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    Evaluation of TRMM 3B42 Precipitation Product Using Rain Gauge Data in Meichuan Watershed, Poyang Lake Basin, China
    LIU Junzhi, ZHU A-Xing, DUAN Zheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (4): 359-366.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.04.009
    Abstract96)      PDF (2554KB)(35)      
    This study evaluated Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) product i.e. TRMM 3B42 data, using data from 52 rain gauge stations around the Meichuan watershed, which is a representative watershed of Poyang Lake basin in China. Both the latest Version 7 (V7) and previous Version 6 (V6) of TRMM 3B42 data were compared and evaluated for a 9-year period covering 2001-2005 and 2007-2010. The evaluations were conducted at different spatial (grid and watershed) and temporal (daily, monthly and annual) scales. For evaluation at grid scale, the Thiessen polygon method was used to transform pointed-based rain gauge data to areal precipitation at the same grid scale (0.25°) as TRMM 3B42 data. The results showed that there was little difference in performances of V6 and V7 TRMM 3B42 products. Overall, both V6 and V7 products slightly overestimated precipitation with a bias of 0.04. At daily scale, both V6 and V7 data were considered to be unreliable with large relative RMSE (135%-199%) at the two spatial scales, and they were deficient in capturing large storms. These results suggest that local calibration with rain gauge data should be conducted before V6 and V7 TRMM 3B42 data are used at daily scale. At monthly and annual scales, V6 and V7 TRMM 3B42 data match the rain gauge data well (R2 = 0.91-0.99, relative RMSE = 4%-23%) at both grid and watershed scale and thus have good potential for hydrological applications.
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    Cited: Baidu(894) Baidu(853)
    Evaluation of TRMM 3B42 Precipitation Product Using Rain Gauge Data in Meichuan Watershed, Poyang Lake Basin, China
    LIU Junzhi, ZHU A-Xing, DUAN Zheng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (4): 359-366.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.04.009
    Abstract96)      PDF (2554KB)(35)      
    This study evaluated Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) product i.e. TRMM 3B42 data, using data from 52 rain gauge stations around the Meichuan watershed, which is a representative watershed of Poyang Lake basin in China. Both the latest Version 7 (V7) and previous Version 6 (V6) of TRMM 3B42 data were compared and evaluated for a 9-year period covering 2001-2005 and 2007-2010. The evaluations were conducted at different spatial (grid and watershed) and temporal (daily, monthly and annual) scales. For evaluation at grid scale, the Thiessen polygon method was used to transform pointed-based rain gauge data to areal precipitation at the same grid scale (0.25°) as TRMM 3B42 data. The results showed that there was little difference in performances of V6 and V7 TRMM 3B42 products. Overall, both V6 and V7 products slightly overestimated precipitation with a bias of 0.04. At daily scale, both V6 and V7 data were considered to be unreliable with large relative RMSE (135%-199%) at the two spatial scales, and they were deficient in capturing large storms. These results suggest that local calibration with rain gauge data should be conducted before V6 and V7 TRMM 3B42 data are used at daily scale. At monthly and annual scales, V6 and V7 TRMM 3B42 data match the rain gauge data well (R2 = 0.91-0.99, relative RMSE = 4%-23%) at both grid and watershed scale and thus have good potential for hydrological applications.
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    Cited: Baidu(894) Baidu(853)
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2010, 1 (3): 284-288.  
    Abstract208)      PDF (6159KB)(19)      
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    Cited: Baidu(199)
    GIAHS Project and Its Implementation in China
    MIN Qingwen, SUN Yehong, SHI Yuanyuan
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2010, 1 (1): 94-96.  
    Abstract89)      PDF (275KB)(57)      
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    Cited: Baidu(48)
    Comparison of ArcGIS and SAS Geostatistical Analyst to Estimate Population-Weighted Monthly Temperature for US Counties
    QI Xiaopeng, WEI Liang, Laurie BARKER, Akaki LEKIACHVILI, ZHANG Xingyou
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (3): 220-229.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.03.004
    Abstract78)      PDF (1430KB)(56)      
    Temperature changes are known to have significant impacts on human health.Accurate estimates of population-weighted average monthly air temperature for US counties are needed to evaluate temperature's association with health behaviours and disease, which are sampled or reported at the county level and measured on a monthly—or 30-day—basis.Most reported temperature estimates were calculated using ArcGIS, relatively few used SAS.We compared the performance of geostatistical models to estimate population-weighted average temperature in each month for counties in 48 states using ArcGIS v9.3 and SAS v9.2 on a CITGO platform.Monthly average temperature for Jan-Dec 2007 and elevation from 5435 weather stations were used to estimate the temperature at county population centroids.County estimates were produced with elevation as a covariate.Performance of models was assessed by comparing adjusted R2, mean squared error, root mean squared error, and processing time.Prediction accuracy for split validation was above 90% for 11 months in ArcGIS and all 12 months in SAS.Cokriging in SAS achieved higher prediction accuracy and lower estimation bias as compared to cokriging in ArcGIS.County-level estimates produced by both packages were positively correlated (adjusted R2 range=0.95 to 0.99); accuracy and precision improved with elevation as a covariate.Both methods from ArcGIS and SAS are reliable for U.S.county-level temperature estimates; However, ArcGIS's merits in spatial data pre-processing and processing time may be important considerations for software selection, especially for multi-year or multi-state projects.
