30 November 2023, Volume 14 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
Ecosystem and Ecological Security
A Resilience Enhancement Approach to the Sponge City based on Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction—Taking the Urban Design of Jiangchuanlu Street in Shanghai, China as an Example
DAI Daixin, BO Mingyang
2023, 14 (6):  1113-1126.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.001
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Against the backdrop of global climate change, the threat of extreme rainfall and flooding hazards to urban safety is becoming increasingly serious, and there is an urgent need to improve the resilience of cities through the construction of sponge cities. However, improving the sponge city’s capacity for resisting the risk of urban flooding is challenging. The relevant concept of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) is currently one of the main international theories of urban resilience, and it has important value for enhancing urban stormwater resilience. An approach for improving the stormwater resilience of sponge cities is presented in this paper, using the urban design of Jiangchuanlu Street in Shanghai as an example and the stormwater model to simulate flood disasters on Jiangchuanlu Street. In addition to the simulation results, the population and property conditions of the site were combined in order to conduct a comprehensive risk assessment through the risk matrix. Then, the Eco-DRR measures were implemented to enhance the urban stormwater resilience of Jiangchuanlu Street based on the assessment results. Finally, the ecological infrastructure of the study area was constructed, and the safety and health units were created on the basis of the ecological substrate to prevent and respond to public health emergencies. The results show that the stormwater resilience enhancement approach based on Eco-DRR can effectively alleviate the flood risk of Jiangchuanlu Street. At the same time, the safety and health units created through the ecological infrastructure can also help to prevent and respond to public health emergencies. The results of this study provide a resilience enhancement approach for sponge cities based on Eco-DRR, as well as a theoretical reference for the planning and construction of safe and resilient cities.

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Optimization of the Ecological Security Pattern in Xi’an City based on a Minimum Cumulative Resistance Model
ZHOU Luhong, WANG Panting, BAI Yuxia
2023, 14 (6):  1127-1137.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.002
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The ecological security pattern is conducive to promoting the harmonious integration of regional development and ecological protection. Taking Xi’an, a core city in the west of China, as an example, the ecological source area was identified based on an assessment of the importance of ecological services and the sensitivity of the ecological environment. Then the minimum cumulative resistance model and gravity model were used to construct the regional ecological security pattern and optimize the ecological spatial structure layout. The results show four key aspects of this system. (1) The source area of ecological protection identified in this study was 3352.5 km2, accounting for 33.2% of the city, and it is mainly distributed in the Qinling Mountains, Lishan Hills, Weihe River, Heihe River, and Jinghe River. (2) Excluding the ecological source area, the low, medium and high-level security pattern areas accounted for 27.21%, 15.95% and 14.31% of the whole area, respectively. (3) The models generated 21 potential corridors with a total length of about 105.24 km, including 9 key corridors. (4) In order to optimize the ecological spatial structure of Xi’an, one proposal is to build an ecological security network layout system with “one barrier, one belt, several corridors, multiple areas and multiple points” as the core.

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Ecological Compensation Assessment from the Perspective of Spatial Game: A Case Study of the Watershed Ecological Compensation in Anhui Section of the Huaihe River Basin, China
XING Qinfeng, ZHANG Mengxue
2023, 14 (6):  1138-1147.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.003
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The ecological environment has been the favorite subject of ecological security with the aim of ecological restoration, development and utilization. Therefore, a spatial game model was constructed according to the theory of spatial production and the spirit of game theory. Then the methods of Factor Analysis and Multivariate Analysis were used to verify the actual situation of watershed ecological compensation satisfaction in Anhui section of the Huaihe River Basin. The results show that: (1) Government management is still the dominant player in the spatial game, and the satisfaction of both market governance and social governance have significant impacts on its overall satisfaction; and (2) To improve the satisfaction of the spatial game, it is necessary to strengthen its cost control, face up to the status and role of its behavior subjects, and accurately recognize its target groups. The results of this study are helpful for deepening our understanding of watershed ecological compensation, and three viewpoints obtained based on the research results are: creating a new pattern of multiple collaborative constructions, highlighting the new implications of cost co-governance and consolidating the new demand of benefit sharing.

