WANG Shanshan1,4, SUN Baoyang5, LI Chaodong2, LI Zhanbin1,2,3, MA Bo1,2,*
|  Armstrong C L.1987. Transformation of Rainfall by Plant Canopy (Erosion). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
 Armstrong C L, Mitchell J K.1988. Plant Canopy Characteristics and Processes Which Affect Transformation of Rainfall Properties.Transations of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 31(5): 1400-1409.
 Barthès B, Roose E.2002. Aggregate stability as an indicator of soil susceptibility to runoff and erosion; validation at several levels. Catena, 47(2): 133-149.
 Bissonnais Y L, Cerdan O, Lecomte V,
 Bissonnais Y L, Renaux B, Delouche H.1995. Interactions between soil properties and moisture content in crust formation, runoff and interrill erosion from tilled loess soils. Catena, 25(1-4): 33-46.
 Brandt C J.1989. The size distribution of throughfall drops under vegetation canopies. Catena, 16(4-5): 507-524.
 Brodowski R, Rejman J, Lipiec J.2009. The effect of rain power on raindrop detachment and soil erosion. EGU General Assembly: Geophysical Research Abstracts.
 Burwell R E, Larson W E.1969. Infiltration as influenced by tillage-induced random roughness and pore space. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 33(3): 449-452.
 Cai Q, Wang G, Chen Y.1998. The process of sediment erosion and simulation of small watershed in Loess Plateau. Beijing: Science Press, 1-252. (in Chinese)
 Chen F.1985. To study the effect of different slope on soil erosion. Soil and water conservation in China,1985(2): 18-19. (in Chinese)
 Chen H, Shan M, WANG K.2006. Effects of initial water content on hillslope rainfall infiltration and soil water redistribution. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineers, 22(1): 44-47. (in Chinese)
 Chen Z, Guo H, Shi D,
 Chen Z, Xia Q, Shi D,
 Cheng Q, Cai Q, Liao Y.2007. Effects of soil surface characteristics and gradient on runoff and sediment yield. Journal of soil and water conservation, 21(2): 9-11. (in Chinese)
 Cihacek L J, Swan J B.1994. Effects of erosion on soil chemical properties in the north central region of the United States. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 49(3): 259-265. (in Chinese)
 Cogo N P, Moldenhauer W C, Foster G R.1983. Effect of crop residue, tillage-induced roughness, and runoff velocity on size distribution of eroded soil aggregates. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 47(5): 1005-1008.
 Ekern P C.1954. Rainfall intensity as a measure of storm erosivity. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 18(2): 212-216.
 Engman E T.1986. Roughness coefficients for routing surface runoff. Journal of Irrigation & Drainage Engineering, 112(1): 39-53.
 Fan W.2001. Study on the causes and effects of soil crusts in sloping fields, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University. (in Chinese)
 Farres P.1978. The role of time and aggregate size in the crusting process. Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 3(3): 243-254.
 Felicia A.2014. Reducing tillage erosion in sweet potatoes planting.
 Fenton T E.2012. The impact of erosion on the classification of Mollisols in Iowa. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 92(3): 413-418.
 Finney H J.1984. The effect of crop covers on rainfall characteristics and splash detachment. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 29(4): 337-343.
 Foster R L, Martin G L.1969. Effect of unit weight and slope on erosion. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division, 95(4): 551-562.
 Fu T, Ni J, Wei C,
 Gao X, Bao Z.2001. Effects of rainfall and soil structure on splash erosion. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 15(3): 24-26. (in Chinese)
 Geng X, Zheng F, Liu L.2010. Effect of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on soil erosion process on purple soil hill slopes. Journal of Sediment Research, (6): 48-53. (in Chinese)
 Gu Y.2017. Influence of slope farmland corn crop root on soil erosion.
 Guo P, Wang Y.1992. Study on erosion resistance of soil and its indexes on the forestland of common seabuckthorn on the Loess Plateau. Soil and Water Conservation in China, (4): 80-86. (in Chinese)
 Guo Y.1997. Analysis of raindrop erosion characteristics. Soil and Water Conservation in China, (4): 15-17. (in Chinese)
 Han X, Wu B, An T,
 Hui W, Wang Quanjiu, Shao Ming’an.2008. Simulation experiment of effect of antecedent soil moisture content on characteristics of runoff and sediment from two soil sloping lands. Transactions of the CSAE, 24(5): 65-68. (in Chinese)
 Jia Z, Wang G, Wang X.1987. The influence of soil moisture content on the inflow of sloping land. Soil and Water Conservation in China, (9): 25-27. (in Chinese)
 Jiang Z, Song W, Li X.1983. Study on characteristics of natural rainfall in Loess Area. Soil and Water Conservation China, (3): 32-36. (in Chinese)
 Johnson C B, Mannering J V, Moldenhauer W C.1979. Influence of Surface Roughness and Clod Size and Stability on Soil and Water Losses. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 43(4): 772-777.