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    Cited: Baidu(40)
    PotentialImpactsandChallengesofClimateChangeonWater QualityandEcosystem:CaseStudiesinRepresentativeRivers inChina
    XIA Jun, CHENG Shubo, HAO Xiuping, XIA Rui, LIU Xiaojie
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2010, 1 (1): 31-35.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.01.004
    Abstract92)      PDF (956KB)(67)      
    Potential impacts of climate change on water quality and ecosystem, as a newly emerged problem and challenge, is of great concern by scientists and governments. However, scientific researches and practices are still facing big challenges in these issues because of their complexity and uncertainty. This paper reviews the most recent literatures on this topic at first, and proposes some research gaps between published results and what needs to be known in practice. Additionally, basing on our knowledge and results of some recent case studies of the two representative rivers which are Huai River and Hanjiang River in China, it should be addressed that if the impact of climate change on the water quality and ecosystem has been taken concern, water pollution and related water environmental problem caused by human activities and economic development must be addressed firstly. It has also been recognized that water quality and ecosystem can be significantly impacted by climate change under the condition of human activities. Climate change can alter water temperature and hydrological regimes and thus influence the water quality and ecosystem. Then, the contents and principles of adaptation options and adaptability construction are discussed. The present study is expected to make clear of conceptions and to give directions for further relevant researches.
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    Cited: Baidu(33)
    Tibetan Attitudes Towards Community Participation and Ecotourism
    TANG Chengcai, ZHONG Linsheng, CHENG Shengkui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (1): 8-15.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.01.002
    Abstract140)      PDF (1058KB)(43)      
    Some Tibetan villages in Shenzha county, Tibet were chosen as typical Tibetan communities in China. Attitudes and perceptions towards Tibetan community participation in ecotourism were analyzed using face to face interviews. Most residents supported the development of ecotourism. They are willing to engage in ecotourism projects and accept ecotourism education and training, and expect that the government provides opportunities for them to participate in making ecotourism decisions. Most residents believed that ecotourism promotes local economies and social development, and enhances the ability and quality of local residents while improving their environmental consciousness. However, some residents were concerned that ecotourism may destroy local natural environments and Tibetan folk customs and culture. The level of community participation in ecotourism development is only in its infancy in Shenzha, but there is strong potential. The chief participatory approaches of ecotourism development for most residents were providing labor and catering services and commodities for tourism, and Tibetan performance singing and dancing. Limiting factors include language, a shortage of knowledge and skills, and poor ecotourism infrastructure. Most residents had little confidence that the government was willing to support them to participate in ecotourism. We put forward some mechanisms to enhance the level of community participation in ecotourism in this important region.
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    Cited: Baidu(19)
    Copper Residue in Animal Manures and the Potential Pollution Risk in Northeast China
    ZHANG Fengsong, LI Yanxia, YANG Ming, LI Wei, YAN Weijin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2011, 2 (1): 91-96.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2011.01.013
    Abstract70)      PDF (844KB)(41)      
    A total of 224 animal manures and feeds,randomly sampled from different sizes of intensive farms in three northeastern provinces,were analyzed to determine Cu concentration.At the same time,the load of animal manure Cu on farmlands and loss to rivers in sewage irrigation areas of Liaoning Province was estimated.The results showed that the mean Cu concentrations in pig,cattle,and chicken feeds were 179.8,16.6 and 20.8 mg kg-1 ,respectively.Cu concentrations in manures ranged from 1.5 to 1521.2 mg kg-1 .The mean value of 642.1 mg kg-1 in pig manure was higher than the mean values of 65.6 mg kg-1 and 31.1 mg kg-1 in chicken and cattle manures,respectively.The load of animal manure Cu on farmland in the study area ranged from 12.3-35.4 kg km-2 annually.In particular,the Xiaolinghe area received a higher level than the other areas.The possible amount of manure Cu entering river water as a result of soil erosion was lower than 0.76 kg km-2. The highest loss rates were found in the south of Anshan and the west of Jinzhou.It is suggested that animal manures contain a high level of Cu.Long-term agricultural application of animal manure may increase the potential risk of Cu pollution in soil and surface water.
