资源与生态学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (3): 236-242.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.03.006

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

藏北高原高寒草地围栏禁牧和生长季降水对物种丰富度和多样性的影响

武建双1,2, 张宪洲1, 沈振西1, 石培礼1, 余成群1, 宋明华3, 李晓佳4   

  1. 1 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室 拉萨高原生态综合试验站, 北京 100101;
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    4 内蒙古师范大学 地理科学学院, 呼和浩特 010022
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-12 修回日期:2012-05-15 出版日期:2012-09-30 发布日期:2012-09-27
  • 通讯作者: ZHANG Xianzhou

Species Richness and Diversity of Alpine Grasslands on the Northern Tibetan Plateau:Effects of Grazing Exclusion and Growing Season Precipitation

WU Jianshuan1,2, ZHANG Xianzhou1, SHEN Zhenxi1, SHI Peili1, YU Chengqun1, SONG Minghua3, LI Xiaojia4   

  1. 1 Lhasa Plateau Ecosystem Research Station, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3 Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    4 College of Geographical Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022, China
  • Received:2012-02-12 Revised:2012-05-15 Online:2012-09-30 Published:2012-09-27
  • Supported by:

    National Key Technology Research and Development Program (No.2010BAE00739 &2007BAC06B01), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.41171044) and Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Climate Change:Carbon Budget and Relevant Issues (No.XDA05060700).

摘要: 2009和2010年夏天沿藏北高原高寒草地样带调查了高寒草地生态系统(高寒草甸、高寒草原和荒漠草原)在围栏禁牧和自由放牧管理下的物种丰富度和多样性(Shannon-Wiener指数,Simpson优势度指数和Pielou均匀度指数)。研究结果显示:自2006年起藏北高原围栏禁牧在植被类型和区域尺度上没有显著改变物种丰富度和多样性。物种丰富度和多样性主要受生长季降水驱动,超过87%的变异可由生长季降水来解释。物种丰富度和多样性在自由放牧和围栏禁牧2类样地对生长季降水的响应方式一致。物种丰富度随降水呈指数型增长关系,多样性指数则呈现正线性关系。研究结果预示藏北高原地区生长季降水的变化对于物种丰富度和多样性管理至关重要,在未来高寒草地保护研究中应予以重视。

关键词: 物种多样性, 物种丰富度, 放牧排除, 生长季降水, 高寒草地, 藏北高原

Abstract: Species richness and diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson dominance index and Pielou evenness index) in alpine grassland ecosystems (alpine meadow, alpine steppe and desert steppe) under grazing-excluded and freely grazed sites were investigated along the Northern Tibetan Plateau Alpine Grassland Transect during summer 2009 and 2010.We found that species richness and diversity have not been significantly altered by short-term grazing exclusion since 2006 at vegetation and regional scales.Species richness and diversity were mainly driven by growing season precipitation (GSP), which accounted for over 87% of the total variation observed.Species richness and diversity at grazing-excluded and freely grazed sites appear to respond to growing season precipitation in parallel.Species richness exponentially increased with GSP while diversity indices showed positively linear relationships with GSP.This indicates that GSP on the Northern Tibetan Plateau is crucial in regulating species richness and diversity and should be taken into account in future studies on alpine grassland conservation.

Key words: species diversity, species richness, grazing exclusion, growing season precipitation, alpine grasslands, Northern Tibetan Plateau