31 Cities in North China
    XIAO Qinlin, TIAN Chao, WANG Yanjun, LI Xiuqing, XIAO Liming
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 549-561.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.002
    Abstract143)   HTML7)    PDF (650KB)(56)      

    In the decisive stage of developing of a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, hazy weather has become a major obstacle to the further advancement of China. Therefore, improving the level and efficiency of haze governance has become essential. Based on the DPSIR model, this paper builds a haze governance level and efficiency index system using the entropy method and the super-efficiency data envelope-analysis (DEA) model to analyze the data for 31 cities in North China from 2007 to 2016. From the aspects of spatial differences and influence factors influencing the comparative analysis, the results are as follows. (1) During the investigation period, the level and efficiency of city haze governance in North China showed a trend of fluctuation and decline, with obvious stages in their characteristics. Haze governance efficiency is much higher than its level, and its mean value reaches the DEA level which indicates that it is effective. (2) A significant regional gradient difference occurs between these two aspects. The haze governance level presents a convex distribution pattern of “east low-middle high-west low”, while the haze governance efficiency presents a concave distribution pattern of “east high-middle low-west high”. (3) The regression results show that economic growth has a negative effect on both haze governance level and efficiency. By contrast, the industrial structure has a positive effect on haze governance level and efficiency, but the significance of its effect on these two is different. On this basis, policy suggestions are proposed for improving the level and efficiency of haze governance in various cities in North China.

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    A Study of Food Waste in the Catering Industry in Beijing
    CAO Xiaochang, LIU Xiaojie, CHENG Shengkui, LIU Yao, ZHANG Panpan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 562-569.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.003
    Abstract140)   HTML4)    PDF (710KB)(27)      

    Currently, the topic of food waste and its environmental impacts is attracting increasing attention among academic researchers. Based on an investigation of restaurants in Beijing, this study analyzes the quantities, structures, characteristics and costs of the agricultural resources related to food waste in the catering industry in Beijing. The results show that: (1) The average food waste per capita per meal is about 75.02 g (raw) for food away from home among Beijing urban residents, which means that about 10.52% of the food is wasted. (2) According to the quantitative ranking of different categories of food waste, vegetable is the most wasted, followed by meat, aquatic products, and grains. The foods in the other categories are wasted much less. (3) Food waste is affected by the restaurant type, as well as the number, gender, age, education level, and consumption motivation of the consumers. (4) Based on the estimated food waste per capita, about 417.92 thousand tons of food is wasted annually at the consumption stage in the catering industry in Beijing. This food waste amount is equivalent to approximately 765.53 tons of cereals which are wasted, and this represents 79.66% of cereals production and 13.15% of cereals consumption in Beijing. Estimated by the required land use, this amount of food waste means that the total production of approximately 166.12 thousand ha of arable land is being wasted in Beijing.

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    The Study on Cost of Application of International Emission Control Areas for China
    TIAN Yujun, WANG Hongyan, LI Tao, PENG Chuansheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 388-393.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.007
    Abstract140)   HTML0)    PDF (400KB)(7)      

    In order to control the air pollution caused by ships and improve ambient air quality, China set up three domestic emission control areas (DECAs) in 2015 in the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta and Bohai Rim (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) waters. In order to meet the emission requirements established at the 70th meeting of the Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC), China intends to apply for the establishment of three international Emission Control Area (ECA) in 2030 for these DECAs. This paper discusses existing technologies to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur oxides (SOx), and examines the abatement costs for the shipping industry in the year 2030 to comply with this action. Based on an examination of the literature and data collected for this study, four traditional alternatives, low-sulphur fuel, sulphur scrubbers/exhaust gas cleaning systems (EGCS), selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and exhaust gas recirculation, are analyzed. The analysis finds that switching to low-sulphur fuel is the best technical solution for SOx emission reduction, and the installation of SCR is the best technology for reducing nitrogen. In addition to traditional emission reduction technologies, the use of shore power facilities and liquefied natural gas (LNG), two alternatives welcomed by China’s green shipping industry, are also considered in this paper. The expected average abatement cost of these alternatives in the year 2030 are USD 2.866 billion, 0.324 billion, 1.071 billion, 0.402 billion, 0.232 billion and 0.34 billion, respectively.