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Resource and Environment
Charcoal Wastes-to-Fuel Energy Conversion for Circular Economy and Environmental Sustainability in the Global South: A Case of Wood Charcoal Industry in Tanzania
Norbert J. NGOWI
2023, 14 (6):  1148-1155.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.004
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Low efficiency of earth kilns used in the carbonising process of wood to make charcoal has been reported as one of the sources of increasing charcoal wastes in the global south. However, the potential link and approaches of converting charcoal wastes-to-valuable energy and for the environmental health is not well known in Africa. Promoting local community capacity engagement in the production and reutilisation of recycled charcoal wastes at the households’ level is one of important measures to maintain environmental services for sustainability since households make decisions on the type of energy used. This paper, presents an approach of converting charcoal wastes to fuel energy for rural households and environmental health in Kilosa District, Tanzania. To achieve the objective of this research, the primary data were collected through interviews held with 298 randomly selected households, Focus Group Discussions and observations. IBM SPSS statistics version 20 Cross tab tools were used in the data analysis. Results revealed that the conversion of charcoal wastes-to-fuel energy approach used in this research demonstrates the ability of recyclable briquettes made from the locally available charcoal pollutants collected at different stages from earth kilns, to selling centers, improves tree harvest behaviour, adds another fuel energy source through reutilisation, and ultimate reduces pollution at the local level. Thus, the study provides a basis for policymakers to adopt charcoal wastes recycling strategies to address matters related to energy and ultimately enhances environmental health for sustainable development in Tanzania and beyond.

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Temporal Variation Characteristics of Negative Air ion Concentration and Air Quality Evaluation in Songshan National Nature Reserve, Beijing
HAO Peiwen, SHI Changqing, ZHAO Yining, XIN Chengshu, CAO Yue, ZHAO Tingning
2023, 14 (6):  1156-1163.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.005
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The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal characteristics of negative air ion concentration in the Songshan National Nature Reserve, Beijing. Hence, three typical forest stands and a nonforested land control group were selected during the growing season of May to October. The ion concentration was monitored using the Japanese COM-3200PRO negative air ion detector, and the air quality was evaluated using the amperometric air ion evaluation index method. The results showed that the diurnal variation of negative air ion concentration in the typical forest stands exhibited “double peak” curves, except for Betula dahurica forest in spring. The peak values of the annual growth season were attained between 9:00 and 11:00 as well as 16:00 and 17:00, and the trough value was attained at approximately 13:00. The monthly concentration variation characteristics in the stands showed “single peaks”, with the exception of the Juglans mandshurica forest. The negative air ion concentration was higher in July, August, and September both inside and outside the forest. The seasonal concentration variation characteristics showed that the negative air ion concentration inside and outside the forest followed the relation: summer (833±150 ion cm-3) > autumn (735±174 ion cm-3) > spring (632±178 ion cm-3). From the air quality evaluation, the average CI value of the forested land was 0.75±0.26, indicating that the air was clean. The average CI value of the nonforested land was 0.31±0.04; the air quality was within an acceptable range. Overall, the concentration of each stand followed the relation: Juglans mandshurica (0.83±0.11) > Tilia mongolica (0.74±0.10) > Betula dahurica (0.67±0.13) > nonforested land (0.31±0.04). Varied forest stands have different temporal characteristics for negative air ion concentration and air quality. Using forest resources wisely, it is possible to significantly enhance the air quality in the Songshan National Nature Reserve.

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The Relationship between Urban Spatial Expansion and Haze Pollution: An Empirical Study in China
GU Fangfang, LIU Xiaohong
2023, 14 (6):  1164-1175.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.006
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China’s economic development has brought about high-speed urbanization and haze pollution problems. Large populations are concentrated in cities, which also brings air pollution, environmental problems and infectious diseases. Based on the haze pollution data of 29 capital cities in China in 2017, the geographically weighted regression method was used to investigate the relationship between urban spatial expansion (USE) and haze. The results of this study reveal some interesting phenomena. The USE in most cities has a significant positive correlation with haze pollution. The USE of cities in the Southwest Region (SW), Southern coast (SC), and Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River (MYTR) have significant positive impacts on the haze in those cities. Among them, the coefficient of spatial expansion of the SC cities is the largest at 0.438, followed by the SW at 0.4104, and finally, the MYTR at 0.296. In addition, the urban expansion of two cities in the Northern coast (NC) and the Middle reaches of the Yellow River (MYR) passed the significance test while only one city in each of the Eastern coast (EC), the Northwest region (NW), and the Northeast region (NE) passed the significance test, indicating that the impacts of the spatial expansion of these three regions on the haze pollution are minimal. The economic development of the MYR has a significant negative impact on the haze. The effect of the urban greening level on haze is significantly negative in the SC and the SW. The impacts of urban consumption expenditures on haze in the NE, SW, and MYR are also negative. These results indicate that to reduce haze pollution, different countermeasures should be taken in the different regions in China.

