资源与生态学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (6): 632-640.DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.008

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公有林对尼泊尔减贫的贡献—以尼泊尔巴章区不同社区森林为例

Dhruba Bijaya G.C.1,2, BHANDARI Jyoti1,2, 徐增让3, 李灿1,*()   

  1. 1. 贵阳学院生物与环境工程学院,贵州省山地珍稀动物与经济昆虫重点实验室,贵阳 550005
    2. 特里布万大学博卡拉校区林业研究所,博卡拉 43,尼泊尔
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-30 接受日期:2019-09-30 出版日期:2019-11-30 发布日期:2019-12-09
  • 通讯作者: 李灿
  • 作者简介:Dhruba Bijaya G.C., E-mail: gc10dhruba@gmail.com

Contribution of Community Forestry in Poverty Reduction: Case Study of Multiple Community Forests of Bajhang District, Nepal

Dhruba Bijaya G.C.1,2, BHANDARI Jyoti1,2, XU Zengrang3, LI Can1,*()   

  1. 1. Provincial Key Laboratory for Rare Animals and Economic Insects of the mountains of Guizhou Province, School of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Guiyang College, Guiyang 550005, China
    2. Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara Campus 43, Pokhara, Nepal
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-08-30 Accepted:2019-09-30 Online:2019-11-30 Published:2019-12-09
  • Contact: LI Can
  • Supported by:
    The Academician Workstation of Guiyang University, Guizhou Province([2019]5605);The Regional First-class Discipline Construction of Guizhou Province to GYU([2017]85);Provincial Key and Special Subject of Guizhou Province-Ecology(ZDXK[2015]11);The Training Project for High-Level Innovative Talents in Guizhou Province(2016 [4020])

摘要:

森林提供了可以支持全球约20%人口生计的必要资源。在尼泊尔,农业、生态环境以及复杂多样的乡村景观正在发生迅速变化。贫困在发展中国家是普遍现象。尼泊尔是南亚最贫穷的国家之一,有25.2%的人生活在贫困线以下。虽然自1976年以来减贫是国家发展的优先任务之一,但贫困仍然普遍且持续存在。森林占尼泊尔土地总面积的44.74%,国家和集体森林在维持农民生计、周边居民减贫方面具有重要作用。本研究以尼泊尔最贫穷偏远的地区之一巴章区为例,采用参与式农村评估和农村快速评估方法(包括二级数据),调查了居民对社区林业管理活动的参与程度,评估了集体林业对当地居民减贫的作用。结果显示,该社区98.9%的受访者依赖农业和森林资源维持生计。社区居民参与了大量相关会议、讨论并参与社区林业管理、营林造林活动。有42.3%的受访者强烈认可公有林业可以减贫,32.6%和25.1%的受访者为认可和中立。发展公有林促进了本土草药生产、美学价值和生态旅游发展,也保育了水土保持等多种生态系统服务功能。但目前,农村地区的贫困程度仍远高于城市地区,生态保护的任务依然很重,因此政策制定者和其他利益相关者应该携手合作,通过大力发展公益林并鼓励社区参与,以切实减少尼泊尔的贫困。

关键词: 公有林, 贫困, 巴章区, 美学价值, 生态旅游

Abstract:

In Nepal, nearly half of the total land is covered by forest, which holds a potentially important position in promoting rural livelihoods and in alleviating rural poverty. The rural landscape that encompasses an agrarian economy, a fragile ecology, and a complex and differentiated society is changing rapidly in Nepal today. Although poverty alleviation has been one of the top priorities for national development since 1976, poverty still remains widespread, persistent and it is also an acute problem in Nepal, where people are in a state of deprivation with regard to incomes, clothing, housing, healthcare, education, sanitary facilities and human rights. Thus, Nepal is considered as one of the poorest countries in South-Asia, with 25.2% people living below the poverty line. The objective of this study was to assess changes in poverty of forest users brought on by the community forestry program, in order to analyze the level of participation in community forestry management activities. For this study, Bajhang district was chosen as the study site, which is one of the poorest and most remote districts in the country of Nepal. Different Participatory Rural Appraisal methods such as face-to face interviews, focus group discussions and key informants’ interviews including secondary data were used to gather information. The findings showed that the forest users’ participation in meetings, discussion and other activities, like community forestry management or silvicultural operation related to community forestry, was high. The assessment found that 42.3%, 32.6% and 25.1% of respondents strongly agreed, agreed and were neutral, respectively, towards the idea that poverty reduction from community forests had occurred. The results showed almost all the respondents were depended upon agriculture and/or forest resources for their livelihoods. Different ecosystem services such as ethnomedicines, aesthetic value and ecotourism, control of soil erosion/land-slides, water recharge and soil fertility have increased due to the decomposition of leaf litter. This was apparent from the formulation of community forests. Poverty in rural areas of the country is still higher than in urban areas and the incidence of poverty is the highest in the Far western Province where this research was conducted, Therefore, the government, policy makers and other stakeholders should work hand-in-hand to effectively reduce the poverty that persists in Nepal.

Key words: community forests, poverty, Bajhang district, aesthetic value, ecotourism