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    Comparison and Analysis of Estimation Methods for Heavy Metal Pollution of Farmland Soils
    Mamattursun EZIZ, Adila HAYRAT, YANG Xiuyun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (5): 435-442.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.05.001
    Abstract139)   HTML3)    PDF (492KB)(26)      

    Heavy metal pollution of farmland soils is a serious environmental problem. The accurate estimation of heavy metal pollution levels of farmland soils is very crucial for sustainable agriculture. Concentrations of heavy metal elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in farmland soils at 186 sampling sites in the Baghrash Lake Basin, NW China, were determined and analyzed based on the pollution index (Pi), the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), the enrichment factor (EF), the ecological risk index (ER), and the environmental risk index (Ier). The results of these five different estimation methods were compared and discussed. The obtained results indicated that the average concentrations of all the heavy metals in the farmland soils of the study area were lower than the Soil Environmental Quality of China (GB 15168-2018) levels, but the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn exceed the corresponding background values. Significant differences in estimation results existed between the five estimation methods. Based on the identified concentrations, the average Pi, Igeo, and EF values of the heavy metals in farmland soils decreased in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cd > Cr > Ni > Cu > As, whereas the average ER values decreased in the order of: Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn, and the average Ier values decreased in the order of: Cd > Cu > Zn > As = Pb > Cr > Ni. The pollution class values with different estimation methods were ranked as: Pi > Igeo = EF > ER = Ier. The obtained results suggest that the most appropriate estimation method and soil background values of farmlands should be used for better understanding the environmental quality of farmland soils. Overall, the EF and ER methods are recommended for assessing heavy metal pollution risks of farmland soils.

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    System Analysis of the Historical Change of the River Leader System: Based on the Perspective of Historical Institutionalism
    ZHENG Shihao, QIN Haibo, LI Yingming, HAO Liang, GUO Fengyuan, ZHANG Conglin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 414-424.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.010
    Abstract137)   HTML1)    PDF (481KB)(12)      

    In the process of implementing the River Leader System, some problems have emerged regarding its progress and effects. From the perspective of historical institutionalism, the historical change process of the River Leader System was revealed in this paper. There were two key nodes in the historical change progress of the River Leader System. In 2014, the river leader system promotion was transferred from the local government to the Ministry of Water Resources. In 2016, the River Leader System was recognized by the central government and implemented nationwide. The historical change process of the River Leader System can be divided into three periods: the creation and formation period, the pilot and diffusion period, and the promotion and strengthening period. The change in the river and lake problems was an important driving force for the historical change of the River Leader System. A path dependent phenomenon was mainly reflected in the policy diffusion scope, problem orientation, main tasks and management methods. At present, there are some shortcomings in the River Leader System, such as a lack of inter-provincial coordination, imperfect evaluation mechanism, poorly coordinated management tasks, and insufficient public participation. To solve these problems, some policy recommendations are put forward. In the short term, the River Leader System will be continuously improved and strengthened. In the long term, it will be transformed into the integrated watershed management system.

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    A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Soil Microbial Community
    WANG Jiangwei, ZHANG Guangyu, YU Chengqun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 298-303.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.007
    Abstract137)   HTML0)    PDF (463KB)(39)      

    In order to investigate the general tendency of soil microbial community responses to fertilizers, a meta-analysis approach was used to synthesise observations on the effects of inorganic and organic fertilizer addition (N: nitrogen; P: phosphorus; NP: nitrogen and phosphorus; PK: phosphorus and potassium; NPK: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; OF: organic fertilizer; OF+NPK: organic fertilizer plus NPK) on soil microbial communities. Among the various studies, PK, NPK, OF and OF+NPK addition increased total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) by 52.0%, 19.5%, 334.3% and 58.3%, respectively; while NP, OF and OF+NPK addition increased fungi by 5.6%, 21.0% and 8.2%, respectively. NP, NPK and OF addition increased bacteria by 6.4%, 9.8% and 13.3%, respectively; while NP and NPK addition increased actinomycetes by 7.0% and 14.8%, respectively. Addition of ammonium nitrate rather than urea decreased gram-negative bacteria (G -). N addition increased total PLFA、bacteria and actinomycetes in croplands, but decreased fungi and bacteria in forests, and the F/B ratio in grasslands. NPK addition increased total PLFA in forests but not in croplands. The N addition rate was positively correlated with the effects of N addition on gram-positive bacteria (G +) and G -. Therefore, different fertilizers appear to have different effects on the soil microbial community. Organic fertilizers can have a greater positive effect on the soil microbial community than inorganic fertilizers. The effects of fertilizers on the soil microbial community varied with ecosystem types. The effect of N addition on the soil microbial community was related to both the forms of nitrogen that were added and the nitrogen addition rate.

