资源与生态学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 1 ›› Issue (2): 97-109.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.02.001

• 论文 •    下一篇

中国陆地生态系统的碳储量及其空间格局

于贵瑞1,李轩然1,2,3,王秋凤1,李胜功1   

  1. 1 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所中国科学院生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;
    2 内蒙古赤峰学院环境与资源管理系,赤峰 024000;
    3 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2010-04-29 修回日期:2010-05-07 出版日期:2010-06-30 发布日期:2010-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 于贵瑞

Carbon Storage and Its Spatial Pattern of  Terrestrial Ecosystem in China

YU Guirui1,LI Xuanran1,2,3,WANG Qiufeng1,LI Shenggong1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2 Department of Environment and Resources Management, Chifeng University, Chifeng 024000, China;
    3 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2010-04-29 Revised:2010-05-07 Online:2010-06-30 Published:2010-06-30
  • Contact: YU Guirui

摘要: 地球系统的碳库变化和碳循环过程机制是气候变化成因分析、变化趋势预测、减缓和适应对策的科学基础,受到科技界和国际社会的广泛关注。从20世纪80年代中后期开始,中国学者就开展了陆地生态系统碳循环研究工作,并且在许多研究领域都取得了可喜的进展。本文在回顾中国的陆地生态系统碳循环研究发展历程基础上,重点评述陆地生态系统的碳储量及其空间格局方面的研究成果,评价有关研究的不确定性以及亟待解决的重要科学问题。分析表明,中国的陆地生态系统碳循环研究经过了陆地生态系统碳循环的前期研究、区域尺度生态系统碳循环综合研究、生态系统碳循环过程对环境变化适应性实验研究,以及生态系统碳-氮-水耦合循环及其区域调控管理研究4个主要发展阶段。大多的研究表明,中国陆地生态系统碳储量及其空间格局是温度和降水控制的。全国土壤、森林和草地植被储存约为97.95 —118.93PgC;自20世纪70年代中期以来,我国的植树造林和林业管理、草地保护、农作制度改革和保护性耕作等措施发挥了重要的固碳功能,但是各种方法评估的结果仍然存在较大不确定性。今后的研究重点工作是建立天地空一体化碳储量和碳汇动态监测体系、开展生态系统碳-氮-水耦合循环及其区域调控管理的前瞻性研究,定量评价中国区域生态系统的碳收支状况和增汇潜力,评估各种典型生态系统增汇技术的经济效益,为国家尺度的温室气体管理和碳交易机制与政策体系的建立提供可报告、可度量和可核查的科学数据和技术支持。

关键词: 碳循环, 碳储量, 陆地生态系统, 全球变化

Abstract: Process mechanisms of carbon storage and carbon cycle in earth system are the scientific foundation for analyzing the cause of climate change, forecasting the climate change trend, and making mitigation and adaptation countermeasures, which have attracted great attention from the scientific community and international community. Since the late 1980s, Chinese scientists have carried out a great deal of research on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle, and have made great progress in many fields. In this paper, we review the history of the research on the terrestrial carbon cycle in China, summarize the results of the carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems and its spatial patterns, evaluate the uncertainties of the research, and put forward important scientific issues which are needed to be addressed urgently. Overall, the research on the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems in China consists of four stages of development, i.e., the early carbon cycle research, the comprehensive study on the carbon cycle at regional scale, the experimental research on the adaptation of ecosystem carbon cycle to climate change, and the coupling cycles of C-N-H2O and the regional regulation and control. Most studies indicate that carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystems in China and its spatial pattern are controlled by temperature and precipitation. About 97.95–118.93 Pg carbon is stored in soil, forest and grassland in China. Since the mid 1970s, many management measures such as afforestation and forest management, grassland protection, farming system reformation and conservation tillage, have played important roles in carbon sequestration. However, large uncertainty exists among the evaluation results with various methods. In the future we should focus on the integrated monitoring system of the dynamics of carbon storage and carbon sink, foresight studies on the coupling cycles of ecosystem C-N-H2O and its regional regulation and control, quantitative assessment on the carbon budget and the potential of carbon sink of ecosystems in China, the evaluation of the economic benefit of various technologies for increasing carbon sink of typical ecosystems, and the measurable, reportable and verifiable scientific data and technical supports for establishing the policy framework of greenhouse gas management and carbon trading at national scale.

Key words: carboncycle, carbonstorage, terrestrialecosystems, globalchange