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Green Water Resource Utilization Efficiency in Urban Agglomerations: Measurement, Spatiotemporal Variations and Influencing Factors
HU Mianhao, CHEN La, YUAN Juhong
2023, 14 (6):  1176-1191.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.007
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Green development is the coordinated development of the economy, society and environment and has become a mainstream development model. This paper evaluates the green water resource utilization efficiency (GWRUE) of 38 regions in the four-city area in central China during 2010-2019 using a super-slacks-based measure (super-SBM) DEA model considering unexpected output. Then, the spatiotemporal variations in GWRUE are analyzed by the standard deviational ellipse method, and the geographical detector method is employed to reveal the dominant impacts and interaction impacts on GWRUE spatiotemporal variations. The results show that: (1) From 2010 to 2019, the GWRUE in the four-city area in central China was low, and the difference among regions was obvious, showing a downward trend. (2) From 2010 to 2019, the spatial gravity center of GWRUE experienced a change process from northeast to southwest, and its moving speed showed a “waveform” rising trend. Moreover, the standard deviational ellipse (SDE) range of each characteristic time point showed a decreasing trend, indicating that the spatial variations in GWRUE tended to be agglomerated. (3) From 2010 to 2019, the influence of each factor on the spatial variations in GWRUE was different each year. In addition, the two-way interactions between different influencing factors were mainly manifested as bivariate enhancement relationships and nonlinear enhancement relationships and were especially affected by multiple factors that produce a nonlinear enhancement interaction. This study can provide a practical basis for realizing water ecological civilization construction and high-quality development in the four-city area in central China.

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Resources and Economy
Evolution Characteristics of the Spatiotemporal Pattern of Electricity Power Consumption in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
ZHONG Yang, XIAO Chiwei, DUAN Xiaoqi, XU Zhibang, YANG Renfei
2023, 14 (6):  1192-1205.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.008
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Revealing the dynamic characteristics of the temporal and spatial evolution of electricity power consumption (EPC) is of great significance for realizing the scientific allocation and rational utilization of electricity power resources. Therefore, based on the EPC data extracted from the DMSP/OLS nighttime light data, this paper takes the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) as an example, and uses various methods such as coefficient of variation, Kernel density analysis, rank-scale rule, trend analysis, and standard deviation ellipse. The evolution characteristics of the spatiotemporal pattern of EPC at the provincial, prefecture and county levels in the YREB were analyzed. The results show that: (1) Through the coefficient of variation (CV), we found that the coefficient of variation (CV) of EPC in the YREB showed a downward trend at the provincial, prefecture and county levels. Specifically, the county-level EPC has the largest difference, followed by the provincial and prefecture-level. (2) Through the kernel density analysis, we found that the EPC agglomeration degree in the YREB obviously shows the characteristics of decreasing from the east to the central and western regions. (3) Through the rank-scale rule, it is found that the |q| value of the YREB has been in a downward trend during the research period at the provincial, prefecture and county scales, and the |q| value is constantly approaching 1. It directly shows that the scale and quantity distribution of EPC in the YREB at the provincial, prefecture and county levels are becoming more and more reasonable. (4) Through trend analysis, we found that the changes in EPC in the YREB at the provincial, prefecture and county scales all obviously showed a decreasing trend from the east to the central and western regions. (5) Through the standard deviation ellipse (SDE), we found that the standard deviation ellipse of the EPC in the YREB obviously shows the spatial distribution direction of “Southwest-Northeast”, and the directionality to the Yangtze River Delta is very obvious, which directly indicates that the promotion of the YREB that the main driving force behind the growth in EPC is the increase in EPC in the east-west direction.

