资源与生态学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 1 ›› Issue (1): 51-59.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.01.007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

价值转换方法在中国生态服务评估中的应用和发展

  

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2009-12-24 修回日期:2010-02-23 出版日期:2010-03-31 发布日期:2010-03-31

Applying Value Transfer  Method for Eco-Service Valuation in China

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2009-12-24 Revised:2010-02-23 Online:2010-03-31 Published:2010-03-31
  • Contact: XIE Gaodi

摘要: 国内和国外生态系统服务物理量和价值量的评估都难以得出让公众和学术界普遍接受的结果,这反映了该领域研究方法还不成熟,需要继续完善。如何建立符合中国基本国情的单位价值量是核算生态系统服务功能价值的核心。由于中国缺乏完善的市场环境,如何选择一个合理的价格体系作为衡量生态系统服务的单位价值量仍然还是一个难题。目前普遍采用的市场价格很难真实反映消费者剩余,从而导致单位价值或者说最终价值评估结果的不准确。本研究将生态服务划分为食物生产、原材料生产、景观愉悦、气体调节、气候调节、水源涵养、土壤形成与保持、废物处理、生物多样性维持共9项,就森林、草地、农田、湿地、水体和荒漠6类生态系统的9项生态系统服务价值相对生态重要性进行了问卷调查,进而形成中国生态系统单位面积生态服务价值评估单价体系,通过结果对比发现,该生态系统服务单价体系与基于物质量估算的生态系统服务价值之间具有较好的可比性,可较准确地反映中国各项生态系统服务的相对重要性,在没有其他更为可靠的方法的情况下,可以采用该方法对中国生态系统服务价值进行评估,可以作为适合中国生态系统状况和经济发展水平的一个生态系统服务价值评估工具。对上述方法的合理性我们也做了一个问卷调查,约70%的被调查者认为这是一个“比较合理”的评估方法,约20%的被调查者认为并不合理,可以肯定在生态系统服务价值评估技术取得更新的一些研究成果之前,这种对生态系统服务价值进行评估的方法将长期存在争论。本方法仍有许多需要改进和完善之处,如生态系统服务价值的空间异质性和时间动态性有待考虑,具体应用时可采用生态服务价值生物量调整因子来做进一步修订。

关键词: 生态系统服务, 价值当量, 问卷调查, 修订

Abstract: Valuation of global ecosystem services by R. Costanza(1997)has attracted attention of the Chinese ecological researchers over the years. Many Chinese scientists have been using the methods to valuate the ecosystem services for forest, grassland and farmland ecosystems. However, it has been turned out that there are several shortcomings in direct adaptation of the methods, for instance, some ecosystem services have been insufficiently valuated or even ignored. To meet this gap, we have used a “unit value” based method for assessment of ecosystem services. Expert interviews with structured questionnaire have been contacted in 2002 and 2007 respectively; altogether 700 Chinese ecologists have been involved in the interviews. It has been found that the values of ecosystem services from expert knowledge based unit value method and biomass based method are comparative. Therefore, expert knowledge based assessment of ecosystem services could be used as a method for the assessment with known land use areas, and a good result could be generated within a short time period. However, for scientifically sound and concrete results, a long term simulation of ecosystem service flux curve via experimental research is required, and spatial and temporal disparity of ecosystem services should be taken into account.

Key words:  ecosystem service, unit value, modification, survey, China