资源与生态学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (1): 113-119.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.013

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冀西北坝上地区不同植被类型的生态需水量

许中旗1,,*(), 张乃暄1,(), 王冉1, 杨鑫1, 孙守家2, 闫腾飞3   

  1. 1.河北农业大学林学院,河北保定 071000
    2.中国林业科学研究院,北京 100091
    3.张北县林业局,河北张北 076450
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-21 接受日期:2021-10-18 出版日期:2022-01-30 发布日期:2022-01-08
  • 通讯作者: 许中旗

The Ecological Water Demand of Different Vegetation Types in the Bashang Area, Northwest Hebei Province

XU Zhongqi1,,*(), ZHANG Naixuan1,(), WANG Ran1, YANG Xin1, SUN Shoujia2, YAN Tengfei3   

  1. 1. College of Forestry, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China
    2. Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
    3. Forestry Bureau of Zhangbei County, Zhangbei, Hebei 076450, China
  • Received:2021-07-21 Accepted:2021-10-18 Online:2022-01-30 Published:2022-01-08
  • Contact: XU Zhongqi
  • About author:XU Zhongqi, E-mail: xzq7110@163.com; ZHANG Naixuan, E-mail: 575221370@qq.com.
    First author contact:

    † means that they have the same contribution to this paper.

  • Supported by:
    The Forestry Industry Public Welfare Project(201404206-02)

摘要:

为了了解冀西北坝上地区不同植被的生态需水量,为该地区的植被建设提供科学依据,采用实际观测数据及Irmak-Allen公式对张北坝上地区乔木林、灌丛和草地的生态需水量、生态缺水量进行了研究。研究结果表明,冀西北坝上地区3种植被生长季的实际蒸散量由高到低为乔木林、灌丛和草地,分别为401.81 mm、358.78 mm和346.02 mm。生长季乔木林、灌丛和草地的最小生态需水量分别为243.96 mm、218.35 mm和211.36 mm,适宜生态需水量分别为472.99 mm、423.34 mm和409.77 mm,适宜生态缺水量分别为198.56 mm、148.91 mm和135.34 mm。植被生态缺水量具有明显的季节性,5、6月份缺水量最大,7-10月份较低,甚至还有盈余,5、6月份进行人为补水将有助于缓解植被的干旱胁迫。冀西北坝上地区的降雨量能够满足乔木林最小生态需水量的要求,但与适宜生态需水量差距较大,不足以使乔木林维持良好的生长状态,这是导致坝上地区杨树防护林退化的主要原因。

关键词: 坝上地区, 冀西北, 植被, 实际蒸散量, 生态需水量

Abstract:

In order to construct stable vegetation for reducing wind and sand disasters and soil erosion in the Bashang Area of Northwest Hebei Province in China, it is very important to understand the ecological water demand of different vegetation types in this area. Based on observed data and the Irmak-Allen formula, we investigated the ecological water demand and ecological water shortage of arbor, shrub and grassland in Bashang Area of northwestern Hebei province. The results showed that the actual evapotranspiration values of the three vegetation types in the growing seasons in the study area from high to low were arbor forest (401.81 mm), shrub (358.78 mm) and grassland (346.02 mm). The minimum ecological water requirements of arbor forest, shrub and grassland in the growing season were 243.96 mm, 218.35 mm and 211.36 mm, respectively, and the optimal ecological water requirements were 472.99 mm, 423.34 mm and 409.77 mm, respectively. In addition, the optimal ecological water shortage values were 198.56 mm for arbor forest, 148.91 mm for shrub and 135.34 mm for grassland. The ecological water shortage of vegetation has obvious seasonality, with the largest water shortage in May and June, and a lower and steady water surplus in July to October. Therefore, an artificial water supplementation in May and June would alleviate the drought stress of the vegetation. The rainfall in Bashang Area of Northwest Hebei Province can meet the requirements of minimum ecological water demand for arbor forest, but the gap between the rainfall and the optimal ecological water requirement is too large to support good growth of an arbor forest, which could explain why the degradation of poplar protective forests has occurred in Bashang Area.

Key words: Bashang Area, Northwest Hebei, vegetation, actual evapotranspiration, ecological water demand