资源与生态学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (1): 100-106.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.011

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在西藏高原高海拔地区应遵循森林植被分布规律和选择乡土树种造林

石培礼1,2,*(), 郑莉莉1,3, 周天财1,2, 侯阁1,2, 赵广帅4   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室 拉萨高原生态试验站,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100190
    3.台州学院生命科学学院,浙江台州 318000
    4.国家林业和草原局经济发展研究中心,北京 100714
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-08 接受日期:2021-11-02 出版日期:2022-01-30 发布日期:2022-01-08
  • 通讯作者: 石培礼

Considerations of Forest Distribution and Native Tree Species for Afforestation in the High Altitudes on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

SHI Peili1,2,*(), ZHENG Lili1,3, ZHOU Tiancai1,2, HOU Ge1,2, ZHAO Guangshuai4   

  1. 1. Lhasa Plateau Ecosystem Research Station, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    3. School of Life Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000, China
    4. China National Forestry-Grassland Economics and Development Research Center, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing 100714, China
  • Received:2021-08-08 Accepted:2021-11-02 Online:2022-01-30 Published:2022-01-08
  • Contact: SHI Peili
  • Supported by:
    The National Natural Science Foundation of China and ICIMOD Joint Research Project(41661144045)

摘要:

森林是陆地生态系统的主体,在国家生态安全屏障保护与建设中发挥着重要的作用。我国大规模造林实践都依从年降雨量400 mm的阈值,在高于该降水阈值的地区造林。但针对西藏高原高海拔地区造林,无论是实践经验和理论探讨方面都很少涉及。在高海拔地区造林的最高海拔和树种选择需要遵循什么原则?以及以往高海拔地区造林的经验教训给我们什么启示? 这些都是值得进一步思考的问题。本文从植被地带性分布规律出发,提出高海拔造林要遵从植被地带性分布原则和温度限制原则,指出植树造林要在森林分布区内、气候树线分布的海拔以下的区域才有可行性。以西藏高原东部森林分布格局和主要气候树线树种的分布海拔上限为例,论证了植树造林的潜在空间范围。从主要造林树种的生物学特性和气候生态位的角度,对可能用于造林的乡土树种及其造林立地条件进行了厘定,并指出了那曲造林存在的问题。总之,在西藏高海拔地区造林需要遵从地带性植被分布规律,重点考虑海拔上限和适宜树种选择问题,采用乡土树种,做到适地适树。

关键词: 西藏东部, 森林分布格局, 气候树线, 温度限制, 造林海拔上限, 树种选择

Abstract:

Forests are the main components of terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in the protection and construction of the national ecological security barrier. For a long time, China's large-scale afforestation had been practiced in areas with rainfall higher than the 400 mm threshold, but the issue of afforestation in high altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau remains elusive in both practical experience and theoretical exploration. It is worth thinking further about what principles should be followed in the selection of tree species and suitable altitudes for afforestation in high-altitude areas, as well as what experiences and lessons of previous afforestation efforts should be applied in high-altitude areas. As per the law of vegetation zonal distribution, this paper argues that afforestation at high altitudes should comply with the principle of vegetation zonal distribution and the low temperature limitation, and points out that afforestation is feasible only within the forest distribution area and below the altitudes of climate timberlines. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential spatial areas of afforestation, and determine the local tree species that may be used for afforestation based on the existing problems of afforestation in eastern Tibet. In summary, afforestation in high-altitude areas of the eastern Tibetan Plateau must comply with the law of zonal vegetation distribution, focus on the upper limit of altitude and the selection of suitable tree species, and adopt only suitable native tree species.

Key words: eastern Tibetan Plateau, natural forest distribution, climatic treeline, low-temperature limitation, afforestation upper limit, afforestation species selection