资源与生态学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (2): 105-111.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.02.001

• •    下一篇

国家重点研发项目:中国陆地生态系统生态质量综合监测技术与规范研究

王绍强1,2, 王军邦1(), 张雷明1,2, 肖治术3, 王锋4, 孙楠5, 李岱青6, 陈斌1, 陈敬华1,2, 李悦1,2, 王小博1,2, 王苗苗1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,中国科学院生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院动物研究所 农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    4. 中国林业科学研究院荒漠化研究所,北京 100091
    5. 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 农业部作物营养与施肥重点开放实验室,北京 100081
    6. 中国环境科学研究院环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室 国家环境保护重点实验室,北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-21 接受日期:2019-01-15 出版日期:2019-03-30 发布日期:2019-03-30

A National Key R&D Program: Technologies and Guidelines for Monitoring Ecological Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems in China

WANG Shaoqiang1,2, WANG Junbang1,*(), ZHANG Leiming1,2, XIAO Zhishu3, WANG Feng4, SUN Nan5, LI Daiqing6, CHEN Bin1, CHEN Jinghua1,2, LI Yue1,2, WANG Xiaobo1,2, WANG Miaomiao1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents in Agriculture, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Institute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
    5. Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Ministry of Agriculture/Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
    6. State Environment Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
  • Received:2018-11-21 Accepted:2019-01-15 Online:2019-03-30 Published:2019-03-30
  • Contact: WANG Junbang
  • Supported by:
    The National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2017YFC0503800)

摘要:

生态质量是指一定时空范围内生态系统要素、结构和功能的综合特征,具体表现为生态系统的状况、生产能力、结构和功能的稳定性、抗干扰和恢复能力。生态系统的质量是我国生态文明建设和生态环境监测的重要内容,多时空尺度观测技术的发展为生态系统质量监测与评价提供了新机遇,但同时也对国家尺度生态要素、生物多样性和生态功能的观测标准与技术规范提出了新的要求。本国家重点研发项目自2017年7月立项以来,围绕国家尺度生态质量监测技术与规范,开展了生态系统网络观测技术规范、台站生态要素监测、区域生物多样性和区域生态功能监测技术与规范的研究,在典型农林草湿地生态系统开展应用示范。项目在生态质量综合监测指标体系构建、生态系统研究网络观测技术、区域生物多样性和区域生态功能监测、基于无人机和机器学习的荒漠植被监测等方面取得了重要进展,促进了生态质量监测技术的发展。我们组织本专辑从不同视野集中系统介绍本项目已取得的生态质量监测技术和评价方法,以期促进生态学及其观测技术的发展。

关键词: 生态质量, 生态要素, 生物多样性, 生态系统功能, 监测技术, 监测规范

Abstract:

Ecological quality is defined as the stability, adaptability and resilience of an ecosystem. Monitoring and assessing ecological quality are important bases for China's ecological civilization construction. The national key research and development program “Technologies and guidelines for monitoring ecological quality of terrestrial ecosystems in China”, launched in July 2017, includes plans to study the observation technologies and provide guidelines on the ecological in-situ observation, the regional biodiversity and ecosystem function monitoring and its applications, all of which contribute to national ecological quality assessment. A year after its implementation, some important progress has been achieved, such as building the indicator system for comprehensive monitoring of ecological quality and improvement of the methods, mass data transmission, infrared camera-based monitoring of biodiversity, multi-angle automatic spectral observation systems, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based desert monitoring. We have organized this special issue and attempted to introduce the monitoring techniques and assessment methods on ecological quality from different perspectives in order to further promote the development of ecology and its observation methods.

Key words: ecological quality, ecological factors, biodiversity, ecosystem function, monitoring technology, monitoring guidelines