资源与生态学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 1 ›› Issue (2): 155-163.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.02.007

• 专题报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

中美商品贸易的碳排放转移研究

余慧超1,2, 王礼茂1   

  1. 1 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京  100101;
    2 中国科学院研究生院, 北京  100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-12-22 修回日期:2010-03-25 出版日期:2010-06-30 发布日期:2010-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 王礼茂

Carbon Emission Transfer by International Trade: Taking the Case of Sino-U.S. Merchandise Trade as an Example

YU Huichao1,2,  WANG Limao1   

  1. 1 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2009-12-22 Revised:2010-03-25 Online:2010-06-30 Published:2010-06-30
  • Contact: WANG Limao

摘要: 中美两国均为温室气体排放大国,且双边贸易额巨大。由于两国在基础设施、技术、装备水平、能源综合效率和资源禀赋上存在差异,使得通过中美商品贸易,美国将大量的碳排放转移到了中国。本文采用投入产出分析方法,结合经济、能源与贸易3个系统,建立了基于国际商品贸易的碳排放转移模型,并分别测算了1997与2002年中美商品贸易中各相应部门的碳排放转移量。研究表明:(1) 1997与2002年,基于中美商品贸易的中国产业部门通过出口转移到美国的载碳量分别达到4010.13×104 与5056.21×104 t C,分别占中国相应产业部门载碳总量的6.61%与8.33%;而美国产业部门出口到中国商品的载碳量仅为290.65×104与335.61×104 t C,相应的仅占美国产业部门载碳总量的0.53%与0.66%;(2)1997与2002年,中美商品贸易的碳转移总量分别达3719.75×104与4719.60×104 t C,其中化学工业、金属冶炼及其压延加工业是主要的碳转移部门。(3)1997与2002年,通过国际商品贸易,美国分别有相当于其相应部门碳排放总量的6.77%与9.32%的碳被泄露到了中国,中国为美国的碳减排做出了很大的潜在贡献,因此,美国等发达国家应该为中国等发展中国家提供切实有效的气候与环境友好型技术援助。

关键词: 商品贸易, 碳转移, 投入产出, 中美

Abstract: China and the United States are both countries with huge carbon emission, and the volume of trade between them is large. Due to the differences in natural resources, technology, equipment and energy use efficiency, there is a large carbon emission transfer from the United States to China by Sino-U.S. merchandise trade. This paper adopts the input-output analysis method, and combines the systems of economy, energy consumption and trade to establish a carbon emission transfer model based on international trade. And then it calculates the carbon emission transfer by Sino-U.S. merchandise trade in 1997 and 2002. The conclusions are as follows: (i) In 1997 and 2002, the total carbon emissions of China’s industry sectors by exporting merchandise to the U.S. reached 40.1013 Mt C (million tonnes of carbon equivalent) and 50.5621 Mt C, accounting for 6.61% and 8.33% of total carbon emissions of China’s industry sectors; while the total carbon emissions of the United States’ industry sectors by exporting merchandise to China were 2.9065 Mt C and 3.3561 Mt C, accounting for only 0.53% and 0.66% of the total carbon emissions of the United States’ industry sectors; (ii) In 1997 and 2002, the carbon emission transfer from the United States to China by Sino-U.S. merchandise trade reached 37.1975 Mt C and 47.1960 Mt C. Specially, the contributions of chemical industry, metal smelting and pressing sector are prominent; (iii) In 1997 and 2002, there were equivalent to 6.77% and 9.32% of the United States’ industry sectors’ total carbon emissions transferred to China. China has made part of contribution to carbon emission reduction for the United States. Developed countries such as the United States should provide climate-friendly and environment-friendly techniques to developing countries such as China.

Key words: merchandise trade, carbon transfer, input-output analysis, Sino-U.S.