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Revisiting the Decadal Variability of Solar Photovoltaic Resource Potential in the Monsoon Climate Zone of East Asia Using Innovative Trend Analysis
ZHOU Zhigao, HE Lijie, LIN Aiwen, WANG Lunche
2023, 14 (6):  1206-1216.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.009
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In this study, we applied an innovative trend analysis (ITA) technique to detect the annual and seasonal trends of solar photovoltaic resource potential (Rs) in East Asia during 1961-2010 based on the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) data. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) trend test and linear regression method (LRM) were compared with the ITA technique. The results showed that the annual Rs in China presented a significant decreasing trend (D<-0.5 and P<0.01, where P is the P-value and D is the trend indicator of ITA) using these three techniques. The seasonal Rs generally showed a significant decreasing trend (D<-0.5) using the ITA technique in China, however, a slightly increasing trend was observed in Japan. The Rs values were further divided into four groups (“low”, “moderate”, “high” and “very high”) to detect the sub-trends using the ITA technique. The results indicated that the decreasing annual Rs in China was mainly due to reductions in the “high” and “very high” Rs values. The most probable causes of the trends in the variation in China were the decreasing sunshine duration and increasing anthropogenic aerosol loadings; while the trends in Japan were probably driven by the increasing sunshine and declining cloud optical thickness. Moreover, the similarities and differences between the M-K test and ITA technique results were compared and evaluated, and the ITA technique proved to be superior to the M-K test.

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How Does Spatial Heterogeneity Affect Industrial Outputs? Literature Review and Research Prospects
XIE Ailiang, Fauziah CHE LEH, Norimah RAMBELI
2023, 14 (6):  1217-1226.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.010
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The impact of spatial heterogeneity on industrial outputs is a new important topic in economic geography. A considerable amount of research literature has accumulated, but the academic community lacks a systematic and comprehensive review and consensus on this topic. This study carried out research by mining the relevant classical literature. This investigation first combed the connotation of spatial heterogeneity, which is both corresponding to and related to spatial dependence. Theorists generally acknowledge that there is spatial heterogeneity in the process of industrial outputs. Then this study summarizes the logical basis, relationship coordination, measurement and other aspects of the effect of spatial heterogeneity on industrial outputs. In analyzing the impact of spatial heterogeneity on industrial outputs, we should not ignore the spatial dimension, but must also pay attention to the heterogeneity of individual enterprises. Industrial output analysis needs to be based on the relationship between spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. The influence of spatial heterogeneity on industrial outputs and the degree of differences among observation objects can be measured by econometric methods. The common indicators for measuring and quantitatively describing the impact of spatial heterogeneity on industrial outputs mainly include semivariogram, the spatial expansion model and the geographical weighted regression model. Finally, some directions of future research are pointed out in order to provide useful ideas for future theoretical research and industrial practice.

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Plant Ecology
Exploring the Impact of Thinning Operations on Forest Ecosystems in Tropical and Temperate Regions Worldwide: A Comprehensive Review
JOSHI Rajeev, K. C. Jibesh Kumar, DHAKAL Purna Prasad, DEVKOTA Utpal
2023, 14 (6):  1227-1242.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.011
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Thinning is a major tending operation conducted in a forest stand to obtain various objectives, including forest products and ecosystem services. The impact of thinning in tropical and temperate forests is one of the least studied subjects. Therefore, this study aims to look for such studies in the tropical and temperate regions and find out the trend in the response of the remaining trees regarding tree growth and development, climate resilience, and other services. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) framework and Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome measures (PICO) tools were used to select the important papers according to defined objectives and then data extraction and analysis. Extracted data was grouped, pooled, and sorted to see if there were any temporal or spatial trends or patterns in the variables studied, and the reviews' findings were detailed. The impacts on the growth and yield of a forest or stand from thinning have been widely studied throughout the world. However, there are still some uncertainties regarding species-specific responses. This review also underscores the need for studies on the effects of thinning on other ecosystem services, including non-wood forest products, biodiversity, social functions, and tradeoffs between different ecosystem services. The study stresses the importance of long-term trials for forest ecosystem monitoring. Furthermore, analysis on the impact of thinning on other ecosystem services except growth and yield discovered that the few researches conducted to date, especially as regards to biodiversity and provisioning functions, must focus on a large number of ecosystem services without only concentrating on the components described in past studies. This will help us to develop our understanding of different ecosystem services and their responses after thinning and enable us to analyze the trade-offs between them. While managing forests, we cannot maximize all the services at the same time. However, with the best available knowledge on tradeoffs between different outcomes, we can optimize the benefits.

