资源与生态学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 1 ›› Issue (1): 45-50.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.01.006

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

马铃薯与玉米多样性种植生态防治病害的试验研究

何霞红1,朱书生1,王海宁1,谢  勇1,孙  雁1,高  东1,杨  静1,刘  林1,李启信2,张绍波2,赵高慧3,胡明成3,姜开梅1,李成云1,朱有勇1   

  1. 1 云南农业大学教育部农业生物多样性与病虫害控制重点实验室, 昆明 650201;
    2 云南省宣威市农业技术推广中心, 云南省宣威市 655400;
    3 云南省昭通市农科所, 云南省昭通市 657000
  • 收稿日期:2009-12-11 修回日期:2010-01-21 出版日期:2010-03-31 发布日期:2010-03-31

Crop Diversity for Ecological Disease Control in Potato and Maize

HE Xiahong1, ZHU Shusheng1, WANG Haining1, XIE Yong1, SUN Yan1, GAO Dong1, YANG Jing1, LIU Lin1, LI Qixin2, ZHANG Shaobo2,
ZHAO Gaohui3, HU Mingcheng3, JIANG Kaimei1, LI Chengyun1 and ZHU Youyong1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Agro-Biodiversity and Pest Management of Education Ministry of China, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China;
    2 Agricultural Technology Extension Centre of Xuanwei City, Xuanwei City, 655400, Yunnan, China;
    3 Agroscience Research Institute of Zhaotong City, Zhaotong 657000, Yunnan,
    China
  • Received:2009-12-11 Revised:2010-01-21 Online:2010-03-31 Published:2010-03-31
  • Contact: ZHU Youyong

摘要: 本文针对中国西南山区作物病害发病高峰与降雨高峰重叠难以防治的难点,进行了生态调控马铃薯与玉米种植结构避雨避病的试验。试验结果表明,时间上提前和推后马铃薯种植避开了降雨高峰,平均降低晚疫病病情指数44.3%。空间上行距拉宽株距缩小,通风透光减轻病害,套种玉米的大斑病平均降低病情指数为14.8%,小斑病平均降低22.5%。本试验的另一重要结果表明,通过调整马铃薯种植结构可以大幅度提高耕地产出率,马铃薯与玉米套种,提前和推后种植马铃薯分别提高土地利用率1.738–1.766。本文研究结果对作物病害的生态防治和增加粮食产量有重要现实意义。通过时空优化作物与环境的配置,合理利用农业生态结构,适应最佳生态环境,实现优质高产高效。  

关键词: 作物多样性, 农业生态, 间套作, 马铃薯晚疫病, 玉米大斑病, 玉米小斑病

Abstract: Aiming at the difficulties of controlling on potato late blight, maize northern and southern leaf blight diseases caused by the overlapping of rainfall and peak of these diseases in mountainous area of Southwest China, intercropping of potato with maize by adjusting planting time and spacing to avoid rainfall and disease occurrence was assessed. The results showed that early or late planting of potato, avoiding rainfall peak from potato vigorous growth and increasing light and air diffusion in space, alleviated potato late blight disease. The average severities decreased by 44.3% for potato late blight, 14.8% for maize northern leaf blight and 22.5% for maize southern blight, compared with the monocropped controls. Moreover, this kind of intercropping pattern improved the output significantly. The crop yields were increased and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.738 for early planting pattern and 1.766 for late planting. This approach can be practical significance for ecological control of crop disease and food production increase. The agroecological structure in harmony with the natural environment results in ecological and cycle agriculture with high yield, high quality and high efficiency.

Key words: crop diversity, agroecology, intercropping, potato late blight disease, maize northern leaf blight, maize southern leaf blight