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    Change in the Distribution of National Bird (Himalayan Monal) Habitat in Gandaki River Basin, Central Himalayas
    Raju RAI, Basanta PAUDEL, GU Changjun, Narendra Raj KHANAL
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (2): 223-231.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.02.010
    Abstract127)      PDF (5933KB)(15)      
    Gandaki River Basin (GRB) is part of the central Himalayan region, which provides habitat for numerous wild species. However, due to changes in climate and land cover, the habitats of many protected species are at risk. Based on the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model, coupled with bioclimatic layers, land cover and DEM data, the impacts of environmental factors on habitat suitability of Himalayan Monal (Lophophorus impejanus), a national bird of Nepal, was quantified. This study further assessed the present and future habitat and distribution of the Himalayan Monal in the context of climate and land cover changes. The results of this study show that the highly suitable habitat of Himalayan Monal presently occupies around 749 km2 within the northern, eastern and western parts, particularly protected areas such as Langtang National Park, Manaslu Conservation Area and Annapurna Conservation Area, while it is likely to decrease to 561 km2 by 2050, primarily in the northern and northwestern parts (i.e., Chhyo, Tatopani, Humde and Chame). These expected changes indicate increasing risk for Himalayan Monal due to a decline in its suitable habitat area.
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    Optimum Solution for the Safe Drinking Water Crisis in Tala Upazila, Bangladesh
    Sajidur RAHMAN, ZHAO Junkai
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (2): 213-222.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.02.009
    Abstract124)      PDF (5238KB)(20)      
    Coastal areas of Bangladesh are especially vulnerable due to their physiographic location and exposure to natural calamities. Around 35 million people living in coastal areas have no access or limited access to safe drinking water. Contamination of water sources by salinity, arsenic or iron are the principal causes of water scarcity. Rising sea levels and unevenness of climatic events due to climate change will exacerbate the situation in coastal areas, especially in the southwestern coastal zone. This study examines one of the vulnerable coastal upazila Tala at Satkhira (an “upazila” is a medium level administrative unit in Bangladesh) in the southwestern zone of Bangladesh to understand the gravity of the problems. The study develops a GIS based multi-criteria analysis to identify suitable options and locations of fresh water as part of a current and future solution to the problems and further deterioration. To fulfill the objectives, a questionnaire-based GPS guided field survey was conducted to collect details of field level conditions in order to find a suitable solution. Because aquifers are considered the primary source of drinking water, field data have been analyzed for two distinct aquifers, one relatively shallow and one deeper, to understand aquifer quality. Potentiality of different water sources the socioeconomic status of communities, types of water use and corresponding sources and water demand are also evaluated. The analysis finds that alternative water sources that are safe are difficult to find, because both surface and groundwater-based sources are already contaminated, and there are no nearby, easily accessible safe sources. Groundwater-based sources are contaminated by arsenic, iron or salinity, and surface water-based sources are not in use due to maintenance and management issues. In some cases, surface water sources are polluted by flash flooding of high saline water during storm surges or seepage from saline water-based aquacultures. Multiple limitations identified during field observations and field data analysis were considered as an analytical parameter A GIS based multi-criteria analysis incorporated field data, including Geo-spatial and socioeconomic information for road networks, settlement locations, number of households, quality and quantity of existing water sources, water demand and business opportunities. The analysis found some potential options in distributed locations which are consistent with community demand. Suggested options made use of technologies that are already understood and commonly used by communities, like deep tubewells, PSFs (Pond Sand Filter) and WTPs (Water Treatment Plant). In the study area, PSF is the most commonly used method and to make this surface water-based technology sustainable some precautionary measurements are suggested.
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    Multifunctionality and Thresholds of Alpine Grassland on the Tibetan Plateau
    SONG Minghua, LI Meng, HUO Jiajuan, WU Liang, ZHANG Xianzhou
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 263-271.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.003
    Abstract122)   HTML0)    PDF (2173KB)(63)      

