资源与生态学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 2 ›› Issue (1): 15-21.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2011.01.003

• 全球重要农业文化遗产专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国农业文化遗产研究的进展与展望

闵庆文1, 何露1,2, 张丹1   

  1. 1 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2 中国科学院研究生院,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-01-18 修回日期:2011-02-28 出版日期:2011-03-30 发布日期:2011-03-28

Agricultural Heritage Research in China: Progresses and Perspectives

MIN Qingwen1, HE Lu1,2, ZHANG Dan1   

  1. 1 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS,Beijing 100101,China;
    2 Graduate University of ChineseAcademy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2011-01-18 Revised:2011-02-28 Online:2011-03-30 Published:2011-03-28
  • Contact: MIN Qingwen.Email:minqw@igsnrr.ac.cn.
  • Supported by:

    National Public Benefit(Environmental)Research Foundation of China(201009020)and FAO/GEF project(GCP/GLO/212/GEF).

摘要: 中国农业文明历史悠久,勤劳智慧的劳动人民在长期的生产实践过程中一直在探索适应不同自然条件的农业生产方式,创造了灿烂的农业文化遗产。当今农业发展所面临的面临生态系统退化、面源污染严重、遗传资源丧失、食品安全问题严重等问题,促使人们转而学习传统农业的智慧与经验。本文从基于文献的传统农业文化遗产研究和基于实践的动态保护与适应性管理研究两个方面,较为系统地回顾了中国农业文化遗产研究的主要进展。指出,积淀深厚、成果丰富的农业历史和农业考古研究,为农业文化遗产保护实践和发展生态农业奠定了坚实的基础。2002年联合国粮农组织(FAO)发起的全球重要农业文化遗产(GIAHS)项目,则极大地提高了人们对农业文化遗产价值的认识,使农业文化遗产保护研究与实践进入了一个新阶段,在农业文化遗产的概念与内涵、农业生物多样性、多重价值、替代产业发展以及法律与政策保障等方面都有新的探索。未来研究中应进一步丰富研究内容,改进研究方法,深入开展农业文化遗产的保护和利用的探索等。

关键词: 传统农业, 全球重要农业文化遗产(GIAHS), 中国, 联合国粮农组织, 生态农业

Abstract: One of the legacies of the time honored agricultural development in China has been varied farming practices that adapt well to different natural conditions.These old but still functioning farming systems continue to inspire us to find solutions to various environmental problems caused by so-called modern agriculture.This paper reviewed the studies on agricultural heritage in China,including two categories: document-based researches and practice-oriented researches on dynamic conservation and adaptive management of these traditional agricultural heritages.Studies on the history and archaeological findings about the Chinese traditional agricultural heritage have laid a solid foundation for any further study. Dynamic conservation and adaptive management of agricultural heritage was promoted by the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems(GIAHS)project initiated by FAO in 2002.Until now,researches on the conservation and adaptive management of agricultural heritages have touched on many aspects of the issue,including theoretical consideration of agricultural heritage,agrobiodiversity characteristics of agricultural heritage,multi-values of agricultural heritage dynamic conservation,substitutive industries, legislation and institutionalization for the conservation of agricultural heritage.We conclude the paper with an agenda for future studies on agricultural heritages,including the broadening of the research scope,innovative research methodologies and methods and the development of strategies that combine conservation and utilization of agricultural heritages.

Key words: traditional agriculture, Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems(GIAHS), China, FAO, eco-agriculture