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Analysis of the Plant Resources and Diversity around the Sifeng Mountain Reservoir in Jiamusi, China
LIANG Yinghui, ZHOU Nan, MU Dan, LI Qingnan
2023, 14 (6):  1243-1251.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.012
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Reservoirs are artificial wetlands with functions such as flood control, water supply, improving livelihoods and regulating the ecological environment. Taking the plants of Sifeng Mountain Reservoir in Jiamusi City as the object of investigation, we studied and analyzed the diversity of plant resources in the reservoirs, aiming to provide a basis for the conservation and use of plants in the reservoirs and the ecological restoration of artificial wetlands. The field trekking method, literature research method, and sample method were used to study the reservoir plant resources in terms of their life types, ecological types, distribution types and plant communities. The survey found 175 species, 137 genera, and 56 families of plants around the Sifeng Mountain Reservoir, including 2 species under National Grade II status. The predominant plant families are Compositae and Rosaceae, while the main plant genus is Artemisia L. Among the six life types, perennial herbaceous plants are dominant, with 86 species, accounting for 49.14% of the total plant population. The ecotype is dominated by mesophytes (118 species), followed by wet plants (56 species) and aquatic plants are the fewest, with only one species. The type of distribution area is clearly temperate. The 16 sample plots were divided into six communities based on species importance, with the plant communities showing a distribution of patches with varying sizes.

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Geographic Distribution and Ecological Adaptability of Fagopyrum Species in Yunnan Province
WANG Ziyuan, CHU Xiuying, LI Wei
2023, 14 (6):  1252-1259.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.013
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The genus Fagopyrum is in the flowering plant family Polygonaceae, and includes some important food plants, such as F. esculentum (common buckwheat) and F. tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Except for these two cultivated species, the other buckwheat plants are all wild species. They are mainly distributed in southern China in general, and in Yunnan Province in particular. However, our understanding of their richness and geographic distributions in Yunnan remains very limited. The aim of the present study is to establish a list of buckwheat species found in Yunnan, examine their geographic distributions and patterns, and analyze their conservation and utilization status. The results showed a high richness of buckwheat plants in Yunnan, which accounts for nearly 70% of the global buckwheat richness. Species such as F. capillatum and F. gracilipedoides are endemic to Yunnan, and they exist nowhere else in the world. Also, the northwestern Yunnan and central Yunnan regions represent two important distribution centers of buckwheat species in Yunnan, and the highest buckwheat richness was found at the altitude range of 1500-3000 m. Many buckwheat species are rich in amino acids, fiber, vitamins, minerals and bioactive substances. They are also adapted to the high-altitude regions in Yunnan with harsh climatic and soil conditions. As climate change has direct impacts on agricultural biodiversity and food security, the conservation of diversity in buckwheat species, which have both high dietary beneficial components and great ecological adaptability, merits more attention. We believe that it is important to find a balance between the protection and utilization of buckwheat resources in order to achieve the sustainable utilization of this precious natural resource.

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A Wind Tunnel Study of the Shelter Effect of Different Vegetation Patterns of Caragana korshinskii
DANISH Bhutto, LI Wanying, XIAO Huijie
2023, 14 (6):  1260-1271.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.014
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Windbreaks are important measures for reducing wind erosion in arid and semi-arid areas. A series of experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel to assess the effectiveness of different vegetation patterns (uniform, random, and cluster) of simulated Caragana korshinskii stands on wind speed. The uniform pattern provided a better shelter effect and was optimal at a density of 50%. The protected area and the wind reduction ratio increased and the downwind minimum wind speed decreased with an increase in the number of rows and a reduction in the belt’s spacing. The locations of minimum wind speed (Xmin) were similar in arrangements with single-, two- and three-row belts. At the leeward distance close to vegetation (≤5 H, where H is the height of the plants), the efficiencies of vegetation patterns with high densities were greater than those of multiple-row belts and similar to those of multiple-belt shelterbelts; but at the leeward distance >5 H, the relationship was reversed. The single-row belt was the least effective, and the double-belt shelterbelt with belt spacing of 4 H was the most effective pattern. Multiple-belt shelterbelts had a lower downwind wind speed and a longer sheltering length than the other patterns, and so it is recommended windbreaks designed to reduce wind speed and control aeolian erosion in arid and semi-arid areas.