    Ecosystems can simultaneously provide multiple functions and services. Knowledge on the combinations of such multi-dimensional functions is critical for accurately assessing the carrying capacity and implementing sustainable management. However, accurately quantify the multifunctionality of ecosystems remains challenging due to the dependence and close association among individual functions. Here, we quantified spatial patterns in the multifunctionality of alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau by integrating four important individual functions based on data collected from a field survey and remote sensing NDVI. After mapping the spatial pattern of multifunctionality, we extracted multifunctionality values across four types of grassland along the northern Tibet Plateau transect. Effects of climate and grazing intensity on the multifunctionality were differentiated. Our results showed that the highest values of multifunctionality occurred in the alpine meadow. Low values of multifunctionality were comparable in different types of grassland. Annual precipitation explained the large variation of multifunctionality across the different types of grassland in the transect, which showed a significantly positive effect on the multifunctionality. Grazing intensity further explained the rest of the variation in the multifunctionality (residuals), which showed a shift from neutral or positive to negative effects on multifunctionality across the different types of grassland. The consistently rapid declines of belowground biomass, SOC, and species richness resulted in the collapse of the multifunctionality as bare ground cover amounted to 75%, which corresponded to a multifunctionality value of 0.233. Our results are the first to show the spatial pattern of grassland multifunctionality. The rapid decline of the multifunctionality suggests that a collapse in the multifunctionality can occur after the vegetation cover decreases to 25%, which is also accompanied by rapid losses of species and other individual functions. Our results are expected to provide evidence and direction for the sustainable development of alpine grassland and restoration management.

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    A Study of China’s Air Pollution Prevention and Control Policy Framework from a Policy Instrument Perspective
    QIN Qin, SUN Youhai
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (2): 182-190.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.02.006
    Abstract118)      PDF (585KB)(22)      
    Environmental pollution caused by rapid economic development like that seen in China over the past twenty years poses various threats to human health. People have started to place much more of an emphasis on environmental security, working to find a balance between sustainability and economic growth. In recent years, air pollution has emerged as a highly discussed topic of social and environmental relevance in China, due in part to persistent smog that affects everyday life and causes serious harm to human health. Although air pollution is normally associated with human activity, is can be caused by natural processes such as eruptions and forest fires, but is always characterized by the release of certain substances into the atmosphere which, when present in certain concentrations or for given durations, can harm human health, daily life, productivity, and other aspects. In humans, it mainly affects the respiratory system, notably the lungs, as well as the immune system. A series of studies both in China and overseas have shown, in certain cases, even low concentrations of air pollution can pose a great threat to human health. In this study, we conducted an analysis of air quality policies, focusing on the 2018 revision of the People’s Republic of China’s Law on the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution (LPCAP). We utilized the content analysis method and Strauss and Corbin’s grounded theory to construct a policy framework, demarcate analysis units, code and classify policy texts, determine descriptive statistics, and analyze dimensional interactions. We used two dimensions (basic policy instruments classified as demand-, supply-, and environment-side; and air carrying capacity) to quantify and analyze the LPCAP, which enabled us to analyze the deficiencies and conflicts within policy instruments. The results show a higher utilization frequency of environment-side policy instruments, particularly regulation management and strategic measures. This reflects efforts by the government to create a favorable environment for improving air quality. Additionally, supply-side policy instruments are used far less frequently than environment-side policy instruments. Air quality legal policies and pollution control measures mainly consist of environment-side policy instruments; ecological thinking and air quality policies that are based mainly on supply-side and environment-side policy instruments; and social coordination policies that mainly use environment-side policy instruments. Based on the results of this study, we recommend an increase in the number of supply- and demand-side policy instruments, particularly the latter which includes promoting ecological thinking amongst citizens, to optimize and improve air pollution prevention and control policies.
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    Coupling the Occurrence of Correlative Plant Species to Predict the Habitat Suitability for Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus) under Climate Change: A Case Study in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River
    XIANG Ling, GAO Xiang, PENG Yuhui, LIANG Jie
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (2): 140-149.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.02.002
    Abstract117)      PDF (2300KB)(23)      
    Climate change and human activities influence species biodiversity by altering their habitats. This paper quantitatively analyzed the effects of climate change on a migratory bird. The Lesser White-fronted Goose (LWfG), a species which migrates via the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River region, is an herbivorous species of high ecological value. It is an endangered species threatened by climate change and human activities, so comprehensive information about its distribution is required. To assess the effectiveness of conservation of the LWfG under climate change, both climate variables and human activities are often used to predict the potential changes in the distribution and habitat suitability for LWfG. In this work, the current scenario and the Global Circulation Models (GCMs) climate scenarios were used to simulate the future distribution of the species. However, besides climate change and human activities, the spatial pattern of plants surrounding the wetland is also known to be closely related to the distribution of LWfG. Therefore, the distribution model results of six plant species related to LWfG’s diet selection were used as environment variables to reflect the changes of suitable LWfG habitat. These environmental variables significantly improved the model’s performance for LWfG, since the birds were clearly influenced by the plant distribution factors. Meanwhile, the suitable habitat area decreases by 2070 in GCM models under two representative concentration pathways scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). More appropriate management and conservation policies should be taken to adapt to future climate change. These adjustments include modifications of the size, shape and use of the conservation area for this species.
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    Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Two Types of Truck Bumper Produced in the Algerian Auto Industry
    KEBBOUCHE Zahia, TAIRI Abdelaziz, SAFI Brahim
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (4): 378-387.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.04.006
    Abstract117)   HTML0)    PDF (5693KB)(8)      