 Karamage F, Zhang C, Ndayisaba F,
 Kenimer L, Mostaghimi S, Young R W,
 Kimaro D N, Poesen J, Msanya B M,
 Lampurlanés J, Cantero-Martínez C.2006. Hydraulic conductivity, residue cover and soil surface roughness under different tillage systems in semiarid conditions. Soil & Tillage Research, 85(1-2): 13-26.
 Lawrence D S L.2015. Reply: ‘Macroscale surface roughness and frictional resistance in overland flow’. Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 23(9): 861-863.
 Laws J O, Parsons D A.1943. The relation of raindrop-size to intensity. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union, 24(2): 248-262.
 Li M, Song X, Shen B,
 Li Z, Wang T, Shi Z,
 Lin J, Ma W, Zhang Z.2009. The northern mountainous area of different slope runoff plots of soil and water loss. Shandong Water Resources, (z1): 42-44. (in Chinese)
 Liu G.1997. Soil anti-scourability research and its perspectives in Loess Plateau. Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 4(5): 91-101. (in Chinese)
 Liu X, Wu Q, Zhao H.1994. The vertical interception function of forest vegetation and soil and water conservation. Study on Soil and Water Conservation, 1(3): 8-13. (in Chinese)
 Liu X, Zhou K, Miao S,
 Liu Y, Tang K.1990. The soil of slope land with different ground cover loss test. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, (1): 25-29. (in Chinese)
 Liu Z, Jiang Z.1994. Study on the influence of rainfall factors and slope on sheet erosion. Bulletin of Soil and Water Conservation, (6): 19-22. (in Chinese)
 Loch R J, Loch R, Jasper D.2000. Effects of vegetation cover on runoff and erosion under simulated rain and overland flow on a rehabilitated site on the Meandu Mine, Tarong, Queensland. Soil Research, 38(38): 299-312.
 Lu K, Li Z, Zhang X,
 Ma F.2009. Study on crop vegetation effect on soil erosion of sloping cultivated land. Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University. (in Chinese)
 Mchunu C N, Lorentz S, Jewitt G,
 Moore D C, Singer M J.1990. Crust formation effects on soil erosion processes. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 54(4): 1117-1123.
 Morgan R P C.1982. Splash Detachment Under Plant Covers: Results and Implications of a Field Study. Transations of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 25(4): 0987-0991.
 Morgan R P C.1985. Effect of Corn and Soybean Canopy on Soil Detachment by Rainfall. Transations of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 28(4): 1135-1140.
 Mosley M P.1982. The effect of a new zealand beech forest canopy on the kinetic energy of water drops and on surface erosion. Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 7(2): 103-107.
 Moss A J, Green T W.1987. Erosive effects of the large water drops (gravity drops) that fall from plants. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 25(25): 9-20.
 Mou J.1983. The calculation formula of the speed. Soil and Water Conservation Chinese, (3): 40-41. (in Chinese)
 Munodawafa A.2014. The Effect of Rainfall Characteristics and Tillage on Sheet Erosion and Maize Grain Yield in Semiarid Conditions and Granitic Sandy Soils of Zimbabwe. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2012(9): 1443-1446.
 Mwango S B, Msanya B M, Mtakwa P W,
 Onstad C A.1984. Depressional storage on tilled soil surfaces. Transations of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 27(3): 729-732.
 Planchon O, Fritsch E, Valentin C.1987. Rill development in a wet savannah environment. Catena, 15(6): 55-70.
 Pu C, Cai Q, Cheng Q,
 Pu C, Cai Q, Zhang X,
 Qin F, Yu X, Zhang M,
 Robbins C W, Freeborn L L, Mackey B E.1997. Improving exposed subsoils with fertilizers and crop rotations. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61(4): 1221-1225.
