资源与生态学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (2): 97-104.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.02.001

• 论文 •    下一篇

中国的荒漠化及其防治策略

王国倩1, 王学全2, 吴波2, 卢琦2   

  1. 1 中国人民大学环境学院, 北京 100872;
    2 中国林业科学研究院荒漠化研究所, 北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2012-03-13 修回日期:2012-05-11 出版日期:2012-06-30 发布日期:2012-06-30
  • 通讯作者: LU Qi. Email: luqi@caf.ac.cn.

Desertification and Its Mitigation Strategy in China

WANG Guoqian1, WANG Xuequan2, WU Bo2, LU Qi2   

  1. 1 School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China;
    2 Institute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
  • Received:2012-03-13 Revised:2012-05-11 Online:2012-06-30 Published:2012-06-30
  • Supported by:

    the study was partially supported by State Forestry Administration “Public Welfare Research Foundation” (No. 201004010) and “948 Program” (No. 2008-4-47).

摘要: 中国作为世界上受荒漠化影响最为严重的国家之一,旱地面积约332万km2(占国土面积的34.6%,包括干旱区、半干旱区和亚湿润干旱区),其中超过262万km2 归属联合国防治荒漠化公约定义的“荒漠化土地”;主要分布在全国18个省、区、市。超过4亿人生活在荒漠化地区,每年因荒漠化造成的直接经济损失超过640亿元。中国治沙的实践可以追溯到20世纪50年代。特别是最近30年,先后通过“三北防护林”工程(1978年启动)、全国防沙治沙工程(1990年启动)、环京津风沙源治理工程和退耕还林还草工程(2000年启动)等一系列国家级生态治理工程的实施,以年均0.024% GDP的投入、治理和修复了大约20%的荒漠化土地。目前,以现有技术评估,可治理的沙化土地约有50×104 km2。考虑到全球变暖的影响,预测未来50年需要治理的荒漠化土地面积大致在55×104-100×104 km2 之间。若按照每年1.5×104-2.2×104 km2 的治理速度,大约需要45-70年之久。规划安排到2015年治理完成22×104 km2、到2030年治理面积新增33×104 km2,到2050年治理完成45×104 km2。基于国家生态修复投资战略的总体安排,未来防沙治沙决策应从以下四个方面着眼:一是强化多部门协作的综合治理;二是确立优先治理区,并在适当地方建立“生态特区”;三是改变投资模式,由目前政府直接投资植树改为投资买林、买绿;四是完善土地承包制度(70年权属不变)和实行生态补偿。

关键词: 荒漠化, 防治评估, 治理规划, 战略对策

Abstract: China is severely impacted by desertification. Of its territory, 34.6% — some 3.32 million km2 — is classified as drylands1) (including arid, semi-arid and semi-humid arid areas). Of the drylands, 2.62 million km2 meets the UNCCD definition of desertified land. These desertified lands spread across 18 provinces and account for 27.33% of the country's landmass. Over 400 million residents are affected, causing an annual direct economic loss exceed 64 billion CNY. China’s desertification mitigation began in late 1950s. Through a number of high-profile programs – “Three-North Shelterbelt Development Program”, “National Program on Combating Desertification”, “Sandification Control Program for Beijing and Tianjin Vicinity”, and “Croplands to Forests or Grasslands Program” launched between 1978 and 2000, the Government of China has poured on average 0.024% of the country’s annual GDP into desertification mitigation and, as a result, some 20% of desertified lands have been brought under control. Approximately 50×104 km2 of the existing desertified lands are considered restorable given current technology. When the potential desertification increments induced by global warming are taken into account, total desertified area within planning horizon is projected to range from 55×104 to 100×104 km2. With the approximate restoration rate of 1.5×104-2.2×104 km2 y-1, China’s anti-desertification battle is expected to last 45-70 years. The current strategic plans set restoration targets at 22×104 km2 by 2015, with an additional 33×104 km2 by 2030, and the final 45×104 km2 of the 100×104 km2 restored by 2050. Through examining state investment in mitigation and current rehabilitation strategies, the paper recommends: (i) boardening the previous sectoral perspective to a multi-stakeholder approach; (ii) setting priority zones within the restorable area, and establishing National Special Eco-Zones; (iii) steering state investment from government investment in tree plantations to acquisition of planted/greened areas; and (iv) introducing preferential policies in favor of sandy land restoration, including extending land tenures to 70 years and compensating for ecological services.

Key words: desertification, monitoring and assessment, national action plan, mitigation strategy