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Contribution of Urban Trees to Offset Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Transportation Sector in the Ring Road Area of Kathmandu Valley, Central Himalaya
JOSHI Nabin Raj, JOSHI Rajeev, MISHRA Jay Raj
2023, 14 (6):  1272-1281.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.015
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Urban trees are valuable resources for urban areas as they have the capacity to reduce ambient temperatures, mitigate urban heat island effects and reduce runoff of rainwater playing an important role in mitigating the impacts of climate change by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). It also helps to reduce aerial suspended particulate matter, add visual appeal to the urban landscape sequestrating a significant amount of carbon from ambient atmospheric CO2. Carbon storage by urban trees in the ring road area of the Kathmandu Valley was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to mitigate the impact of global climate change. A total of 40 sample plots were placed randomly for the detailed carbon assessment. Aboveground and belowground carbon pools were considered in the detailed assessment. Furthermore, quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) were maintained through regular monitoring and capacity building of the field crews while collecting the bio-physical data. The assessment recorded a total of 33 different species of plants in the avenue’s plantation sites in ring road. The mean seedling, sapling, and tree density was found to be 2149585 and 185 per hectare. The mean carbon stock per hectare in the avenue plantation of the ring road area was 24.03 tC ha-1 and the existing total carbon stock was 7785.72 tC in 2021. Likewise, the total baseline carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) in the avenue plantation was found to be 28573.60 tCO2e. The carbon dioxide emission from the transport sector in the ring road area in a full movement scenario was 312888.00 tCO2e per annum, while the net emissions was 42547 tCO2e. There was a deficit of carbon dioxide in terms of stock by avenue plantations of 14000.8 tCO2e. This study indicates that the existing urban forest plantation is unable to sequestrate or offset the carbon dioxide that is emitted through the transportation sector. Consequently, open spaces like riverbanks and any other public lands, in which urban forests could be developed has to be planned for the green infrastructure and plantation of the multipurpose trees. The distinct values of forests in and around urban areas have to be recognized in the specific policies and plans for the sustainable management of urban and peri-urban forests to meet the adverse impact of global climate change. In addition, this study provides insights for decision-makers to better understand the role of urban forests and make sustainable management plans for urban forests in the cities like in Kathmandu Valley.

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Tourism Industry and Sustainable Development
The Influencing Factors of Tourist Satisfaction in Mountain Outdoor Tourism Destinations—A Case Study of Siguniang Mountain
GONG Jian, YANG Yuanyao, LING Xiaopan, LIU Yong
2023, 14 (6):  1282-1291.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.016
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This study mainly examines the factors influencing mountain outdoor tourism development in light of the regional economy, human environment, infrastructure, talent services, and other aspects. It analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of mountain outdoor tourism development in the process of regional development by combining qualitative research with quantitative research, and puts forward corresponding sustainable development measures in combination with an actual investigation. These measures can provide certain guidance and practical information for the ultimate realization of mountain outdoor tourism in harmony with the residents, which is a win-win situation. Taking Siguniang Mountain as the research area, we adopted the methods of literature review, questionnaire survey and field interview, and used SPSS26 and Smartpls to construct a structural variance model for the related dimensional impact analysis. The results show that the attractants of a mountain outdoor tourism destination and the humanistic environment of the destination have a highly significant relationship with tourist satisfaction. Mountain outdoor tourism destination services and facilities have a low degree of significant relationships with tourist satisfaction. Among them, the path coefficient of outdoor tourism destination consumption in mountainous areas is close to 0, and the significance level is greater than 0.05, so the relationship between destination consumption and tourist satisfaction has not been affected. The correlation analysis of Smartpls showed that the tourist satisfaction of mountain outdoor tourism destinations in Siguniang Mountain is mainly affected by the cultural environment, tourism attractions and tourism facilities of the mountain outdoor tourism destinations. The analysis of the final results of the structural equation model indicated that the cultural environment and tourist attractions of the tourist destination have high positive significant relationships with the satisfaction of tourists, while the significance of the relationship between the facilities of the tourist destination and the satisfaction of tourists is weak, and the positive relationship between the service factors of the tourist destination and the satisfaction of tourists is also weak. Therefore, the functional relationship is “two strong, one weak and one weak”. Finally, suggestions are put forward for optimizing and improving tourist satisfaction from the aspects of human environment, infrastructure, talent services, and the comprehensive development of tourist destinations, which have a certain reference value for improving tourist satisfaction and the sustainable development of tourist destinations.