 Roose E.1986. Runoff and erosion before and after clearing depending on the type of crop in Western Africa. In: Lal R, Sanchez PA and Cummings Jr. RW (eds). Land clearing and development in the tropics. Rotterdam, Balkema: The Netherlands, 317-330.
 Roose E J.1983. Runoff and erosion before and after clearing depending on the type of crop in western Africa.Cahiers ORSTOM, Pedology Series, 20: 327-339. (in French)
 Sadeghian M R, Mitchell J K.1990. Response of surface roughness storage to rainfall on tilled soil. Transations of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 33(6): 1875-1881.
 Shi J.1991. Study of water and soil erosion of yellow hill slope area. Soil and Water Conservation in China, 7: 26-31. (in Chinese)
 Singh R K, Panda R K, Satapathy K K,
 Smith D D, Wischmeier W H.1957. Factors affecting sheet and rill erosion. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union, 38(6): 889-896.
 Song X, Kang S, Shi W,
 Sreenivas L, Johnston J R, Hill H O.1948. Some Relationships of Vegetation and Soil Detachment in the Erosion Process. Soil Science Society of America Journal C: 471-474.
 Sun F, Jiang Z, Wang L.2005. Study on runoff and sediment yield of farmland under different rainfall intensities. Gansu Journal of Science, 17(1): 53-56. (in Chinese)
 Tamene L, Le Q B.2015. Estimating soil erosion in sub-Saharan Africa based on landscape similarity mapping and using the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 102(1): 17-31.
 Tang K.2004. Soil and water conservation in China. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
 Tang Z, Lei T, Zhang Q,
 Truman C C, Ii J C A, Davis J G. 2011. Rainfall intensity effects on runoff and sediment losses from a colorado alfisol. In: Ascough II, J.C. and Flanagan, D.C. (eds.). International Symposium on Erosion and Landscape Evolution. Anchorage, Alaska: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Publication
 Vrieling A, Hoedjes J C B, Velde M V D.2014. Towards large-scale monitoring of soil erosion in Africa: Accounting for the dynamics of rainfall erosivity. Global & Planetary Change, 115(5): 33-43.
 Wan Y S, Elswaify S A, Ascough Li J C,
 Wang J, Yi W, Liu D.2011. Influence of intercropping maize with alfalfa on runoff and sediment yield after rainfall on loess slope land. Water Saving Irrigation, (8): 43-46. (in Chinese)
 Wang Z, Huang X, Zhang Z,
 Wang Z, Shao M, Lei T.2003. Tillage erosion in loess area and the spatial pattern of contribution to total erosion. Journal of Ecology, 23(7): 1328-1335.
 Wang Z, Shao M, Li Y.2002. Tillage erosion in loess region of China and the distribution law of soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers, 8(2): 168-172. (in Chinese)
 Wang Z, Wang Y, Huang X,
 Wang Z, Wei Z.1995. Study on water erosion in Sloping Farmland under artificial rainfall condition in loess tableland area (I): factors affecting rill erosion. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 9(2): 51-57. (in Chinese)
 Watson D A, Laflen J M.1986. Soil Strength, Slope, and Rainfall Intensity Effects on Interrill Erosion. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 29(1): 98-102.
 Watt H V H V D, Valentin C.1991. Soil crusting: the African view.
 Wischmeier W H, Mannering J V.1969. Relation of soil properties to its erodibility. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 33(1): 131-137.
 Woodruff C M.2004. Erosion in relation to rainfall, crop cover, and slope on a greenhouse plot. Journal of Bacteriology, 186(11): 3621-3630.
