资源与生态学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (5): 526-537.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.05.010

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藏北高原植被的分布与环境和空间因素的关系分析

田莉1,3, 张扬建1,2, Claus HOLZAPFEL4, 黄珂1, 陈宁1, 陶建1, 朱军涛1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室拉萨生态实验站,北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室高原生态研究中心,北京 100101;
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室千烟洲生态实验站,北京 100101;
    4. 美国罗格斯大学新泽西州立纽瓦克分校生物科学系,纽瓦克 NJ 07102,美国
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-12 修回日期:2018-04-20 出版日期:2018-09-30 发布日期:2018-09-30

Vegetation Pattern in Northern Tibet in Relation to Environmental and Geo-spatial Factors

TIAN Li1,3, ZHANG Yangjian1,2, Claus HOLZAPFEL4, HUANG Ke1, CHEN Ning1, TAO Jian1, ZHU Juntao1,*   

  1. 1. Lhasa Plateau Ecosystem Research Station, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Qianyanzhou Ecological Research Station, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
    4. Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 195 University Avenue, Newark NJ 07102, USA
  • Received:2018-01-12 Revised:2018-04-20 Online:2018-09-30 Published:2018-09-30
  • Contact: * ZHU Juntao, E-mail: zhujt@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC0501802, 2017YFA0604802); National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571195, 41501103); Youth Innovation Team Project of Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling (LENOM2016Q0002).

摘要: 环境和空间因素长期以来被视为决定物种组成和分布的关键因素。然而,这些因素对高原植被的影响研究较少。青藏高原拥有一个独特的生态系统和全球环境梯度极端值。我们的目标是量化藏北高寒草地群落的空间分布,揭示植被的物种组成、空间因素和环境因素。在藏北高寒草地分布区,我们沿着1200公里长的梯度建立了63个采样点,采用双向指示种分析(TWINSPAN)和去趋势典范对应分析(DCCA)。调查发现沿横断面可识别的三种类型(高山草甸,高山草原,沙漠草原)中有14个高寒草地种群。分析发现高寒草地的植被组成和空间分布主要由年平均降雨量影响,受温度影响较小。沿着该断面,73.5% 植被分布的变化能够被环境变量解释,56.3% 被空间因素解释。环境和空间因素分别解释了总变异的29.6%和12.3%,而他们交互作用解释了43.9%。我们的研究结果为藏北高寒草地的生物和环境保护提供强有力的实证依据。

关键词: 高寒草地, 环境解说, 空间格局, 青藏高原, 植被组成

Abstract: Environmental and Geo-spatial factors have long been considered as crucial determinants of species composition and distributions. However, quantifying the relative contributions of these factors for the alpine ecosystems is lacking. The Tibetan Plateau has a unique ecological environment and vegetation types. Our objectives are to quantify the spatial distributions of plant communities on the Northern Tibetan Alpine grasslands and to explore the relationships between vegetation composition, Geo-spatial factors and environmental factors. We established 63 field plots along a 1200-km gradient on the Northern Tibetan Plateau Alpine Grassland and employed the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and the detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA). Fourteen communities of alpine grassland were identifiable along the transect and consisted of three vegetation types: Alpine meadow, Alpine steppe, and desert steppe. Vegetation composition and spatial distribution appeared to be largely determined by mean annual precipitation and less influenced by temperature. A large fraction (73.5%) of the variation in vegetation distribution was explained by environmental variables along this transect, somewhat less by Geo-spatial factors (56.3%). The environmental and Geo-spatial factors explained 29.6% and 12.3% of the total variation, respectively, while their interaction explained 43.9%. Our findings provide strong empirical evidence for explaining biological and environmental synergetic relationships in Northern Tibet.

Key words: alpine grasslands, environmental interpretation, spatial pattern, Tibetan Plateau, vegetation composition