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    Cited: Baidu(18)
    Effects of Plant Functional Types, Climate and Soil Nitrogen on Leaf Nitrogen along the North-South Transect of Eastern China
    ZHAN Xiaoyun, YU Guirui, HE Nianpeng
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2013, 4 (2): 125-131.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2013.02.004
    Abstract94)      PDF (1369KB)(20)      
    We conducted a systematic census of leaf N for 102 plant species at 112 research sites along the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) following the same protocol, to explore how plant functional types (PFTs) and environmental factors affect the spatial pattern of leaf N. The results showed that mean leaf N was 17.7 mg g-1 for all plant species. The highest and lowest leaf N were found in deciduous-broadleaf and evergreen-conifer species, respectively, and the ranking of leaf N from high to low was: deciduous > evergreen species, broadleaf > coniferous species, shrubs ≈ trees > grasses. For all data pooled, leaf N showed a convex quadratic response to mean annual temperature (MAT), and a negative linear relationship with mean annual precipitation (MAP), but a positive linear relationship with soil nitrogen concentration (Nsoil). These patterns were similar when PFTs were examined individually. Importantly, PFTs, climate and Nsoil jointly explained 46.1% of the spatial variation in leaf N, of which the independent explanatory powers of PFTs, climate and Nsoil were 15.6%, 2.3% and 4.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that leaf N is regulated by climate and Nsoil mainly via plant species composition. The wide scale empirical relationships developed here are useful for understanding and modeling of the effects of PFTs and environmental factors on leaf N.
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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Desertification and Its Mitigation Strategy in China
    WANG Guoqian, WANG Xuequan, WU Bo, LU Qi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (2): 97-104.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.02.001
    Abstract117)      PDF (1061KB)(43)      
    China is severely impacted by desertification. Of its territory, 34.6% — some 3.32 million km2 — is classified as drylands1) (including arid, semi-arid and semi-humid arid areas). Of the drylands, 2.62 million km2 meets the UNCCD definition of desertified land. These desertified lands spread across 18 provinces and account for 27.33% of the country's landmass. Over 400 million residents are affected, causing an annual direct economic loss exceed 64 billion CNY. China’s desertification mitigation began in late 1950s. Through a number of high-profile programs – “Three-North Shelterbelt Development Program”, “National Program on Combating Desertification”, “Sandification Control Program for Beijing and Tianjin Vicinity”, and “Croplands to Forests or Grasslands Program” launched between 1978 and 2000, the Government of China has poured on average 0.024% of the country’s annual GDP into desertification mitigation and, as a result, some 20% of desertified lands have been brought under control. Approximately 50×104 km2 of the existing desertified lands are considered restorable given current technology. When the potential desertification increments induced by global warming are taken into account, total desertified area within planning horizon is projected to range from 55×104 to 100×104 km2. With the approximate restoration rate of 1.5×104-2.2×104 km2 y-1, China’s anti-desertification battle is expected to last 45-70 years. The current strategic plans set restoration targets at 22×104 km2 by 2015, with an additional 33×104 km2 by 2030, and the final 45×104 km2 of the 100×104 km2 restored by 2050. Through examining state investment in mitigation and current rehabilitation strategies, the paper recommends: (i) boardening the previous sectoral perspective to a multi-stakeholder approach; (ii) setting priority zones within the restorable area, and establishing National Special Eco-Zones; (iii) steering state investment from government investment in tree plantations to acquisition of planted/greened areas; and (iv) introducing preferential policies in favor of sandy land restoration, including extending land tenures to 70 years and compensating for ecological services.
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    Cited: Baidu(13)
    Hydrological Impacts of Afforestation: A Case Study Based on Simulation of TOPOG in the Small Watershed of Caogou in Liupan Mountains, China
    XU Li-Hong, Wang-Yan-Hui, YU-Peng-Tao, SHI Zhong-Jie, Xiong- Wei, Mo- Fei, Zhang-Shu-Lan, Dong-Xiao-Hong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2010, 1 (3): 202-210.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.03.002
    Abstract87)      PDF (1377KB)(47)      
    Forest area in Liupan Mountains is important water conservation area of Loess Plateau. This area experienced large-scale afforestation during the past 3 decades, and the landscape patterns has been changed greatly. These changes have result in consequently changes of characteristics of main hydroecological progress and ecological function. Based on analysis of the dynamic and components characteristics of hydrological process, this paper discussed possible changes of landscape caused by afforestation and their hydroecological impact based on simulation results made by a distributed hydrological model TOPOG, in order to offer a hydroecological view for the undertaking afforestation activity in Liupan Mountains and Loess Plateau. The preliminary scenario simulation and analysis imply that total runoff at catchment outlet will decrease total runoff of catchment if increasing area of Larix principris-upprechtii woodland through cutting natural broadleaf woodland or reclamation of shrub patches. The decrease of total runoff can reach 28% when the area ratio of Larix principris-upprechtii patches enlarges from 11.5% to 58%. While reclamation of shrub patches also might reduce availability of water resources because runoff undulating will enlarge.