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The Coordinated Development of Ski Tourism, the Ecological Environment and Urbanization in Northeast China
ZHAO Wanqing, ZHANG Yibo
2023, 14 (6):  1292-1301.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.017
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Understanding the coupled and coordinated relationship between ski tourism, the ecological environment and urbanization is of great significance for developing the ice and snow economy, protecting the ecological environment and accelerating the construction of new urbanization. The ski tourism industry and economic and social development statistics of the three northeastern provinces from 2010-2019 were used to conduct a comprehensive systematic evaluation of each indicator of regional ski tourism, the ecological environment and urbanization (the S-E-U system). The coupled coordination degree model was used to analyze the relationship and trend of coupled and coordinated development of ski tourism, the ecological environment and urbanization in the three provinces of Northeast China. The results show that the overall development level of the S-E-U system in the Northeast has been relatively stable, and the level of coordinated development is still low. The overall comprehensive development level of the system is characterized by changes in stages, and the variability and consistency coexist in the development level of each subsystem. Except for Liaoning Province, the coupled coordination type of ski tourism, the ecological environment and urbanization in the other two provinces is “barely coordinated-lagging urbanization”. The development trend of coupling coordination is significantly correlated with fluctuations in ecological environmental quality, and the ecological environment will become a key element in determining regional development.

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Tourism Development in Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System Areas in Japan: Making Stories and Experience-based Products
2023, 14 (6):  1302-1313.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.018
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Japanese communities associated with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) program have tried to develop tourism products that take advantage of their certification as a GIAHS site. As the experience economy is gaining more importance in society, tapping into tourism is a realistic choice for the communities that face aging and declining populations. In this study, we look at how stories (narratives) are attached to agricultural products and culture and identify issues in making experience-based products in GIAHS areas in Japan. We used an inductive approach to analyze qualitative data collected mainly by interviews and observations. For the analysis, we followed the standard analytical techniques, that is, searching for patterns of similarities and differences of transcribed data and refining ideas using diagrams. Field work was conducted in Oita GIAHS, Gifu GIAHS and Shizuoka Chagusaba GIAHS that represent all GIAHS types in Japan. This research shows that the landscape type of GIAHS can develop various souvenirs with different stories extracted from GIAHS certification documents from crafts to foodstuffs. On the other hand, in the farming method type of GIAHS, narratives are confined to a single agricultural product and its production method. Another finding is that two layers of narratives exist in the experience-based products in GIAHS areas. The first layer is created utilizing already known agricultural and cultural traditions in a locality. The second layer is a GIAHS story added to the first layer as a scientific reinterpretation of local agricultural heritage.

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A Visual Analysis Comparing the Research Progress of Adventure Tourism in China and Abroad during the Last 20 Years
ZHANG Youyin, LIU Miaowei, HE Fengkai, ZHANG Jingquan
2023, 14 (6):  1314-1328.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.019
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Adventure tourism is a new industry that integrates sports and tourism. A systematic comparison of domestic and foreign research progress is valuable for understanding the current research situation in China, grasping the latest forms abroad, and guiding the next research direction. Based on the core databases of “China Knowledge Network Database” and “Web of Science”, and the period of 2000-2021 as the time span, CiteSpace V and ArcGIS software were used to compare the research progress of adventure tourism in China and worldwide. (1) The quantity and quality of domestic literature in the field of adventure tourism lag behind the literature from foreign countries. (2) Compared with foreign research scholars, who mainly work in teams of two or three, the number of large research teams in China is larger and they are widely distributed. (3) Compared with foreign research institutions, which are mainly universities concentrated in Europe and North America and have strong inter-institutional ties, China’s research institutions are mainly universities concentrated in Beijing, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, but their inter-institutional ties are weak. (4) In terms of research themes, compared with the diffusion model centered on such keywords as “adventure tourism”, “tourism”, “behavior” and “risk”, the research in China presents a characteristic with “adventure tourism” as the center and the other keywords are more diffused. (5) Foreign studies often focus on the environmental impact of adventure tourism activities and environmental protection, while domestic studies tend to focus on the experience and satisfaction of adventure tourists. Accordingly, we propose that the domestic research system of adventure tourism should be improved by constructing a scientific adventure tourism theoretical system, strengthening the cross-disciplinary research of adventure tourism, strengthening the weak research areas, broadening the research population and research area, and paying more attention to research on adventure tourism that is centered on project tourism.

