资源与生态学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (1): 120-128.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.014

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中国退耕还林还草发展历程、建设现状与前景展望

李世东1,*(), 刘某承2   

  1. 1.国家林业和草原局,北京 100714
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-19 接受日期:2021-09-30 出版日期:2022-01-30 发布日期:2022-01-08
  • 通讯作者: 李世东

The Development Process, Current Situation and Prospects of the Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses Project in China

LI Shidong1,*(), LIU Moucheng2   

  1. 1. National Forestry and Grassland Administration of China, Beijing 100714, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2021-07-19 Accepted:2021-09-30 Online:2022-01-30 Published:2022-01-08
  • Contact: LI Shidong
  • Supported by:
    The National Natural Science Foundation of China(42171279);The Mobility Programme DFG-NSFC(M-0342);Research on the Development Strategy of China Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses(TBG2020002)

摘要:

退耕还林还草工程是构建人与自然生命共同体最具标志性的世界重点生态工程,经过新中国成立以来的号召动员阶段、20世纪末开始实施的第一轮退耕还林还草、2014年启动实施的第二轮退耕还林还草,截至2020年,中央财政已累计投入5353亿元,在25个省(区、市)和新疆生产建设兵团的2435个县实施退耕还林还草3483万ha,其中退耕地还林还草1423万ha、荒山荒地造林1753万ha、封山育林307万ha,占同期全国重点工程造林总面积的40%,有4100万农户、1.58亿农民直接受益,工程建设取得了巨大成效,每年产生的生态效益总价值量达1.42万亿元,经济效益0.26万亿元,社会效益0.73万亿元,合计2.41万亿元,为建设生态文明和美丽中国做出了突出贡献。展望未来,退耕还林还草将走向高质量发展新阶段,就是要努力实现建设高质量、成果高效益、管理高水平,我国在2021-2035年间将继续推动第三轮退耕还林还草,预计可以退耕还林还草667万ha。

关键词: 退耕还林还草, 发展历程, 建设现状, 前景展望

Abstract:

The Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses Project is the most symbolic and globally important ecological engineering effort to build the human and natural life community. After the call and mobilization stage since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the first round of Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses occurred at the end of the 20th century. With the second round of Conversion of Farmland to Forests And Grasses launched in 2014, the central government has invested 535.3 billion yuan altogether by 2020, and 34.83 million ha have been returned to forest and grassland in 25 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) (2435 counties included). Among them, 14.23 million ha were returned from farmland; barren hills and wasteland afforestation accounted for 17.53 million ha; and sealed mountain forest cultivation represented 3.07 million ha, accounting for 40% of the total afforestation area of national key projects in the same period, and 41 million households and 158 million farmers benefited directly. The project construction has made great achievements. The total value of ecological benefits has reached 1.42 trillion yuan, plus economic benefits of 0.26 trillion yuan, and social benefits of 0.73 trillion yuan, for a total amount of 2.41 trillion yuan. This effort has made outstanding contributions toward building an ecological civilization and a beautiful China. Looking forward to the future, the Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses will embark on a new stage of high-quality development, which will strive to achieve high-quality construction, high efficiency and a high level of management. China will promote the third round of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland from 2021 to 2035, and it is expected to return 6.67 million ha to forests and grasses.

Key words: Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasses, development process, current situation, construction achievement, strategic task