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    Cited: Baidu(13)
    The Temporal-Spatial Distribution of Light Intensity in Maize and Soybean Intercropping Systems
    HE Hanming, YANG Lei, ZHAO Lihua, WU Han, FAN Liming, XIE Yong, ZHU Youyong, LI Chengyun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (2): 169-173.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.02.009
    Abstract118)      PDF (827KB)(84)      
    Intercropping can improve field microclimates, decrease the incidence of crop diseases, and increase crop yields, but the reasons for this remain unknown. Solar radiation is the most important environmental influence. To understand the mechanisms of intercropping we established an experiment consisting of three cropping patterns: a monocropping control (treatment A) and two intercropping treatments (B: two rows of maize and two rows of soybean intercropping; C: two rows of maize and four rows of soybean intercropping). Results show that compared to monocropping, intercropping increased the amount of light penetrating to inferior leaves in maize plants. Light intensity reaching maize plants at the heading stage in intercropping increased over two-fold at 30 cm above ground and 10-fold at 70 cm above ground, compared with monocropping. At the flowering to maturity stage, light intensity at 110, 160 and 210 cm above ground among maize plants was greatly increased in intercropping compared with monocropping, by some five-fold, two-fold and 12%, respectively. Moreover, light intensity declined more slowly at the measured heights in the intercropping system compared with monocropping. From the 7–18th leaf, light intensity per leaf increased two-fold in intercropping compared with monocropping. Daily light duration increased more than a mean of 5 h per day per leaf in intercropping compared with monocropping. The biological characters of maize including thousand kernel weight, yield per plant and area of ear leaves were all greater in intercropping than monocropping. These results suggest that, for maize, intercropping improves light density and duration significantly and this may contribute to biomass and yield increases.
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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    Grazing Resource Management and Grassland Degradation in Northern China
    LI Ying, HAO Ruimin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2011, 2 (3): 286-288.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2011.03.015
    Abstract58)      PDF (275KB)(58)      
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    Cited: Baidu(10)
    Assessment of GIAHS in Shizuoka: The Traditional Tea-grass Integrated System
    INAGAKI Hidehiro, KUSUMOTO Yoshinobu
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (4): 398-401.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.017
    Abstract206)      PDF (332KB)(57)      
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    Cited: Baidu(10)
    Ecosystem Regulating Services and Their Valuation of Hainan Island, China
    OUYANG Zhiyun, JIN Yu, ZHAO Tongqian, ZHENG Hua
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2011, 2 (2): 132-140.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2011.02.005
    Abstract71)      PDF (741KB)(59)      
    Ecosystem services were defined as the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life. They include provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. These form the basis on which regional environmental reserves and development are assessed and for the valuation of ecosystem services. In this paper Hainan Island is used as an example to explore methods of regulating services based on the structure and processes of a natural ecosystem. Ecosystems were classified into 13 types: valley rain forest, mountainous rain forest, tropical monsoon forest, mountainous coppice forest, mountainous evergreen forest, tropical coniferous forest, shrubs, plantation, timber forest, windbreak forest, mangrove, savanna, and crop land. Regulating services and their economic values for Hainan Island ecosystems were assessed and evaluated in terms of water-holding, soil conservancy, nutrient cycle, C fixation and windbreak functions. The economic value of the regulating services in 2002 were estimated at 2035.88×108 to 2153.39×108 Chinese Yuan (CNY), which was eight times the value of provisioning services (wood and agricultural products), estimated at just 254.06×108 CNY. Our analyses imply that ecosystem regulating services play a very important role in the sustainable development of Hainan Island’s society and economy.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Geographic Distribution of Avirulence Genes in Rice Blast Fungus in Yunnan Province, China
    LI Jinbin, YANG Jing, LIU Lin, HE Hanming, HE Xiahong, ZHU Youyong, LI Cheng-yun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2011, 2 (2): 181-185.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2011.02.012
    Abstract72)      PDF (687KB)(46)      
    Knowledge of the geographic distribution and frequency of avirulence genes will contribute to the development of strategies to effectively use rice varieties that carry various resistances genes, including combinations of varieties in mixture cropping systems. Here, we analyzed the geographic distribution and frequencies of avirulence genes in rice blast fungus using samples collected from 11 prefectures across Yunnan province, China. A total of 467 single spore isolates were assayed for pathotypes based on their reaction to 20 rice blast resistance monogenic lines. The results revealed that frequencies of avirulence genes among 10 prefectures showed insignificant difference, but frequencies of avirulence genes in Xishuangbanna showed significant differences compared to the remaining 10 prefectures. The avirulence genes Avr-Pi9, Avr-Piz and Avr-Pizt were observed at the highest frequency in blast isolates from the 11 prefectures; their average frequency was greater than 80%. Our results imply that the composition and distribution of rice genetic diversity are more important than climate and other environment conditions for formation and maintenance of rice blast fungus genetic diversity. Using average frequencies, the avirulence genes can be categorized into 4 groups. There were significant differences of frequencies of avirulence genes among different groups, while insignificant differences observed within any group. These results will provide useful information for evaluation of resistance genes and effective management of rice blast disease.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Progress and Prospects in Tourism Research on Agricultural Heritage Sites
