资源与生态学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 1 ›› Issue (1): 3-14.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-764x.2010.01.001

• 论文 •    下一篇

中国生态学研究的回顾与展望

李文华   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-22 修回日期:2010-02-23 出版日期:2010-03-31 发布日期:2010-03-31
  • 通讯作者: 李文华

Progresses and Perspectives of Ecological Research in China

LI Wenhua   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2010-01-22 Revised:2010-02-23 Online:2010-03-31 Published:2010-03-31
  • Contact: LI Wenhua

摘要: 生态学作为一门研究生物有机体与其生活环境之间相互关系的学科,自Haeckel提出以来已有一个半世纪的时间。当代的生态学,在积极参与解决全球发展面临的迫切问题中逐渐摆脱了其初期发展阶段的某些纯自然主义倾向的局限性,扩展了研究的范围和领域,在研究方法和手段也实现了现代化,成为自然科学和社会科学之间的桥梁。尽管中国在悠久的发展历史中积累了丰富的具有深刻生态学思想的宝贵经验,但直到20世纪50年代新中国成立以后生态学才作为一门学科在我国得到发展。其发展历程可以归纳为以下4个阶段:原始萌芽阶段、基础生态学研究阶段、生态系统研究阶段以及当代生态学研究阶段。本文在简要回顾中国生态学发展的基础上,选择了几个研究领域进行了重点介绍,包括:生物多样性保育、全球变化生态学、退化生态系统的恢复与沙漠化控制、青藏高原生态系统研究、可持续发展研究以及生态系统服务评估与生态补偿等。最后,基于中国生态学研究的现状和需求,提出了今后生态学发展的6个优先领域。

关键词: 生态学, 进展, 展望, 中国

Abstract: Ecology has been recognized as an independent discipline since 1869, when Ernest Haeckel first used this terminology and defines it as a branch of science for studying the interactions between organisms and their environment. The modern ecology expanded the subject and scope of the study; broke throw the limitation of pure naturalism tendency and was actively involved in solving the urgent task of world-concerned global development problem. While equipped by modern methodology and equipments, it becomes a bridge between science and development. Although a wealth of knowledge with deep ecological thought has been accumulated in the long course of China’s development, it has not developed into a science until the 1950s. The development of ecology in China may roughly be divided into four phases (i.e. primitive embryonic phase, fundamental ecological study phase, ecosystem study phase, and the phase for sustainable development. This paper gives a general review of the development of ecology in China and introduced the progress in several selected areas. These include: biodiversity conservation, ecological research related to global change, restoration of degraded ecosystems, desertification control, ecosystem study on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, promotion of sustainable development from concept to action, and evaluation of ecosystem services and eco-compensation, etc. Based on the current development status of ecological science in China and the needs of the country, six priority areas for development of Ecology in the future were recommended.

Key words: ecology, progress, prospective, China