    Currently, the reduction of weight in automotive is a very important topic to reduce the air pollution. In this context, the purpose of the present paper is to analyze a real case study through a comparison of the environmental impacts between a conventional steel bumper and a polyester prototype. In the first part of this work, a door-to-door life-cycle assessment methodology was used throughout the study of the component manufacturing phase. The SimaPro 7.1 software is used to evaluate the impacts of both bumpers on the environment and health. The second part is devoted to dust analysis from the polyester workshop. The obtained results have allowed us to show the company that its choice of steel substitution by the polyester is advantageous for certain impacts including the impact of climate change, but unfortunately there may be, given the working conditions of the polyester workshop, a transfer of impact, since we will end up with a risk of health (irritations, cancers) for the workers. LCA has proven to be a very useful tool for validating a redesigned automotive component from an environmental point of view; from this case study, several recommendations were made for the company to design environmentally friendly components, and ecodesign should be introduced into the company’s procedures.

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    Implications of Anthropogenic Disturbances for Species Diversity, Recruitment and Carbon Density in the Mid-hills Forests of Nepal
    Hari Prasad PANDEY
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (1): 1-10.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.01.001
    Abstract115)   HTML23)    PDF (878KB)(56)      

    Almost three-fourths of forests are experiencing anthropogenic disturbances globally, and more than two-thirds of the forests in Nepal receive different types of disturbances. In community forests (CFs), local communities are dependent on the ecosystem services provided by the forests for various aspects of their livelihoods, which disturb the forests’ natural conditions and ecosystem functioning in a variety of ways. This study tested the major disturbance factors that had influential roles on plant species diversity, recruitment (seedlings and saplings), biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total carbon density in two community-managed forests in the Mid-hills of Nepal. The stump number, cut-off seedlings and saplings, lopping, dropping, and grazing/trampling were used as measures of the major anthropogenic disturbances. The necessary data were collected from 89 randomly selected sample plots, each with an area of 250 m2. The responses to anthropogenic disturbances were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GLM). The results showed that forest lopping was the most significant anthropogenic disturbance for biomass and total carbon density balance. A higher degree of lopping in the forests resulted in a lowering of the forests' carbon stock in the study area. SOC showed no significant response to any of the tested anthropogenic disturbances. Woody species richness and number of saplings increased with an increasing number of stumps, which signifies that intermediate disturbance was beneficial. However, a higher intensity of lopping reduced the sapling density. Grazing/trampling was the most significant disturbance for inhibiting seedling growth. Areas in the forests with a higher intensity of trampling showed lower numbers of seedlings and saplings. These results will be a guide for managing anthropogenic disturbances in multiple-use forests in Nepal, as well as those in similar socio-economic environments worldwide.