    TIAN Mi, MIN Qingwen, TAO Hui, YUAN Zheng, HE Lu, LUN Fei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (4): 381-389.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.04.014
    Abstract246)      PDF (436KB)(39)      
    Agricultural heritage is an important type of world heritage. The special features of this kind of heritage are that they are "living" or "real life" systems, in both the ecosystem and in the cultural sense. So, agricultural heritage needs to be conserved in a special way. In a well-reasoned approach to dynamic conservation of agricultural heritage, careful development of heritage sites can realize greater sustainability of the traditional agriculture by considering both conservation and development though tourism. This paper examines the Global Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) as designated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and listed by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as agricultural heritages sites. Currently, the research in China focuses on tourism resources evaluation and development, production design and marketing, tourism perception and the impacts of tourism development and so forth. There is less emphasis on research about benefit sharing of heritage tourism evolution mechanisms, environmental impacts of agricultural heritage tourism and study methods which should be analyzed in-depth, so as to illuminate the theories and practices of development in a living landscape.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Application of a Full Hierarchical Bayesian Model in Assessing Streamflow Response to a Climate Change Scenario at the Coweeta Basin, NC, USA
    WU Wei, James S. CLARK, James M. VOSE
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (2): 118-128.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.02.003
    Abstract69)      PDF (1232KB)(56)      
    We have applied a full hierarchical Baysian (HB) model to simulate streamflow at the Coweeta Basin that drains western North Carolina, USA under a doubled CO2 climate scenario. The full HB model coherently assimilated multiple data sources and accounted for uncertainties from data, parameters and model structures. Full predictive distributions for streamflow from the Bayesian analysis indicate not only increasing drought, with substantial decrease in fall and summer flows, and soil moisture content, but also increase in the frequency of flood events when they were fit with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) under this doubled CO2 climate scenario compared to the current climate scenario. Full predictive distributions based on the hierarchical Bayesian model, compared to deterministic point estimates, is capable of providing richer information to facilitate development of adaptation strategy to changing climate for a sustainable water resource management.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    The Role of Multi-functionality of Agriculture in Sustainable Tourism Development in Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems(GIAHS)Sites in China
    HE Lu, MIN Qingwen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2013, 4 (3): 250-257.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2013.03.008
    Abstract109)      PDF (1148KB)(52)      
    Population growth,loss of biodiversity,and climate change necessitate a new vision for the future of both agriculture and biodiversity.In order to safeguard and support the world's agricultural heritage systems,in 2002 the FAO started an initiative for the conservation and adaptive management called Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems(GIAHS).Tourism is suggested as part of the future as it is considered to be an alternative income source that will not only promote local economic development,but also provide the opportunity for tourists to learn about agriculture and ecology. However,inappropriate tourism in GIAHS sites will bring impacts on local culture and living styles, which not only threatens tourism's sustainable development,but also has the potential to damage these unique agricultural systems.This paper proposes that agriculture-based tourism is suitable for GIAHS and that Multi-functionality of Agriculture(MFA)can be the link between agriculture and tourism.This study constructs the framework for tourism development in GIAHS through MFA and applies it to the four GIAHS sites in China.Referring to the quantitative assessment for MFA and a qualitative analysis of the relationship between agriculture and tourism,we can give advice on agricultural tourism development in GIAHS sites.This framework also offers a universal methodology that allows stakeholders to communicate about the multiple functions of GIAHS across scales.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Recent Advances and Challenges in Ecosystem Service Research
    ZHANG Yongmin, ZHAO Shidong, GUO Rongchao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (1): 82-90.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.01.010
    Abstract198)      PDF (1026KB)(45)      
    Despite its recency as a research area, ecosystem service research has developed over the last decade into a significant area of science. In this paper we review recent advances and challenges in ecosystem service research. Our review finds that (ⅰ) Ecosystem services are ubiquitous in biosphere. But they are treated differently among scientific communities. In order for the concept of ecosystem services to make a large and meaningful contribution to conservation and human well-being, it needs to be clearly defined and put into a framework so that it is both fit for a given research purpose and operational for management decisions. In addition, there is not one classification scheme for all purposes. Ecosystem services should be classified based upon both the characteristics of ecosystem services of interest and a context for which the concept of ecosystem services is being mobilized. (ⅱ) As sources of human well-being, ecosystem services have several key ecological and economic characteristics such as complexity, spatial scales, public-private goods aspect and benefit dependence. Understanding these characteristics is a prerequisite for measuring, modeling, valuing and managing ecosystem services. (ⅲ) Human demands for ecosystem services and the supply and use of them are three necessary linkages between ecosystems and human well-being. They are of great importance to such vital issues as ecological conservation and social equity. In most cases, integrated studies involving multi-disciplines, multi-sectors and multi-districts on those three linkages should be carried out to support sound ecosystem service management decisions. And (ⅳ) ecosystem services have multiple value attributes including utilitarian values and non-utilitarian values. In the processes of making decisions concerning the use of ecosystem services, all kinds of values are usually played out on a common and not always level playing field. They intersect and interact in various ways, and may complement or counter-balance each other in assisting decisions. A multi-criteria valuation system should be developed and used to estimate the value of ecosystem services.