 Wu F, Fan W.2002. Analysis of factors affecting soil crust formation on slope farmland. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 16(1): 33-36. (in Chinese)
 Wu F, Fan W.2005. Effects of soil crust on rainfall infiltration and runoff and sediment yield. Science of Soil and Water Conservation, 3(2): 97-101. (in Chinese)
 Wu F, Zhao X.2000. The slope farmland rainfall infiltration analysis of the impact on the runoff.Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 7(1): 12-17. (in Chinese)
 Wu P.1999. The Dynamics of Water Erosion Experiment Research. Xi’an: Shaanxi Science and Technology Press. (in Chinese)
 Wu Q.2005. The mechanism and function of water control technology to maintain forest. Beijing: Science Press, 1-274. (in Chinese)
 Xu R.1983. Calculation method of kinetic energy on natural rainfall and artificial rainfall. Soil and Water Conservation in China, (3): 37-39. (in Chinese)
 Yao W, Tang L.2001. The process of sediment and erosion of hydraulic simulation. Zhengzhou: The Yellow River Water Conservancy Press, 1-222. (in Chinese)
 You Z, Li Z, Jiang Q.2003. Analysis on the redistribution of rainfall and vegetation. Science of Soil and Water Conservation, 1(3): 102-105. (in Chinese)
 Zhang G, Liang Y.1996. Review of research on effects of soil and water conservation function of vegetation coverage. Study on Soil and water Conservation, 3(2): 104-110. (in Chinese)
 Zhang G, Liu B, Nearing M A,
 Zhang K, Tang K.1990. Human reclamation accelerated evaluation on modern erosion. Bulletin of Soil and Water Conservation, 10(5): 1-4. (in Chinese)
 Zhang X, Liu G, Liu W.2000. Soil particls loss by water erosion. Acta Agriculture Boreali-occidentalis Sinica, 9(3): 55-58. (in Chinese)
 Zhang X, Shi X, Yu D,
 Zheng F.2008. The process of water erosion and prediction model. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
 Zheng Z, Wu F, He S.
 Zhu X.1982. The main types of soil erosion in Loess Plateau and its related factors. Bulletin of Soil and Water Conservation, 3: 40-44. (in Chinese)
 Zingg A W.1940. Degree and length of land slope as it affects soil loss in run-off. Agricultural Engineering, 21(2): 59-64.
|||GAO Min, XIAO Yan, HU Yunfeng. Evaluation of Water Yield and Soil Erosion in the Three-River-Source Region under Different Land-Climate Sce-narios [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2020, 11(1): 13-26.|
|||WANG Zhao, WANG Junbang. Changes of Soil Erosion and Possible Impacts from Ecosystem Recovery in the Three-River Headwaters Region, Qinghai, China from 2000 to 2015 [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2019, 10(5): 461-471.|
|||YU Fuqin, LU Chunxia, XIAO Yu, GU Shijie. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment for National Key Eco-function Zones for Water and Soil Conservation [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2017, 8(4): 369-377.|
|||YANG Hui, SHI Changxing. The Fractal Characteristics of Drainage Networks and Erosion Evolution Stages of Ten Kongduis in the Upper Reaches of the Yellow River, China [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2017, 8(2): 165-173.|
|||Zhang Caixia, Zhang Leiming, LI Shimei, Zhang changshun. Soil Conservation of National Key Ecological Function Areas [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2015, 6(6): 397-404.|
|||LUO Mei, ZHOU Yunchao. Soil Erosion Characteristics According to Tree-rings in a Karst Area [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2015, 6(4): 257-262.|
|||YANG Dingding, ZHOU Caiping, OUYANG Hua, CHEN Chuanyou. Characteristics of Variation in Runoff across the Nyangqu River Basin in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2012, 3(1): 80-86.|
|||CUI Peng, GE Yonggang, LIN Yongming. Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Effects in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2011, 2(4): 289-297.|
|||GAO Yanni, FANG Huajun, YU Guirui, WANG Shaoqiang. Spatial Distribution and Temporal Dynamics of Soil Carbon Removal Caused by Water Erosion in China [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2011, 2(3): 210-216.|
|||LI Run-Kui, ZHU A-Xing, SONG Xian-Feng, CUI Ming. Seasonal Dynamics of Runoff-Sediment Relationship and Its Controlling Factors in Black Soil Region of Northeast China [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2010, 1(4): 345-.|
|||XU Li-Hong, Wang-Yan-Hui, YU-Peng-Tao, SHI Zhong-Jie, Xiong- Wei, Mo- Fei, Zhang-Shu-Lan, Dong-Xiao-Hong. Hydrological Impacts of Afforestation: A Case Study Based on Simulation of TOPOG in the Small Watershed of Caogou in Liupan Mountains, China [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2010, 1(3): 202-210.|
|||CHENG Shengkui, XU Zengrang, SU Yun, LIU Xiaojie, SHEN Lei, XIE Gaodi, ZHEN Lin, LI Xiaojuan, LONG Xin. Resources Flow and Its Environmental Impacts [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2010, 1(1): 15-24.|
|||HE Chansheng, Thomas E. Croley II. Hydrologic Resource Sheds and the U.S. Great Lakes Applications [J]. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 2010, 1(1): 25-30.|