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    Effects of Grassland Restoration Approaches in Different Major Function-oriented Zones of the Headwater Region of the Yellow River in China
    WEI Yunjie, ZHEN Lin, DU Bingzhen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (2): 150-158.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.02.003
    Abstract112)      PDF (560KB)(22)      
    Given the high alpine grassland coverage and intensive animal grazing activity, the ecosystem and livelihood of the herders are extremely vulnerable in the headwater region of the Yellow River. A series of programs have been implemented by the Chinese government to restore degraded grasslands in this region, and major function-oriented zones (MFOZs) applied in 2014, have divided the region into three zones, i.e., the development prioritized, restricted, and prohibited zones, based on environmental carrying capacity, as well as the utilization intensity of grassland. This study identified various restoration approaches adopted in different MFOZs, and assessed the effects of the approaches in order to determine the most effective approaches. We collected 195 questionnaires from herders to analyze the effects of the various restoration approaches, and additional remote sensing and statistical data were also used for the analysis. Four distinct differences in the ecological and socioeconomic characteristics were found in three MFOZs. (1) Five technologies were applied in the study areas. (2) The grassland recovery rate was higher in development prioritized zones than in restricted and prohibited zones during 2000 and 2016, and especially high and very high coverage grasslands increased in the areas where crop-forage cultivation and grass seeding dominated in the prioritized zones. (3) The net income of households in the development prioritized zone was the best of all three zones. (4) The degree of awareness and willingness of herders to restore grassland was more positive in development prioritized zones than in restricted zones, where more herders adopted approaches with a combination of enclosure + deratization + crop-forage cultivation + warm shed. Based on these findings, it is recommended that decision-makers need to increase their efforts to narrow the gap of willingness and behavior between herders and other stakeholders, such as researchers and grassland administrators, in order to ensure grassland sustainability in the MFOZs. It is also beneficial to understand the effects of restoration on the ecological carrying capacities in different zones depending on the different development goals.
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    Effect of Land Use and Land Cover Change on the Changes in Net Primary Productivity in Karst Areas of Southwest China: A Case Study of Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County
    ZHANG Mengyu, ZHANG Li, REN Xiaoli, HE Honglin, LV Yan, WANG Junbang, YAN Huimin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (6): 606-616.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2020.06.008
    Abstract111)   HTML9)    PDF (1086KB)(38)      

    Karst areas in southwest China have experienced significant land cover and land use change (LUCC) due to utilization for human activity and a comprehensive rocky desertification control project (RDCP) since 2008. It is important to quantify the effect of LUCC on ecosystem productivity in this region for assessing the overall benefit of this ecological restoration project. In this study, we used using MODIS land cover and NPP products to investigate the relative contribution of LUCC to the change in net primary productivity (NPP) during 2008-2013 in Huanjiang County, one of first one hundred pilot counties to implement RDCP. Our results show that NPP increased in 95.53% of the county, and the average growth of NPP in non-rocky desertification area was higher than in rocky desertification or potential rocky desertification areas. LUCC has an important contribution (25.23%) to the NPP increase in the county, especially in the LUCC area (70.97%), which increased the average NPP by 3.9% and 10.5%, respectively. Across the six RDCP regions in the county, the average increase in NPP for the vegetation restoration measure of governed karst area is significantly greater than in the ungoverned karst area, and the positive change in NPP increased with the increasing implementation area of the vegetation restoration measure.