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Preconditions for Sustainable Development of Pacific Russia Seaside Areas
    P. Ya. BAKLANOV
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2011, 2 (3): 283-285.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2011.03.014
    Abstract75)      PDF (369KB)(31)      
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Ecological Footprint and Endogenous Economic Growth in the Poyang Lake Area in China Based on Empirical Analysis of Panel Data Model
    HE Yiqing, CHE Ting, WANG Yun
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (4): 367-372.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.04.010
    Abstract95)      PDF (1666KB)(69)      
    In this paper, ecological footprint methods were used to calculate the ecological footprint of six cities (Nanchang, Jingdezhen, Jiujiang, Xinyu, Yingtan and Fuzhou) in the Poyang Lake Area, Jiangxi, China from 1991 to 2010. Ecological footprint was the input factor for ecological resources and the contribution of this and other factors such as labor and capital to economic growth were analyzed. The results showed that, from 1991 to 2010, ecological footprints in the six cities increased year by year. The amount of land for fossil energy, under cultivation and grassland influenced total ecological footprint in each city. The contribution of ecological resources, labor factors and capital factors to economic growth showed regional differences. Nanchang, Jiujiang, Xinyu, and Yingtan are capital-orientated and capital factor had a great influence on the economic growth rates, whereas, Jingdezhen and Fuzhou were labor-orientated. The contribution of ecological resources to economic growth in the six cities was the lowest of all three factors, meaning that efficiency of ecological resource utilization is low. Total productivity plays a key role in economic development; however, the overall level of total factor productivity for the six cities was low and indicates that the technological content of Poyang Lake Area’s economic growth is low and the utilization of input factors extensive. In summary, we suggest changing the mode of economic growth and developing tertiary industry in the region.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Assessment of Carbon Dynamics of Forest Ecosystems in the Poyang Lake Basin Responding to Afforestation and Future Climate Change
    ZHOU Lei, WANG Shaoqiang, JU Weimin, XIONG Zhe, Georg KINDERMANN, CHEN Jingming, SHI Hao
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2013, 4 (1): 11-19.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2013.01.002
    Abstract69)      PDF (2018KB)(52)      
    Afforestation projects were applied in the Poyang Lake Basin of China at the beginning of 1980s. The large-scale plantation may dramatically influence the changes in carbon storage of forests in this basin. Therefore, climate-induced variations in the carbon balance of the Poyang Lake Basin’s forests may play an important role in the carbon cycle of China. However, we have little understanding of their long-term behavior, especially the future trend of carbon sink/source patterns under climate change and rising atmospheric CO2. The annual carbon budget of the Poyang Lake Basin’s forests during 1981–2050 was estimated by using the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon-budget model (InTEC) coupled with projected climate change simulated by Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS 2.0). During 1981–2000, the rapid increment of annual NPP in this basin was possible due to large plantation. Soil organic carbon storage (0–30cm) of forests generally decreased by 1.0% per year at the beginning of plantation. Moreover, forests in this basin converted from carbon source in 1980s to carbon sink in 1990s. By 2040–2050, total carbon stocks of forest ecosystems will increase by 0.78Pg C, compared to recent years (2001–2010). Under future climate and CO2 concentration in A1B scenario, NEP of forests in Poyang Lake Basin lean to keep relative stable (20–30Tg C y-1) because of old forests except for some years induced by extreme droughts. Our results also showed that prediction of NEP of forests in Poyang Lake Basin was controlled by water limitation; in contrast, temperature was the main factor on inter-annual variability of NPP.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    The Population Carrying Capacity of Waters Ecosystem in China
    Ge Liqiang, Li Shimei, Xie Gaodi, Cheng Yanpei, Ni Zengshi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (1): 21-27.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.01.003
    Abstract250)   HTML0)    PDF (242KB)(63)      
    The study of waters ecosystem and their population carrying capacity demonstrates the role of these ecosystems in economic and social development and provides a theoretical basis for the management and allocation of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the concept of waters ecosystem population carrying capacity was defined and developmental trends in the population carrying capacity of waters ecosystem in China were evaluated. Results show that waters ecosystem population carrying capacity in China increased from 0.176×109 person year-1 in 2000 to 0.255 ×109 person year-1 in 2010; the population carrying capacity of the standard sea remained at 0.2-0.3 person ha-1; and the standard inland waters population carrying capacity increased from 1.8 to 3.2 person ha-1. This analysis indicates notable regional difference in waters population carrying capacity. In southeastern coastal China and Yangtze River drainage areas where inland waters are widely distributed and aquaculture is developed, the population carrying capacity is higher; however, in northwest China where water resource are deficient and the distribution is relatively small, the waters population carrying capacity is low. The waters ecosystem population carrying capacity of China in 2030 was predicted and results indicate strong potential for increasing waters population carrying capacity.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Farmland Marginalization and Policy Implications in Mountainous Areas: A Case Study of Renhuai City, Guizhou
