资源与生态学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (1): 51-60.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.006

• • 上一篇    下一篇

农业文化遗产地文化关键种的概念、内涵和意义

闵庆文1,2,*(), 杨晓1,2, 丁陆彬1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-31 接受日期:2021-10-15 出版日期:2022-01-30 发布日期:2022-01-08
  • 通讯作者: 闵庆文

The Concept, Connotation and Significance of Cultural Keystone Species in Agricultural Heritage Systems

MIN Qingwen1,2,*(), YANG Xiao1,2, DING Lubin1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-07-31 Accepted:2021-10-15 Online:2022-01-30 Published:2022-01-08
  • Contact: MIN Qingwen
  • Supported by:
    The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23100203)

摘要:

包括联合国粮农组织(FAO)认定的全球重要农业文化遗产(GIAHS)和一些国家农业部认定的国家重要农业文化遗产(NIAHS)在内的农业文化遗产是一种新的遗产类型,通常具有丰富的生物多样性、多元的传统知识、独特的资源利用技术、杰出的文化景观,是一个典型的社会-生态系统。文化关键种作为塑造了一个地区的社会文化特征的重要物种,可以作为研究社会-生态系统保护与恢复力提升的一种独特视角和方法。本文通过系统梳理文化关键种概念的起源与内涵,分析了它们与生物文化多样性和社会-生态系统保护之间的关系,并结合农业文化遗产的基本特征和保护需求,尝试对农业文化遗产地文化关键种给出了定义,即“在农业文化遗产系统内,由生物资源和文化实践紧密结合,对当地社会文化的稳定性产生重要影响且能够促进农业文化遗产保护目标实现的生物文化复合体”。在此基础上,进一步分析了识别农业文化遗产文化关键种对农业文化遗产保护的主要意义:一是通过文化关键种的识别与保护有助于遗产地关键要素的识别和保护;二是利用文化关键种社区认同度高的优势可以调动社区参与遗产保护的积极性;三是以文化关键种的识别与保护为切入点,有助于更好地实现全球或国家重要农业文化遗产保护目标,即保障食物与生计安全、保护生物多样性、促进传统知识与技术体系传承以及维持景观特征等。

关键词: 农业文化遗产, 全球重要农业文化遗产, 中国重要农业文化遗产, 文化关键种, 生物文化多样性, 社会-生态系统

Abstract:

As a new type of heritage, Agricultural Heritage Systems (AHS), represented by Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) designated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (NIAHS) designated by some countries’ Ministry of Agriculture, are typical Social-Ecological Systems (SES), which usually are rich in biodiversity, traditional knowledge, resource utilization technology and outstanding cultural landscapes. Cultural Keystone Species (CKS) are defined as the culturally salient species that shape the cultural identity of a people in a major way. CKS can be used as a prominent tool for the synergistic conservation of SES biology and culture, and to promote the overall enhancement of system functions. This paper summarizes a review of the definition of the CKS and its application in SES conservation. According to the characteristics and protection needs of AHS, this paper defined the CKS in AHS as: “Composites of biological resources and cultural practices, which have a significant impact on the stability of local society and culture systems, contribute to the achievement of AHS’ conservation goals.” Based on this definition, we analyzed the significance of the identification of CKS in AHS. First of all, CKS help to quickly identify the key elements of AHS. Secondly, CKS can promote community participation in the conservation and development of AHS. In addition, the identification of CKS has a significant role in food and livelihood security, biodiversity conservation, traditional knowledge and technology transmission, social organization maintenance, and cultural landscape maintenance in AHS, which helps to achieve the conservation goals of GIAHS and/or NIAHS.

Key words: Agricultural Heritage Systems (AHS), Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (NIAHS), Cultural Keystone Species (CKS), biocultural diversity, Social-Ecological Systems (SES)