1 United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS), 5-53-70 Jingumae, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8925 Japan; 2 United Nations University. 5-53-70 Jingumae, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8925 Japan; 3 Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, University of Tokyo. 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 Japan;
This paper is based in part on the research outcomes of the “Developing a Comprehensive Assessment Methodology for Agri- Cultural Systems in Japan (ACS)” project funded by Japan Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) Policy Research Institute. The authors would like to express their heartfelt gratitude to MAFF for this invaluable research opportunity for the ACS project and also to all others in China, Japan and Korea who assisted and supported them in completing the research for this paper.