    ZHAO Yuluan, ZHANG Meng, LI Xiubin, DONG Shunzhou, HUANG Dengke
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2016, 7 (1): 61-67.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2016.01.008
    Abstract182)   HTML0)    PDF (650KB)(264)      
    Farmland resources in mountainous areas are important for regional food security and ecological security. Studies concerning changes in farmland use in mountainous areas are of considerable significance in China. Here, we analyzed marginalization characteristics of farmland in Renhuai city from 2005 to 2011 and driving factors using land information systems, surveys of farmer households and statistical data. Our results indicate that from 2005 to 2011, 3095.76 hm2 of farmland was converted to forest land and natural reserve, accounting for 5.45% of the total farmland area. This suggests significant marginalization of farmland. Marginalization of farmland in mountainous areas was affected by topography, labor forces and effectiveness of land management. Farmland with a greater slope gradient was more likely to be abandoned; among marginalized land in Renhuai, a slope greater than 15° accounted for 62.26%. A high non-agricultural employment rate of rural labor force and annual income per capita of farmer households in mountainous areas were consistent with high speed farmland marginalization. Low land management benefits were the key reason for farmland marginalization. Although farmland marginalization was advantageous for eco-environment protection and sustainable development in mountainous areas, it resulted in inefficient land resource utilization. A win-win model for the exploitation and utilization of sloping farmland should be explored for production development and environmental protection.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Economic Analysis of Electric Fencing for Mitigating Human-wildlife Conflict in Nepal
    Saraswoti SAPKOTA, Achyut ARYAL, Shanta Ram BARAL, Matt W. HAYWARD, David RAUBENHEIMER
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2014, 5 (3): 237-243.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2014.03.006
    Abstract342)      PDF (841KB)(238)      
    Human-wildlife conflict is one of the biggest conservation challenges throughout the world. Various conservation strategies have been employed to limit these impacts, but often they are not adequately monitored and their effectiveness assessed. Recently, electric fencing has been constructed as a means to mitigate human-wildlife conflict surrounding many Nepalese protected areas. To date, there are no other studies analyzing the cost effectiveness and efficacy of fencing for conservation. This study aims to examine the cost effectiveness of electric fencing in the eastern sector of Chitwan National Park, Nepal, where the fencing has recently been constructed. Great Indian one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), and tiger (Panthera tigris) were the main wildlife species involved in human-wildlife conflict in the buffer zone area surrounding the park, where the fencing was deployed. Electric fencing was significantly effective in reducing crop damage by 78% and livestock depredation by 30%-60%. Human mortality was not reduced significantly in the study areas and continued at low levels. Our analysis suggested that total net present value of the cost of electric fence in Kagendramalli User Committee (KMUC) and Mrigakunja User Committee (MKUC) was 1 517 959 NPR (Nepalese Rupees, 21 685 USD) and 3 530 075 NPR (50 429 USD) respectively up to the fiscal year 2009/10. Net present benefit in KMUC and MKUC was 16 301 105 NPR (232 872 USD) and 38 304 602 NPR (547 208 USD) respectively up to 2009/10. The cost-benefit ratio of electric fence up to base fiscal year 2009/10 in KMUC is 10.73, whereas MKUC is 10.85. These results illustrate that the electric fencing program is economically and socially beneficial in reducing human-wildlife conflict (crop damage and livestock depredation) around the protected areas where large mammals occur.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Development of Urban Agglomerations of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Conditions of the Formation of the New Silk Road
    Pavel V. RYKOV, LI Zehong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2015, 6 (2): 101-105.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.02.006
    Abstract253)      PDF (341KB)(312)      

    The paper deals with current issues of the regional spatial organization based on the identification and analysis of key factors and prerequisites for the formation of urban agglomerations as the most important growth centers, integrated with global and regional markets in the conditions of a qualitatively new stage in the history of the Great Silk Road. We assess promising directions and negative effects of development of agglomerated formations and zones of their influence in the Republic of Kazakhstan as a region having an advantageous geostrategic position in the Eurasian space. In Kazakhstan, the current process of urbanization has a multiplevector nature, and the course of formation of urban agglomerations provides convincing evidence of an increase in their share in settlement and in the total population. It is agglomerated forms of urban development that are a kind of indicator of the onset of maturity in settlement, specifying key points of the socio-economic space, namely: cores of regions, nodes of foreign economic relations and contacts, main areas of new territories development, the most important links in the internal infrastructure, etc. It is urban agglomerations that should act as a kind of special platform of integration processes, on the basis of which the Republic of Kazakhstan should revive its historical role in the development of the global project "New Silk Road" and become a major trade and logistics, finance and business, innovation and technology, and tourism hub of the Central Asia region, a bridge between Europe and Asia.