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Tourism Carbon Emission Forecasting, the Decoupling Effect and Its Driving Factors in the Yangtze River Economic Belt under the “Double Carbon” Target
HE Yan, WANG Liguo, ZHU Hai, SONG Wei, ZHAN Xinyue
2023, 14 (6):  1329-1343.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.020
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By establishing an extended STIRPAT model, different scenarios were set up to predict the future tourism carbon emissions of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The Tapio decoupling model and LMDI decomposition method were combined to analyze the decoupling effect and factors driving tourism carbon emissions in the historical and future periods of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The results show that from 2000 to 2019, the carbon emissions of tourism in the Yangtze River Economic Belt exhibited a sustained growth trend and then a downward trend, and the overall spatial pattern was ‘low in the central region and high in the east and west’. In the different scenarios, the carbon emissions of tourism in the Yangtze River Economic Belt in the future show a trend of increasing at first and then decreasing, with peaks in different periods. In the historical period, the decoupling state of carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Economic Belt was mainly weak decoupling. Under the benchmark scenario, the decoupling of carbon emissions in the future tourism industry will not reach a strong decoupling state, while under the medium and low-carbon scenarios, strong decoupling will be achieved in different periods. Carbon emission intensity is the main factor in promoting the decoupling of tourism carbon emission in the historical period, while carbon emission intensity and investment efficiency are the main factors driving decoupling in the future. Accordingly, low-carbon development strategies are proposed for tourism in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.

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Prospect of the Hotel Health and Sports Section in China during the Epidemic
ZHU Xinyi
2023, 14 (6):  1344-1349.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.021
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The economic benefits of hotels are the basic conditions for their survival and development in the market environment, and are also the fundamental purpose for engaging in various business activities. Therefore, while facing great survival challenges from declining occupancy rates and catering activities during the epidemic, it is beneficial for hotels to effectively improve their recreation benefits. People are focusing more on health these days, so the health and sports section in the recreational industry is increasingly popular. Therefore, developing more attractive health and sports projects is a must for hotels to increase the consumption level, improve consumer satisfaction, and improve their social as well as economic benefits. Through various methods of analysis, such as literature analysis and comparative analysis, this study summarizes the transformation and development problems confronted by China’s hotel industry in the process of development. At the same time, combined with the relevant data and reports from recent years, and starting from the health and sports items of hotels in China, this study then analyzes the existing value of hotel health and sports projects, and constructs a comprehensive framework for the future development direction and prospects of hotel health and sports items. The results show three main aspects of this system. (1) The potential of China’s tourism market is huge, and as the number of domestic star hotels has been increasing year by year, the competition in the hotel market has become more and more fierce, which provides both a challenge and an opportunity for the current hotel industry. (2) Under the impact of the new COVID-19 epidemic, the consumer demand of hotel customers has shown a more distinctive difference, and the establishment of recreational projects will be one of the important means for promoting the development of the hotel. (3) By improving the internal and external publicity approaches, hotels can establish member mechanisms, combine tradition with innovation, actively carry out thematic activities, and organize online projects for the innovation of the body, etc., and all of these efforts are of great significance for the future development of the hotel. The results of this study provide theoretical support for the innovation model of the hotel industry in the new age, and are of practical significance for the development of the hotel industry.

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Land Use and Land Resources
The Effect of Upgrading the Dietary Structure of Residents on Non-grain Production of Cultivated Land
CHEN Qianru, WU Manyu, ZENG Hongchen, LUO Shilong
2023, 14 (6):  1350-1360.  doi: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.06.022
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The impact of dietary structure adjustments among residents on the utilization of arable land has attracted academic attention. This study used the time series data for the dietary structure of residents from 1992 to 2021 in China to explore the dynamic impact mechanism of dietary structure upgrading on non-grain production by using VAR model, and analyzed the direction and degree of impact by using impulse response diagram and variance decomposition. This analysis indicated five key features of this system. (1) The average value of the non-grain production rate was 31.02% during the period of 1992-2021, and it showed a fluctuating upward trend. (2) The proportion of plant food consumption by the residents was decreasing and the proportion of animal food was increasing, and the structure of food consumption was shifting from singular to diversified. (3) The intake levels of protein, fat, dietary fibre, and calcium showed fluctuating upward trends, and the intakes of energy and carbohydrate showed a fluctuating downward trends, and the change in the dietary nutrient intake level of residents was consistent with the trend of change in the per capita food consumption structure. (4) On the whole, protein, fat and calcium intake had positive effects on non-grain production, indicating that increases in animal food consumption would aggravate the non-grain production. (5) Overall, energy, protein, and calcium intakes had greater impacts on non-grain production. The results of this study can provide scientific support for the non-grain governance strategy of arable land and the decisions regarding arable land protection from the concept of “an all-encompassing approach to food”. These results also have positive significance for optimizing the mode of arable land use, improving the efficiency of arable land use and ensuring food security under the background of dietary structure adjustments and upgrading.

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