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    Comparison of Methods for Evaluating the Forage-livestock Balance of Alpine Grasslands on the Northern Tibetan Plateau
    CAO Yanan, ZHANG Xianzhou, NIU Ben, HE Yongtao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 272-282.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.004
    Abstract104)   HTML1)    PDF (1564KB)(53)      

    Livestock grazing is one of primary way to use grasslands throughout the world, and the forage-livestock balance of grasslands is a core issue determining animal husbandry sustainability. However, there are few methods for assessing the forage-livestock balance and none of those consider the dynamics of external abiotic factors that influence forage yields. In this study, we combine long-term field observations with remote sensing data and meteorological records of temperature and precipitation to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on the forage-livestock balance of alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau for the years 2000 to 2016. We developed two methods: one is statical method based on equilibrium theory and the other is dynamic method based on non-equilibrium theory. We also examined the uncertainties and shortcomings of using these two methods as a basis for formulating policies for sustainable grassland management. Our results from the statical method showed severe overgrazing in the grasslands of all counties observed except Nyima (including Shuanghu) for the entire period from 2000 to 2016. In contrast, the results from the dynamic method showed overgrazing in only eight years of the study period 2000-2016, while in the other nine years alpine grasslands throughout the northern Tibetan Plateau were less grazed and had forage surpluses. Additionally, the dynamic method found that the alpine grasslands of counties in the northeastern and southwestern areas of the northern Tibetan Plateau were overgrazed, and that alpine grasslands in the central area of the plateau were less grazed with forage surpluses. The latter finding is consistent with field surveys. Therefore, we suggest that the dynamic method is more appropriate for assessment of forage-livestock management efforts in alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau. However, the statical method is still recommended for assessments of alpine grasslands profoundly disturbed by irrational human activities.

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    Satellite-based Estimates of Canopy Photosynthetic Parameters for an Alpine Meadow in Northern
    NIU Ben, HE Yongtao, ZHANG Xianzhou, SHI Peili, DU Mingyuan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2020, 11 (3): 253-262.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2020.03.002
    Abstract99)   HTML2)    PDF (950KB)(38)      

    Plant photosynthesis is the fundamental driver of all the biospheric functions. Alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau is sensitive to rapid climate change, and thus can be considered an indicator for the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. However, seasonal variations in photosynthetic parameters, including the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation by canopy (FPAR), the light extinction coefficient (k) through canopy, and the leaf area index (LAI) of plant communities, are not known for alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we used field measurements of radiation components and canopy structure from 2009 to 2011 at a typical alpine meadow on the northern Tibetan Plateau to calculate these three photosynthetic parameters. We developed a satellite-based (NDVI and EVI) method derived from the Beer-Lambert law to estimate the seasonal dynamics of FPAR, k ,and LAI, and we compared these estimates with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) FPAR (FPAR_MOD) and LAI product (LAI_MOD). The results showed that the average daily FPAR was 0.33, 0.37 and 0.35, respectively, from 2009 to 2011, and that the temporal variations could be explained by all four satellite-based FPAR estimations, including FPAR_MOD, an FPAR estimation derived from the Beer-Lambert law with a constant k (FPAR_LAI), and two FPAR estimations from the nonlinear functions between the ground measurements of FPAR (FAPRg) and NDVI/EVI (FPAR_NDVI and FPAR_EVI). We found that FPAR_MOD seriously undervalued FPARg by over 40%. Tower-based FPAR_LAI also significantly underestimated FPARg by approximately 20% due to the constant k (0.5) throughout the whole growing seasons. This indicated that using FPAR_LAI to validate the FPAR_MOD was not an appropriate method in this alpine meadow because the seasonal variation of k ranged from 0.19 to 2.95 in this alpine meadow. Thus, if the seasonal variation of k was taken into consideration, both FPAR_NDVI and FPAR_EVI provided better descriptions, with negligible overestimates of less than 5% of FAPRg (RMSE=0.05), in FPARg estimations than FPAR_MOD and FPAR_LAI. Combining the satellite-based (NDVI and EVI) estimations of seasonal FPAR and k, LAI_NDVI and LAI_EVI derived from the Beer-Lambert law also provided better LAIg estimations than LAI_MOD (less than 30% of LAIg). Therefore, this study concluded that satellite-based models derived from the Beer-Lambert law were a simple and efficient method for estimating the seasonal dynamics of FPAR, k and LAI in this alpine meadow.

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