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    A Commentary on the International Conference on Land Use Issues and Policy in China under Rapid Rural and Urban Transformation
    LONG Hualou, LIU Yansui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2012, 3 (4): 384-384.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.04.013
    Abstract57)      PDF (543KB)(20)      
    Under the auspices of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the International Conference on Land Use Issues and Policy in China under Rapid Rural and Urban Transformation was held in Beijing, China, from 20 to 23 October 2012. The Conference was mainly co-organized by the Journal of Land Use Policy (Elsevier); the Center for Regional Agriculture and Rural Development, IGSNRR, CAS; the Key Laboratory of Degraded and Unused Land Consolidation Engineering, the Ministry of Land and Resources of China (MLRC); and the Key Laboratory of Land Use, MLRC.
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    Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System in China
    ZHANG Hongqi, XU Erqi, ZHU Huiyi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 121-128.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.002
    Abstract488)   HTML0)    PDF (830KB)(316)      
    Rapid economic development, industrialization, and urbanization aggravates the tense relationship between human beings and the land. With multiple demands for food security, ecological protection and economic development, frequent conflicts and competition occur between multiple different functional land types. The current land use classification system focuses on the productive and living functions of land, but gives little consideration to ecological functions. This study builds a national Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System based on land functions emphasizing the concept and position of ecological land. So-called ecological land uses are types of land use regulating, maintaining and protecting ecological security. The new land classification is more flexible for overall planning purposes and for making arrangements for ecological, living and productive land spaces. The Ecological-Living-Productive Land Classification System includes three levels. The first level has four major types: ecological land, ecological-productive land, productive-ecological land, and living-productive land. The second level subdivides the major types into 15 functional land categories, including major ecological regulation land, common ecological regulation land, and ecological conservation land for ecological lands; pasture land, timber land and aquaculture land for ecological-productive lands; arable land and orchard for productive-ecological lands; and urban built-up area, rural living land, and industrial land for living-productive lands. The third level is based on land cover types. Based on multiple data sources, and using a strategy of zoning and re-classification, we extracted the spatial distribution of ecological-living-productive lands on a national scale. The areas of ecological land, ecological-productive land, productive land, and living-productive land area are 6,037,000 km2, 1,353,800 km2, 2,001,900 km2 and 207,300 km2, respectively; accounting for 62.89%, 14.10%, 20.85% and 2.16% of total area, respectively. For the second-level classification, the area of ecological conservation land is the largest, accounting for 20.17% of the total area. Ecological land is located mainly in central and western China. Ecological-productive land is distributed in various areas throughout the country, and productive-ecological land and living-productive land are concentrated in eastern China.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Exploitation, Utilization Status, and Development Prospects of Water Resources in Ningbo City
    WU Yanjuan, YANG Yanzhao, FENG Zhiming, SUN Tong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2017, 8 (2): 205-211.   doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2017.02.012
    Abstract290)   HTML0)    PDF (938KB)(273)      
    Water resources insufficiency is one of the bottlenecks that restrict sustainable socio-economic development in Ningbo city. Good handling of the relationship between water resources utilization and development is of great significance for the realization of continuous economic growth and sustainable socio-economic development. This study systematically evaluated water resources utilization with respect to water supply and demand. Water resources development and utilization prospects and regional differences were then assessed at multiple scales, at both county/district and city level in Ningbo city, using the water resources carrying index. Results showed that: (1) The volume of water resources supply and consumption gradually rose each year, with surface water as the primary source and groundwater as the secondary source. Regarding consumption, industrial water consumption was the primary element, and domestic and environmental water consumption were the secondary elements. Even though the use of water resources for irrigation, secondary and, tertiary industry were becoming more efficient, comprehensive per capita water consumption was gradually increasing. (2) The water resources carrying index for Ningbo city fluctuated in the range of 4.51-23.35 during 2001-2015; the degree of water resource utilization and potential exploitation evaluation of water resources were not stable. The average value of the water resources carrying index was 11.68; the degree of utilization of water resources was very high, and the introduction of water from external water bodies was necessary, to the extent external source were available. (3) Future water resources exploitation will be quite difficult in Ningbo city, especially in Cixi county, Ningbo municipal district and Yuyao county. So the introduction of external water as a supplemental source will be required.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
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